625 Works

Data from: Spatial patterns and rarity of the white-phased ‘Spirit Bear’ allele reveals gaps in habitat protection

Christina Service, Mathieu Bourbonnais, Megan Adams, Lauren Henson, Douglas Neasloss, Chris Picard, Paul Paquet & Chris Darimont
Preserving genetic and phenotypic diversity can help safeguard not only biodiversity but also cultural and economic values. Here, we present data that emerged from Indigenous-led research at the intersection of evolution and ecology to support conservation planning of a culturally salient, economically valuable, and rare phenotypic variant. We addressed three conservation objectives for the white-phased ‘Spirit bear’ polymorphism, a rare and endemic white-coated phenotype of black bear (Ursus americanus) in Kitasoo/Xai’xais and Gitga’at Territories and...

A catastrophic tropical drought kills hydraulically vulnerable tree species

Jennifer Powers, German Vargas-G, Timothy Brodribb, Naomi Schwartz, Daniel Perez-Aviles, Chris Smith-Martin, Justin Becknell, Filippo Aureli, Roger Blanco, Erick Calderón-Morales, Julio César Calvo-Alvarado, Ana Julieta Calvo-Obando, María Marta Chavarría, Dorian Carvajal-Vanegas, César Dionisio Jiménez-Rodríguez, Evin Murillo Chacon, Colleen Schaffner, Leland Werden, Xiangtao Xu & David Medvigy
Drought-related tree mortality is now a widespread phenomenon predicted to increase in magnitude with climate change. However, the patterns of which species and trees are most vulnerable to drought, and the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive, in part due to the lack of relevant data and difficulty of predicting the location of catastrophic drought years in advance. We used long‐term demographic records and extensive databases of functional traits and distribution patterns to understand the responses...

Hydroxyacetophenone defenses in white spruce against spruce budworm

Genevieve Parent, Claudia Méndez-Espinoza, Isabelle Giguère, Melissa H. Mageroy, Martin Charest, Éric Bauce, Joerg Bohlmann & John MacKay
We review a recently discovered white spruce (Picea glauca) chemical defense against spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) involving hydroxyacetophenones. These defense metabolites detected in the foliage accumulate variably as the aglycons, piceol and pungenol, or the corresponding glucosides, picein and pungenin. We summarize current knowledge of the genomic, molecular and biochemical as well as genetic underpinnings of this defense and its effects on C. fumiferana. We present an update with new results on the ontogenic variation...

Data from: Habitat size thresholds for predators: why damselflies only occur in large bromeliads

Diane Sheila Srivastava, Sarah Louise Amundrud, Jacqueline T. Ngai, Brian M. Starzomski & Jessica Lee Ware
Predators are often more sensitive to habitat size than their prey, and frequently occur in only the largest habitats. Four explanations have been proposed for this pattern: (1) small habitats do not have enough energy to support higher trophic levels; (2) small habitats are less likely to contain particular prey required by specialist predators; (3) small habitats are risky for predators with slow life histories or large body sizes; (4) small habitats are numerically unlikely...

Data from: City sicker? a meta-analysis of wildlife health and urbanization

Maureen H. Murray, Cecilia A. Sanchez, Daniel J. Becker, Kaylee A. Byers, Katherine E. L. Worsley-Tonks & Meggan E. Craft
Urban development can alter resource availability, land use, and community composition, in turn influencing wildlife health. Generalizable relationships between wildlife health and urbanization have yet to be quantified, and could vary across health metrics and animal taxonomy. We present a phylogenetic meta-analysis of 516 records spanning 81 wildlife species from 106 studies comparing the toxicant loads, parasitism, body condition, or stress of urban and non-urban wildlife populations in 30 countries. We find a significantly negative...

Data from: Density-dependent space use affects interpretation of camera trap detection rates

Kate Broadley, Cole Burton, Stan Boutin & Tal Avgar
Camera-traps (CTs) are an increasingly popular tool for wildlife survey and monitoring. Estimating relative abundance in unmarked species is often done using detection rate as an index of relative abundance, which assumes a positive linear relationship with true abundance. This assumption may be violated if movement behavior varies with density, but the degree to which movement is density-dependent across taxa is unclear. The potential confounding of population-level relative abundance indices by movement depends on how...

Assortative mating in hybrid zones is remarkably ineffective in promoting speciation

Darren Irwin
Partial prezygotic isolation is often viewed as more important than partial postzygotic isolation (low fitness of hybrids) early in the process of speciation. I simulate secondary contact between two populations (‘species’) to examine effects of assortative mating and low hybrid fitness in preventing blending. A small reduction in hybrid fitness (e.g., by 10%) produces a narrower hybrid zone than a strong but imperfect mating preference (e.g., 10x stronger preference for conspecific over heterospecific mates). In...

Data from: Partitioning genetic and species diversity refines our understanding of species-genetic diversity relationships

Vera W Pfeiffer, Brett M Ford, Johann Housset, Audrey McCombs, José L Blanco-Pastor, Nicolas Gouin, Stephanie Manel & Angéline Bertin
Illuminating the origin of species-genetic diversity correlations (SGDCs) is a challenging task that has sparked a lot of interest. Genetic and species diversity are comprised by components that respond differently to the same ecological processes. Thus, it can be useful to partition species and genetic diversity into their different components to infer the mechanisms behind SGDCs. In this study, we applied such an approach using a high-elevation Andean wetland system, where previous evidence identified neutral...

Data from: The effect of range overlap on ecological niche divergence depends on spatial scale in monkeyflowers

Qin Li, Dena L. Grossenbacher & Amy L. Angert
Patterns of niche divergence and geographical range overlap of closely related species provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics of ecological niches. When ranges overlap, shared selective pressures may preserve niche similarity along coarse‐scale macrohabitat axes (e.g., bioclimates). Alternatively, competitive interactions may drive greater divergence along local‐scale microhabitat axes (e.g., micro‐topographical features). We tested these hypotheses in 16 species pairs of western North American monkeyflowers (Erythranthe and Diplacus, formerly Mimulus) with species’ niches, geographic ranges and...

Data from: Chlorpyrifos interacts with other agricultural stressors to alter stream communities in laboratory microcosms

Ana M. Chara-Serna & John S. Richardson
Chlorpyrifos is one of the most widely used agricultural insecticides in the world, but to date there is limited empirical information about its potential to interact with other common agricultural stressors. We conducted a 15-day, community-level microcosm experiment evaluating individual and combined effects of chlorpyrifos, nutrient enrichment, and sedimentation on stream invertebrate communities (abundance, biomass, richness, size structure, composition) and ecosystem processes (primary productivity and leaf decomposition). We found that sedimentation was the most detrimental...

Data from: A compendium of geochemical information from the Saanich Inlet water column

Monica Torres Beltran, Alyse K. Hawley, David Capelle, Elena Zaikova, David A. Walsh, Andreas Mueller, Melanie Scofield, Sam Kheirandish, Chris Payne, Larysa Pakhomova, Maya P. Bhatia, Olena Shevchuk, Esther A. Gies, Diane K. Fairley, Frank A. Whitney, Philippe D. Tortell & Steven J. Hallam
Marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are widespread and naturally occurring water column features that constitute ~7% of global ocean volume, but contribute disproportionately to biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen and climate active trace gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Climate change compounded by other human activities is causing OMZ expansion. While microbial communities are the primary engines driving biogeochemical cycles in OMZs, our current understanding of microbial community metabolism is hindered by a lack...

Data from: Heterospecific eavesdropping in ant-following birds of the Neotropics is a learned behaviour

Henry S. Pollock, Ari E. Martinez, J.P. Kelley, Janeene M. Touchton, Corey E. Tarwater & J. Patrick Kelley
Animals eavesdrop on other species to obtain information about their environments. Heterospecific eavesdropping can yield tangible fitness benefits by providing valuable information about food resources and predator presence. The ability to eavesdrop may therefore be under strong selection, although extensive research on alarm-calling in avian mixed-species flocks has found only limited evidence that close association with another species could select for innate signal recognition. Nevertheless, very little is known about the evolution of eavesdropping behaviour...

Data from: Save your host, save yourself? caste-ratio adjustment in a parasite with division of labor and snail host survival following shell damage

Colin MacLeod, Robert Poulin & Clément Lagrue
Shell damage and parasitic infections are frequent in gastropods, influencing key snail host life-history traits such as survival, growth, and reproduction. However, their interactions and potential effects on hosts and parasites have never been tested. Host–parasite interactions are particularly interesting in the context of the recently discovered division of labor in trematodes infecting marine snails. Some species have colonies consisting of two different castes present at varying ratios; reproductive members and nonreproductive soldiers specialized in...

Data from: Transcriptome comparative analysis of two Camellia species reveals lipid metabolism during mature seed natural drying

Jin-Ling Feng, Zhi-Jian Yang, Wei-Wei Bai, Shi-Pin Chen, Wen-Qiang Xu, Yousry A. EI-Kassaby, Hui Chen & Yousry A. El-Kassaby
Camellia seed oil has been used as high quality and healthy food for over two thousand years. Seed drying management effects oil quality and quantity. however, the molecular mechanisms of fatty acid biosynthesis and accumulation during the drying process remain unknown. In this study, the transcriptomes of Camellia meiocarpa and C. oleifera seed were characterized at five moisture content levels (10 - 50%) to identify the major processes and reveal genes affecting lipid metabolism in...

Data from: Metabolic depression and the evolution of hypoxia tolerance in threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus

Matthew D. Regan, Ivan S. Gill & Jeffrey G. Richards
Anthropogenic increases in global temperature and agricultural runoff are increasing the prevalence of aquatic hypoxia throughout the world. We investigated the potential for a relatively rapid evolution of hypoxia tolerance using two isolated (for less than 11 000 years) populations of threespine stickleback: one from a lake that experiences long-term hypoxia (Alta Lake, British Columbia) and one from a lake that does not (Trout Lake, British Columbia). Loss-of-equilibrium (LOE) experiments revealed that the Alta Lake...

Data from: Single cell genomics of uncultured marine alveolates shows paraphyly of basal dinoflagellates

Jürgen F. H. Strassert, Anna Karnkowska, Elisabeth Hehenberger, Javier Del Campo, Martin Kolisko, Noriko Okamoto, Fabien Burki, Jan Janouškovec, Camille Poirier, Guy Leonard, Steven J. Hallam, Thomas A. Richards, Alexandra Z. Worden, Alyson E. Santoro & Patrick J. Keeling
Marine alveolates (MALVs) are diverse and widespread early-branching dinoflagellates, but most knowledge of the group comes from a few cultured species that are generally not abundant in natural samples, or from diversity analyses of PCR-based environmental SSU rRNA gene sequences. To more broadly examine MALV genomes, we generated single cell genome sequences from seven individually isolated cells. Genes expected of heterotrophic eukaryotes were found, with interesting exceptions like presence of proteorhodopsin and vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase. Phylogenetic...

Data from: Density-dependent signaling: an alternative hypothesis on the function of chemical signaling in a non-territorial solitary carnivore

Clayton T. Lamb, Garth Mowat, Sophie L. Gilbert, Bruce N. McLellan, Scott E. Nielsen & Stan Boutin
Brown bears are known to use rubbing behavior as a means of chemical communication, but the function of this signaling is unclear. One hypothesis that has gained support is that male bears rub to communicate dominance to other males. We tested the communication of dominance hypothesis in a low-density brown bear population in southeast British Columbia. We contrasted rubbing rates for male and female bears during and after the breeding season using ten years of...

Data from: The molecular phylogeny of Chionaster nivalis reveals a novel order of psychrophilic and globally distributed Tremellomycetes (Fungi, Basidiomycota)

Nicholas Irwin, Chantelle Twynstra, Varsha Mathur & Patrick Keeling
Snow and ice present challenging substrates for cellular growth, yet microbial snow communities not only exist, but are diverse and ecologically impactful. These communities are dominated by green algae, but additional organisms, such as fungi, are also abundant and may be important for nutrient cycling, syntrophic interactions, and community structure in general. However, little is known about these non-algal community members, including their taxonomic affiliations. An example of this is Chionaster nivalis, a unicellular fungus...

Data from: Predictive mapping to identify refuges for plant communities threatened by earthworm invasion

Jesse Fleri & Peter Arcese
1. Biological invasions by cryptic ecosystem engineers can alter the ecological and socio-economic values of ecosystems in ways that may take decades to detect. The invasion of North American glacial refuges by non-native earthworms offers a prominent but understudied example of a cryptic invasion. Non-native earthworms are known to alter carbon sequestration, disrupt mycorrhizal networks, and homogenize plant communities, but natural resource managers still lack robust protocols to identify and safeguard high conservation value communities...

2D and 3D coral models imaged in Curaçao: George, Mullinix, et al PeerJ 2021

Emma E. George, James A. Mullinix, Fanwei Meng, Barbara A. Bailey, Clinton Edwards, Ben Felts, Andreas F. Haas, Aaron Hartmann, Benjamin Mueller, Ty F. Roach, Peter Salamon, Cynthia Silveira, Mark Vermeij, Forest Rohwer & Antoni Luque
Abstract from the article associated with the dataset: George, Mullinix, et al PeerJ 2021. Reef-building corals are ecosystem engineers that compete with other benthic or- ganisms for space and resources. Corals harvest energy through their surface by photosynthesis and heterotrophic feeding, and they divert part of this energy to defend their outer colony perimeter against competitors. Here, we hypothesized that corals with a larger space-filling surface and smaller perimeters increase energy gain while reducing the...

Atmospheric pressure influencing ebullition and turbidity

Kai Zhao, Edmund Tedford, Marjan Zare & Gregory Lawrence
Methane ebullition from lake sediment is an important source of atmospheric methane. Previous studies have suggested that temperature variations, water level changes, atmospheric pressure fluctuations and wind-induced current can affect ebullition. However, most of those studies were conducted during open-water season. There is a lack of observations during ice-cover, despite of the abundance of seasonally ice-covered lakes. In this dataset, we present high-frequency ebullition intensity data, atmospheric pressure data, bottom-water temperature data, and turbidite data...

Phosphorus deficiencies invoke optimal allocation of exoenzymes by ectomycorrhizas

Marty Kranabetter, Justin Meeds, Ieva Zigg, Dave Dunn, Francois Miros, Paul Shipley & Melanie Jones
Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi can acquire phosphorus (P) through the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes (exoenzymes), but it is unclear as to the manner and extent native EM fungal communities respond to declining soil P availability. We examined the activity of six exoenzymes (xylosidase, N-acetyl glucosaminidase, b-glucosidase, acid phosphomonoesterase, acid phosphodiesterase [APD], laccase) from EM roots of Pseudotsuga menzesii across a soil podzolization gradient of coastal British Columbia. We found APD activity increased 4-fold in a...

Data from: Phylogenetic history of vascular plant metabolism revealed using a macroevolutionary common garden

Barbara Neto-Bradley, Christopher Muir, Jeannette Whitton & Matthew Pennell
While the fundamental biophysics of C3 photosynthesis is highly conserved across plants, substantial variation in leaf structure and enzymatic activity translates into variability in rates of photosynthesis. Although this variation is well-documented, it remains poorly understood how photosynthetic rates evolve over short and long time scales, and whether these macroevolutionary changes are related to the evolution of key morphological and biochemical leaf traits. Large-scale comparative studies have been hampered by the substantial logistical and statistical...

Combining point counts and autonomous recording units improves avian survey efficacy across elevational gradients on two continents

Anna Drake, Devin R. De Zwaan, Tomás A. Altamirano, Scott Wilson, Kristina Hick, Camila Bravo, José Tomás Ibarra & Kathy Martin
Accurate biodiversity and population monitoring is a requirement for effective conservation decision-making. Survey method bias is therefore a concern, particularly when research programs face logistical and cost limitations. We employed point counts (PCs) and autonomous recording units (ARUs) to survey avian biodiversity within comparable, high elevation, temperate mountain habitats at opposite ends of the Americas: 9 mountains in British Columbia (BC), Canada and 10 in southern Chile. We compared detected species richness against multi-year species...

Genetic diversity and population structure of two endangered neotropical parrots inform In Situ and Ex Situ conservation strategies

Carlos I Campos, Melinda A Martinez, Daniel Acosta, Jose A Diaz-Luque, Igor Berkunsky, Nadine Lamberski, Javier Cruz-Nieto, Michael A. Russello & Timothy F. Wright
A key aspect in the conservation of endangered populations is understanding patterns of genetic variation and structure, which can provide managers with critical information to support evidence-based status assessments and management strategies. This is especially important for species with small wild and larger captive populations, as found in many endangered parrots. We used genotypic data to assess genetic variation and structure in wild and captive populations of two endangered parrots, the blue-throated macaw, Ara glaucogularis,...

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