585 Works

Data from: Density-dependent signaling: an alternative hypothesis on the function of chemical signaling in a non-territorial solitary carnivore

Clayton T. Lamb, Garth Mowat, Sophie L. Gilbert, Bruce N. McLellan, Scott E. Nielsen & Stan Boutin
Brown bears are known to use rubbing behavior as a means of chemical communication, but the function of this signaling is unclear. One hypothesis that has gained support is that male bears rub to communicate dominance to other males. We tested the communication of dominance hypothesis in a low-density brown bear population in southeast British Columbia. We contrasted rubbing rates for male and female bears during and after the breeding season using ten years of...

The latitudinal gradient in rates of evolution for bird beaks, a species interaction trait

Benjamin Freeman, Thomas Weeks, Dolph Schluter & Joseph Tobias Tobias
Where is evolution fastest? The biotic interactions hypothesis proposes that greater species richness creates more ecological opportunity, driving faster evolution at low latitudes, whereas the “empty niches” hypothesis proposes that ecological opportunity is greater where diversity is low, spurring faster evolution at high latitudes. We tested these contrasting predictions by analyzing rates of beak evolution for a global dataset of 1141 avian sister species. Rates of beak size evolution are similar across latitudes, with some...

Long-term change in the parasite burden of shore crabs (Hemigrapsus oregonensis and H. nudus) on the northwestern Pacific coast of North America

Jessica Quinn, Sarah Lee, Duncan Greeley, Alyssa Gehman, Armand Kuris & Chelsea Wood
The abundances of free-living species have changed dramatically in recent decades, but little is known about change in the abundance of parasitic species. We investigated whether populations of several parasites have shifted over time in two shore crab hosts, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and H. nudus, by comparing the prevalence and abundance of three parasite taxa in a historical dataset (1969–1970) to contemporary parasite abundance (2018–2020) for hosts collected from 11 intertidal sites located from Oregon, USA...

Quantitative trait locus mapping reveals an independent genetic basis for joint divergence in leaf function, life-history, and floral traits between scarlet monkeyflower (Mimulus cardinalis) populations

Lila Fishman, Thomas C. Nelson, Christopher D. Muir, Angela M. Stathos, Daniel D. Vanderpool, Kayli Anderson & Amy L. Angert
PREMISE Across taxa, vegetative and floral traits that vary along a fast-slow life-history axis are often correlated with leaf functional traits arrayed along the leaf economics spectrum, suggesting a constrained set of adaptive trait combinations. Such broad-scale convergence may arise from genetic constraints imposed by pleiotropy (or tight linkage) within species, or from natural selection alone. Understanding the genetic basis of trait syndromes and their components is key to distinguishing these alternatives and predicting evolution...

Data from: The molecular phylogeny of Chionaster nivalis reveals a novel order of psychrophilic and globally distributed Tremellomycetes (Fungi, Basidiomycota)

Nicholas Irwin, Chantelle Twynstra, Varsha Mathur & Patrick Keeling
Snow and ice present challenging substrates for cellular growth, yet microbial snow communities not only exist, but are diverse and ecologically impactful. These communities are dominated by green algae, but additional organisms, such as fungi, are also abundant and may be important for nutrient cycling, syntrophic interactions, and community structure in general. However, little is known about these non-algal community members, including their taxonomic affiliations. An example of this is Chionaster nivalis, a unicellular fungus...

Data from: Predictive mapping to identify refuges for plant communities threatened by earthworm invasion

Jesse Fleri & Peter Arcese
1. Biological invasions by cryptic ecosystem engineers can alter the ecological and socio-economic values of ecosystems in ways that may take decades to detect. The invasion of North American glacial refuges by non-native earthworms offers a prominent but understudied example of a cryptic invasion. Non-native earthworms are known to alter carbon sequestration, disrupt mycorrhizal networks, and homogenize plant communities, but natural resource managers still lack robust protocols to identify and safeguard high conservation value communities...

142 studio visits: The emergence of artistic thinking through studio conversations

Alison Shields

Incomplete reproductive isolation and strong transcriptomic signature of hybridization between sympatric sister species of salmon

Jessica McKenzie
Global change is altering ecosystems at an unprecedented rate. The resulting shifts in species ranges and reproductive timing are opening the potential for hybridization between closely-related species which could dramatically alter the genetic diversity, adaptive capacity, and evolutionary trajectory of interbreeding taxa. Here, we used behavioural breeding experiments, in vitro fertilization experiments, and whole-transcriptome gene expression data to assess the potential for and consequences of hybridization between Chinook and Coho salmon. We show that behavioural...

Speciation and gene flow across an elevational gradient in New Guinea kingfishers

Ethan Linck, Benjamin Freeman & John Dumbacher
Closely related species with parapatric elevational ranges are ubiquitous in tropical mountains worldwide. The gradient speciation hypothesis proposes that these series are the result of in situ ecological speciation driven by divergent selection across elevation. Direct tests of this scenario have been hampered by the difficulty inferring the geographic arrangement of populations at the time of divergence. In cichlids, sticklebacks, and Timema stick insects, support for ecological speciation driven by other selective pressures has come...

Data from: Forecasting the cumulative effects of multiple stressors on breeding habitat for a steeply declining aerial insectivorous songbird, the olive-sided flycatcher (Contopus cooperi)

Andrea Norris, Leonardo Frid, Chloé Debyser, Krista De Groot, Jeffrey Thomas, Adam Lee, Kimberly Dohms, Andrew Robinson, Wendy Easton, Kathy Martin & Kristina Cockle
To halt ongoing loss in biodiversity, there is a need for landscape-level management recommendations that address cumulative impacts of anthropogenic and natural disturbances on wildlife habitat. We examined the cumulative effects of logging, roads, land-use change, fire, and bark beetle outbreaks on future habitat for olive-sided flycatcher (Contopus cooperi), a steeply declining aerial insectivorous songbird, in Canada's western boreal forest. To predict the occurrence of olive-sided flycatcher we developed a suite of habitat suitability models...

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