627 Works

Data from: Making pore choices: repeated regime shifts in stomatal ratio

Christopher D. Muir
Ecologically important traits do not evolve without limits. Instead, evolution is constrained by the set of available and viable phenotypes. In particular, natural selection may only favour a narrow range of adaptive optima constrained within selective regimes. Here, I integrate data with theory to test whether selection explains phenotypic constraint. A global database of 599 plant species from 94 families shows that stomatal ratio, a trait affecting photosynthesis and defence against pathogens, is highly constrained....

Data from: Species turnover (β diversity) in ectomycorrhizal fungi linked to NH4+ uptake capacity

John M. Kranabetter, Barbara J. Hawkins, Melanie D. Jones, Samantha Robbins, Tyler Dyer & Tao Li
Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal communities may be shaped by both deterministic and stochastic processes, potentially influencing ecosystem development and function. We evaluated community assembly processes for EcM fungi of Pseudotsuga menziesii among 12 sites up to 400 km apart in southwest British Columbia (Canada) by investigating species turnover (β diversity) in relation to soil nitrogen (N) availability and physical distance. We then examined functional traits for an N-related niche by quantifying net fluxes of NH4+, NO3-...

Data from: Burst muscle performance predicts the speed, acceleration, and turning performance of Anna's hummingbirds

Paolo S. Segre, Roslyn Dakin, Victor B. Zordan, Michael H. Dickinson, Andrew D. Straw & Douglas L. Altshuler
Despite recent advances in the study of animal flight, the biomechanical determinants of maneuverability are poorly understood. It is thought that maneuverability may be influenced by intrinsic body mass and wing morphology, and by physiological muscle capacity, but this hypothesis has not yet been evaluated because it requires tracking a large number of free flight maneuvers from known individuals. We used an automated tracking system to record flight sequences from 20 Anna's hummingbirds flying solo...

Data from: Quantitative DNA metabarcoding: improved estimates of species proportional biomass using correction factors derived from control material

Austen C. Thomas, Bruce E. Deagle, J. Paige Eveson, Corie H. Harsch & Andrew W. Trites
DNA metabarcoding is a powerful new tool allowing characterization of species assemblages using high-throughput amplicon sequencing. The utility of DNA metabarcoding for quantifying relative species abundances is currently limited by both biological and technical biases which influence sequence read counts. We tested the idea of sequencing 50/50 mixtures of target species and a control species in order to generate relative correction factors (RCFs) that account for multiple sources of bias and are applicable to field...

Data from: Mitochondrial responses to prolonged anoxia in brain of Red-eared slider turtles

Matthew E. Pamenter, Crisostomo R. Gomez, Jeffrey G. Richards & William K. Milsom
Mitochondria are central to aerobic energy production and play a key role in neuronal signalling. During anoxia, however, the mitochondria of most vertebrates initiate deleterious cell death cascades. Nonetheless, a handful of vertebrate species, including some freshwater turtles, are remarkably tolerant of low oxygen environments and survive months of anoxia without apparent damage to brain tissue. This tolerance suggests that mitochondria in the brains of such species are adapted to withstand prolonged anoxia, but little...

Data from: Catch reconstructions reveal that global marine fisheries catches are higher than reported and declining

Daniel Pauly & Dirk Zeller
Fisheries data assembled by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) suggest that global marine fisheries catches increased to 86 million tonnes in 1996, then slightly declined. Here, using a decade-long multinational ‘catch reconstruction’ project covering the Exclusive Economic Zones of the world’s maritime countries and the High Seas from 1950 to 2010, and accounting for all fisheries, we identify catch trajectories differing considerably from the national data submitted to the FAO. We suggest that catch...

Data from: Parallelism in adaptive radiations of experimental Escherichia coli populations

Gerda Saxer & Michael Travisano
Adaptive radiations are major contributors to species diversity. While the underlying mechanisms of adaptive radiations, specialization and trade-offs, are relatively well understood, the tempo and repeatability of adaptive radiations remain elusive. Ecological specialization can occur through the expansion into novel niches or through partitioning of an existing niche. To test how the mode of resource specialization affects the tempo and repeatability of adaptive radiations, we selected replicate bacterial populations in environments that promoted the evolution...

Data from: Phylogenetic placement of the unusual jumping spider Depreissia Lessert, and a new synapomorphy uniting Hisponinae and Salticinae (Araneae, Salticidae)

Wayne P. Maddison, David R. Maddison, Junxia Zhang & Tamás Szűts
The relationships of the unusual salticid spider Depreissia from central Africa and Borneo have been difficult to resolve, obscured by its highly modified ant-like body. Phylogenetic analysis of the gene 28S strongly supports its placement outside the major clade Salticinae and within the clade of cocalodines, spartaeines and lapsiines, with weaker support for a relationship with the cocalodines in particular. Excluding the genus from the Salticinae is supported also by the presence of a median...

Data from: Recurrent selection explains parallel evolution of genomic regions of high relative but low absolute differentiation in a ring species

Darren E. Irwin, Miguel Alcaide, Kira E. Delmore, Jessica H. Irwin & Gregory L. Owens
Recent technological developments allow investigation of the repeatability of evolution at the genomic level. Such investigation is particularly powerful when applied to a ring species, in which spatial variation represents changes during the evolution of two species from one. We examined genomic variation among three subspecies of the greenish warbler ring species, using genotypes at 13 013 950 nucleotide sites along a new greenish warbler consensus genome assembly. Genomic regions of low within-group variation are...

Data from: Plant-mycorrhizal fungus co-occurrence network lacks substantial structure

Francisco Encinas-Viso, David Alonso, John N. Klironomos, Rampal S. Etienne & Esther R. Chang
The interactions between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) maintain a crucial link between macroscopic organisms and the soil microbial world. These interactions are of extreme importance for the diversity of plant communities and ecosystem functioning. Despite this importance, only recently has the structure of plant–AMF interaction networks been studied. These recent studies, which used genetic data, suggest that these networks are highly structured, very similar to plant–animal mutualistic networks. However, the assembly process of...

Data from: Widespread genetic incompatibilities between first-step mutations during parallel adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to a common environment

Jasmine Ono, Aleeza C. Gerstein & Sarah P. Otto
Independently evolving populations may adapt to similar selection pressures via different genetic changes. The interactions between such changes, such as in a hybrid individual, can inform us about what course adaptation may follow and allow us to determine whether gene flow would be facilitated or hampered following secondary contact. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to measure the genetic interactions between first-step mutations that independently evolved in the same biosynthetic pathway following exposure to the fungicide nystatin....

Data from: Female and male genetic effects on offspring paternity: additive genetic (co)variances in female extra-pair reproduction and male paternity success in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia)

Jane M. Reid, Peter Arcese, Lukas F. Keller & Sylvain Losdat
Ongoing evolution of polyandry, and consequent extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous systems, is hypothesised to be facilitated by indirect selection stemming from cross-sex genetic covariances with components of male fitness. Specifically, polyandry is hypothesised to create positive genetic covariance with male paternity success due to inevitable assortative reproduction, driving ongoing coevolution. However, it remains unclear whether such covariances could or do emerge within complex polyandrous systems. First, we illustrate that genetic covariances between female extra-pair...

Data from: Positive relationship between genetic- and species diversity on limestone outcrops in the Carpathian Mountains

Anna Mária Csergő, Levente Hufnagel & Mária Höhn
We asked if the genetic diversity of Saponaria bellidifolia (a habitat specialist plant) and the species diversity of its habitat are driven by parallel landscape-level processes in an island-like system of limestone outcrops in the Carpathian Mountains. We tested the relationship of these two diversity levels at local and regional geographic scales. Local genetic and species diversity showed parallel patterns influenced by the number of plant communities. Likewise, at regional level there was strong evidence...

Data from: Genomic divergence in a ring species complex

Miguel Alcaide, Elizabeth S. C. Scordato, Trevor D. Price & Darren E. Irwin
Ring species provide particularly clear demonstrations of how one species can gradually evolve into two, but are rare in nature. In the greenish warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides) species complex, a ring of populations wraps around Tibet. Two reproductively isolated forms co-exist in central Siberia, with a gradient of genetic and phenotypic characteristics through the southern chain of populations connecting them. Previous genetic evidence has proven inconclusive, however, regarding whether species divergence took place in the face...

Data from: Conservation and divergence of gene expression plasticity following c. 140 million years of evolution in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and interior spruce (Picea glauca × Picea engelmannii)

Sam Yeaman, Kathryn A. Hodgins, Haktan Suren, Kristin A. Nurkowski, Jason A. Holliday, Loren H. Rieseberg & Sally N. Aitken
Species respond to environmental stress through a combination of genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity, both of which may be important for survival in the face of climatic change. By characterizing the molecular basis of plastic responses and comparing patterns among species, it is possible to identify how such traits evolve. Here, we use de novo transcriptome assembly and RNA-seq to explore how patterns of gene expression differ in response to temperature, moisture, and light regime...

Data from: Isotopic variation ccross the Audubon’s-myrtle warbler hybrid zone

David P. L. Toews, Alan Brelsford & Darren E. Irwin
Differences in seasonal migratory behaviours are thought to be an important component of reproductive isolation in many organisms. Stable isotopes have been used with success in estimating the location and qualities of disjunct breeding and wintering areas. However, few studies have used isotopic data to estimate the movements of hybrid offspring in species that form hybrid zones. Here, we use stable hydrogen to estimate the wintering locations and migratory patterns of two common and widespread...

Data from: Lineage fusion in Galápagos giant tortoises

Ryan C. Garrick, Edgar Benavides, Michael A. Russello, Chaz Hyseni, Danielle L. Edwards, James P. Gibbs, Washington Tapia, Claudio Ciofi & Adalgisa Caccone
Although many classic radiations on islands are thought to be the result of repeated lineage splitting, the role of past fusion is rarely known because during these events, purebreds are rapidly replaced by a swarm of admixed individuals. Here we capture lineage fusion in action in a Galápagos giant tortoise species, Chelonoidis becki, from Wolf Volcano (Isabela Island). The long generation time of Galápagos tortoises and dense sampling (841 individuals) of genetic and demographic data...

Data from: Hummingbirds control hovering flight by stabilizing visual motion

Benjamin Goller & Douglas L. Altshuler
Relatively little is known about how sensory information is used for controlling flight in birds. A powerful method is to immerse an animal in a dynamic virtual reality environment to examine behavioral responses. Here, we investigated the role of vision during free-flight hovering in hummingbirds to determine how optic flow—image movement across the retina—is used to control body position. We filmed hummingbirds hovering in front of a projection screen with the prediction that projecting moving...

Data from: Quantitative genetic analysis indicates natural selection on leaf phenotypes across wild tomato species (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae)

Christopher D. Muir, James B. Pease & Leonie C. Moyle
Adaptive evolution requires both raw genetic material and an accessible path of high fitness from one fitness peak to another. In this study, we used an introgression line (IL) population to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for leaf traits thought to be associated with adaptation to precipitation in wild tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae). A QTL Sign Test showed that several traits likely evolved under directional natural selection. Leaf traits correlated across species do not...

Data from: Population structure of mountain pine beetle symbiont Leptographium longiclavatum and the implication on the multipartite beetle-fungi relationships

Clement Kin-Ming Tsui, Lina Farfan, Amanda D. Roe, Adrianne V. Rice, Janice E. K. Cooke, Yousry A. El-Kassaby & Richard C. Hamelin
Over 18 million ha of forests have been destroyed in the past decade in Canada by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) and its fungal symbionts. Understanding their population dynamics is critical to improving modeling of beetle epidemics and providing potential clues to predict population expansion. Leptographium longiclavatum and Grosmannia clavigera are fungal symbionts of MPB that aid the beetle to colonize and kill their pine hosts. We investigated the genetic structure and demographic expansion of...

Data from: Testing a “genes-to-ecosystems” approach to understanding aquatic-terrestrial linkages

Gregory Crutsinger, Seth Rudman, Mariano Rodriguez-Cabal, Athena Mckown, Takuya Sato, Andrew M. MacDonald, Julian Heavyside, Armando Geraldes, Edmund Hart, Carri LeRoy, Rana El-Sabaawi, Athena D. McKown, Gregory M. Crutsinger, Seth M. Rudman, Mariano A. Rodriguez-Cabal, Edmund M. Hart, Carri J. LeRoy & Rana W. El-Sabaawi
A ‘genes-to-ecosystems’ approach has been proposed as a novel avenue for integrating the consequences of intraspecific genetic variation with the underlying genetic architecture of a species in order to shed light on the relationships among hierarchies of ecological organization (genes [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] individuals [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] communities [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] ecosystems). However, attempts to identify genes with major effect on the structure of communities and/or ecosystem processes have been limited and a comprehensive test of this approach...

Data from: Reversed brain size sexual dimorphism accompanies loss of parental care in white sticklebacks

Kieran Samuk, Davis Iritani & Dolph Schluter
Uncovering factors that shape variation in brain morphology remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Recently, it has been shown that brain size is positively associated with level of parental care behavior in various taxa. One explanation for this pattern is that the cognitive demands of performing complex parental care may require increased brain size. This idea is known as the parental brain hypothesis (PBH). We set out to test the predictions of this hypothesis...

Data from: Reduced mycorrhizal responsiveness leads to increased competitive tolerance in an invasive exotic plant

Lauren P. Waller, Ragan M. Callaway, John N. Klironomos, Yvette K. Ortega & John L. Maron
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can exert a powerful influence on the outcome of plant–plant competition. Since some exotic plants interact differently with soil biota such as AM fungi in their new range, range-based shifts in AM responsiveness could shift competitive interactions between exotic and resident plants, although this remains poorly studied. We explored whether genotypes of the annual exotic Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle), collected from populations across the native and non-native ranges, differed in responsiveness...

Data from: Multiple reproductive barriers separate recently diverged sunflower ecotypes

Katherine L. Ostevik, Rose L. Andrew, Sarah P. Otto & Loren H. Rieseberg
Measuring reproductive barriers between groups of organisms is an effective way to determine the traits and mechanisms that impede gene flow. However, to understand the ecological and evolutionary factors that drive speciation, it is important to distinguish between the barriers that arise early in the speciation process and those that arise after speciation is largely complete. In this paper we comprehensively test for reproductive isolation between recently diverged (< 10,000 years bp) dune and non-dune...

Data from: Bottom time does not always predict prey encounter rate in Antarctic fur seals

Morgane Viviant, Tiphaine Jeanniard-Du-Dot, Pascal Monestiez, Matthieu Authier, Christophe Guinet & Tiphaine Jeanniard Dudot
Optimal foraging models applied to breath-holding divers predict that diving predators should optimize the time spent foraging at the bottom of dives depending on prey encounter rate, distance to prey patch (depth) and physiological constraints. We tested this hypothesis on a free-ranging diving marine predator, the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella, equipped with accelerometers or Hall sensors (n = 11) that recorded mouth-opening events, a proxy for prey capture attempts and thus feeding events. Over...

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