625 Works

Data from: Resource selection and landscape change reveal mechanisms suppressing population recovery for the world's most endangered antelope

Abdullahi H. Ali, Adam T. Ford, Jeffrey S. Evans, David P. Mallon, Matthew M. Hayes, Juliet King, Rajan Amin & Jacob R. Goheen
Understanding how bottom-up and top-down forces affect resource selection can inform restoration efforts. With a global population size of <500 individuals, the hirola Beatragus hunteri is the world's most endangered antelope, with a declining population since the 1970s. While the underlying mechanisms are unclear, some combination of habitat loss and predation are thought to be responsible for low abundances of contemporary populations. Efforts to conserve hirola are hindered by a lack of understanding as to...

Data from: Evolution of movement rate increases the effectiveness of marine reserves for the conservation of pelagic fishes

Jonathan A. Mee, Sarah P. Otto & Daniel Pauly
Current debates about the efficacy of no-take marine reserves (MR) in protecting large pelagic fish such as tuna and sharks have usually not considered the evolutionary dimension of this issue, which emerges because the propensity to swim away from a given place, like any other biological trait, will probably vary in a heritable fashion among individuals. Here, based on spatially-explicit simulations, we investigated whether selection to remain in MRs to avoid higher fishing mortality can...

Data from: Phylogenomics from whole genome sequences using aTRAM

Julie M. Allen, Bret Boyd, Nam-Phuong Nguyen, Pranjal Vachaspati, Tandy Warnow, Daisie I. Huang, Patrick G. S. Grady, Kayce C. Bell, Quentin C.B. Cronk, Lawrence Mugisha, Barry R. Pittendrigh, M. Soledad Leonardi, David L. Reed & Kevin P. Johnson
Novel sequencing technologies are rapidly expanding the size of data sets that can be applied to phylogenetic studies. Currently the most commonly used phylogenomic approaches involve some form of genome reduction. While these approaches make assembling phylogenomic data sets more economical for organisms with large genomes, they reduce the genomic coverage and thereby the long-term utility of the data. Currently, for organisms with moderate to small genomes (<1000 Mbp) it is feasible to sequence the...

Data from: Macroevolutionary synthesis of flowering plant sexual systems

Emma E. Goldberg, Sarah P. Otto, Jana C. Vamosi, Itay Mayrose, Niv Sabath, Ray Ming & Tia-Lynn Ashman
Sexual system is a key determinant of genetic variation and reproductive success, affecting evolution within populations and within clades. Much research in plants has focused on evolutionary transitions away from the most common state of hermaphroditism and toward the rare state of dioecy (separate sexes). Rather than transitions predominantly toward greater sexual differentiation, however, evolution may proceed in the direction of lesser sexual differentiation. We analyzed the macroevolutionary dynamics of sexual system in angiosperm genera...

Data from: Direct and indirect genetic and fine-scale location effects on breeding date in song sparrows

Ryan R. Germain, Matthew E. Wolak, Peter Arcese, Sylvain Losdat & Jane M. Reid
Quantifying direct and indirect genetic effects of interacting females and males on variation in jointly expressed life-history traits is central to predicting microevolutionary dynamics. However, accurately estimating sex-specific additive genetic variances in such traits remains difficult in wild populations, especially if related individuals inhabit similar fine-scale environments. Breeding date is a key life-history trait that responds to environmental phenology and mediates individual and population responses to environmental change. However, no studies have estimated female (direct)...

Data from: Direct and indirect effects of native range expansion on soil microbial community structure and function

Courtney G. Collins, Chelsea J. Carey, Emma L. Aronson, Christopher W. Kopp & Jeffrey M. Diez
Analogous to the spread of non-native species, shifts in native species’ ranges resulting from climate and land use change are also creating new combinations of species in many ecosystems. These native range shifts may be facilitated by similar mechanisms that provide advantages for non-native species and may also have comparable impacts on the ecosystems they invade. Soil biota, in particular bacteria and fungi, are important regulators of plant community composition and below-ground ecosystem function. Compared...

Data from: Rapid evolution accelerates plant population spread in fragmented experimental landscapes

Jennifer L. Williams, Bruce E. Kendall & Jonathan M. Levine
Predicting the speed of biological invasions and native species migrations requires an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of spreading populations. Theory predicts that evolution can accelerate species’ spread velocity, but how landscape patchiness—an important control over traits under selection—influences this process is unknown. We manipulated the response to selection in populations of a model plant species spreading through replicated experimental landscapes of varying patchiness. After six generations of change, evolving populations spread 11%...

Data from: Identifying the African wintering grounds of hybrid flycatchers using a multi–isotope (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N) assignment approach

Thor Veen, Mårten B. Hjernquist, Steven L. Van Wilgenburg, Keith A. Hobson, Eelke Folmer, Laura Font & Marcel Klaassen
Migratory routes and wintering grounds can have important fitness consequences, which can lead to divergent selection on populations or taxa differing in their migratory itinerary. Collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied (F. hypoleuca) flycatchers breeding in Europe and wintering in different sub-Saharan regions have distinct migratory routes on the eastern and western sides of the Sahara desert, respectively. In an earlier paper, we showed that hybrids of the two species did not incur reduced winter survival,...

Data from: Conservation implications of the evolutionary history and genetic diversity hotspots of the snowshoe hare

Ellen Cheng, Karen E. Hodges, José Melo-Ferreira, Paulo C. Alves & L. Scott Mills
With climate warming, the ranges of many boreal species are expected to shift northward and to fragment in southern peripheral ranges. To understand the conservation implications of losing southern populations, we examined range-wide genetic diversity of the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), an important prey species that drives boreal ecosystem dynamics. We analysed microsatellite (8 loci) and mitochondrial DNA sequence (cytochrome b and control region) variation in almost 1000 snowshoe hares. A hierarchical structure analysis of...

Data from: The adaptive potential of Populus balsamifera L. to phenology requirements in a warmer global climate

Matthew S. Olson, Nicholas Levsen, Raju Y. Soolanayakanahally, Robert D. Guy, William R. Schroeder, Stephen R. Keller & Peter Tiffin
The manner in which organisms adapt to climate change informs both a broader understanding of the evolution of biodiversity as well as plans for future conservation and mitigation. We apply common garden and association mapping approaches to quantify genetic variance and identify loci affecting bud flush and bud set, traits that define a tree’s season for height growth, in the boreal forest tree Populus balsamifera L. (balsam poplar). Using data from 478 genotypes grown in...

Data from: A test of the umbrella species approach in restored floodplain ponds.

Margaret A. Branton & John S. Richardson
1.The umbrella species approach, where conservation actions targeted for one or a group of species should benefit the broader community, may provide an effective framework to guide habitat restoration. This requires congruence in the response of umbrella and co-occurring species to environmental stress and recovery, and the identification of potential mechanisms by which co-occurring species benefit from conservation of an umbrella species. 2.Past evaluations of this approach have considered only the presence/absence of umbrella species....

Data from: Relative importance of competition and plant-soil feedback, their synergy, context dependency and implications for coexistence

Ylva Lekberg, James D. Bever, Rebecca A. Bunn, Ray M. Callaway, Miranda M. Hart, Stephanie N. Kivlin, John Klironomos, Beau G. Larkin, John L. Maron, Kurt O. Reinhart, Michael Remke, Wim H. Van Der Putten & Ragan M. Callaway
Plants interact simultaneously with each other and with soil biota, yet the relative importance of competition versus plant soil feedback (PSF) on plant performance is poorly understood. Using a meta-analysis of 38 published studies and 150 plant species, we show that effects of interspecific competition (either growing plants with a competitor or singly, or comparing inter- vs. intraspecific competition) and PSF (comparing home vs. away soil, live vs. sterile soil, or control vs. fungicide-treated soil)...

Data from: Assessment of plasma proteomics biomarker’s ability to distinguish benign from malignant lung nodules

Gerard A. Silvestri, Nichole T. Tanner, Paul Kearney, Anil Vachani, Pierre P. Massion, Alexander Porter, Steven C. Springmeyer, Kenneth C. Fang, David Midthun, Peter J. Mazzone, D. Madtes, J. Landis, A. Levesque, K. Rothe, M. Balaan, B. Dimitt, B. Fortin, N. Ettinger, A. Pierre, L. Yarmus, K. Oakjones-Burgess, N. Desai, Z. Hammoud, A. Sorenson, R. Murali … & F. Allison
Background: Lung nodules are a diagnostic challenge, with an estimated yearly incidence of 1.6 million in the United States. This study evaluated the accuracy of an integrated proteomic classifier in identifying benign nodules in patients with a pretest probability of cancer (pCA) ≤ 50%. Methods: A prospective, multicenter observational trial of 685 patients with 8- to 30-mm lung nodules was conducted. Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used to measure the relative abundance of two...

Data from: Functional traits and environmental conditions predict community isotopic niches and energy pathways across spatial scales

Olivier Dézerald, Diane S. Srivastava, Régis Céréghino, Jean-François Carrias, Bruno Corbara, Vinicius F. Farjalla, Céline Leroy, Nicholas A. C. Marino, Gustavo C. O. Piccoli, Barbara A. Richardson, Michael J. Richardson, Gustavo Q. Romero & Angélica L. González
1. Despite ongoing research in food web ecology and functional biogeography, the links between food-web structure, functional traits and environmental conditions across spatial scales remain poorly understood. Trophic niches, defined as the amount of energy and elemental space occupied by species and food webs, may help bridge this divide. 2. Here, we ask how the functional traits of species, the environmental conditions of habitats and the spatial scale of analysis jointly determine the characteristics of...

Data from: Assessing the potential of genotyping-by-sequencing-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms to identify the geographic origins of intercepted gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) specimens: a proof-of-concept study

Sandrine Picq, Melody Keena, Nathan Havill, Don Stewart, Esther Pouliot, Brian Boyle, Roger C. Levesque, Richard C. Hamelin & Michel Cusson
Forest invasive alien species are a major threat to ecosystem stability and can have enormous economic and social impacts. For this reason, preventing the introduction of Asian gypsy moths (AGM; Lymantria dispar asiatica and L. d. japonica) into North America has been identified as a top priority by North American authorities. The AGM is an important defoliator of a wide variety of hardwood and coniferous trees, displaying a much broader host range and an enhanced...

Data from: Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries and society in the Arabian Gulf

Daniel Pauly, Myriam Khalfallah, Dalal Al-Abdulrazzak, Lydia C. L. Teh, Gabriel Reygondeau, Colette C. C. Wabnitz, Maria L. Deng Palomares, Dirk Zeller, William W. L. Cheung & Vicky W. Y. Lam
Climate change - reflected in significant environmental changes such as warming, sea level rise, shifts in salinity, oxygen and other ocean conditions - is expected to impact marine organisms and associated fisheries. This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts on, and the vulnerability of, marine biodiversity and fisheries catches in the Arabian Gulf under climate change. To this end, using three separate niche modelling approaches under a 'business-as-usual' climate change scenario, we projected...

Data from: Divergent temporal trends of net biomass change in western Canadian boreal forests

Yong Luo, Han Y.H. Chen, Eliot J.B. McIntire, David W. Andison, Eliot J. B. McIntire & Han Y. H. Chen
1. Forests play a strong role in the global carbon cycle by absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide through increasing forest biomass. Understanding temporal trends of forest net aboveground biomass change (ΔAGB) can help infer how forest carbon sequestration responds to on-going climate changes. Despite wide spatial variation in the long-term average of climate moisture availability (CMIaverage) across forest ecosystems, temporal trends of ΔAGB associated with CMIaverage remains unclear. 2. We tested the hypothesis that the extent...

Data from: Basal metabolism in tropical birds: latitude, altitude, and the “pace of life”

Gustavo A. Londoño, Mark A. Chappell, María Del Rosario Castañeda, Jill E. Jankowski & Scott K. Robinson
1. Life history varies across latitudes, with the ‘pace of life’ being ‘slower’ in tropical regions. Because life history is coupled to energy metabolism via allocation tradeoffs and links between performance capacity and energy use, low metabolic intensity is expected in tropical animals. Low metabolism has been reported for lowland tropical birds, but it is unclear if this is due to ‘slow’ life history or to a warm, stable environment. 2. We measured Basal Metabolic...

Data from: Ocean circulation model predicts high genetic structure in a long-lived pelagic developer

Jennifer M. Sunday, Iva Popovic, Wendy J. Palen, Michael G. G. Foreman & Michael W. Hart
Understanding the movement of genes and individuals across marine seascapes is a long-standing challenge in marine ecology, and can inform our understanding of local adaptation, the persistence and movement of populations, and the spatial scale of effective management. Patterns of gene flow in the ocean are often inferred based on population genetic analyses coupled with knowledge of species’ dispersive life histories. However, genetic structure is the result of time-integrated processes, and may not capture present-day...

Data from: Evolution during population spread affects plant performance in stressful environments

Nicky Lustenhouwer, Jennifer L. Williams & Jonathan M. Levine
1. Reliable predictions of population spread rates are essential to forecast biological invasions. Recent studies have shown that populations spreading through favourable habitat can rapidly evolve higher dispersal and reproductive rates at the expansion front, which accelerates spread velocity. However, spreading populations are likely to eventually encounter stressful conditions in the expanded range. How evolution during spread in favourable environments affects subsequent population growth in harsher environments is currently unknown. 2. We examined evolutionary change...

Data from: Past and present resource availability affect mating rate but not choice in Drosophila melanogaster

Erin Tudor, Daniel E.L. Promislow, Devin Arbuthnott & Daniel E L Promislow
The choices of when, where, and with whom to mate represent some of the most important decisions an individual can make to increase their fitness. Several studies have shown that the resources available to an individual during development can dramatically alter their mating rate later in life, and even the choice of mate. However, an individual’s surroundings and available resources can change rapidly, and it is not clear how quickly the redistribution of resources towards...

Data from: Disentangling the genetic effects of refugial isolation and range expansion in a trans-continentally distributed species

Brendan N. Reid, Jamie M. Kass, Seth Wollney, Evelyn L. Jensen, Michael A. Russello, Ella M. Viola, Jenna Pantophlet, John B. Iverson, Marcus Z. Peery, Christopher J. Raxworthy & Eugenia Naro-Maciel
In wide-ranging taxa with historically dynamic ranges, past allopatric isolation and range expansion can both influence the current structure of genetic diversity. Considering alternate historical scenarios involving expansion from either a single refugium or from multiple refugia can be useful in differentiating the effects of isolation and expansion. Here, we examined patterns of genetic variability in the trans-continentally distributed painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). We utilized an existing phylogeographic dataset for the mitochondrial control region and...

Data from: Nonlinear averaging of thermal experience predicts population growth rates in a thermally variable environment

Joey R. Bernhardt, Jennifer M. Sunday, Patrick L. Thompson & Mary I. O'Connor
As thermal regimes change worldwide, projections of future population and species persistence often require estimates of how population growth rates depend on temperature. These projections rarely account for how temporal variation in temperature can systematically modify growth rates relative to projections based on constant temperatures. Here,we tested the hypothesis that time-averaged population growth rates in fluctuating thermal environments differ from growth rates in constant conditions as a consequence of Jensen’s inequality, and that the thermal...

Data from: Effects of host colony size and hygiene behaviors on social spider kleptoparasite loads along an elevation gradient

Samantha Straus & Leticia Avilés
1.Group living animals are likely to attract more parasites than solitary ones. Parasite loads, however, should also depend on environmental conditions and on host characteristics and behaviors. Previous work has found that social spider colonies harbor communities of kleptoparasitic spiders thats forego building their own web and, instead, steal prey from their social host. 2.We examined parasite loads and host hygiene behaviors in colonies of social and subsocial spiders in the genus Anelosimus along an...

Data from: Interactive effects of climate change and biodiversity loss on ecosystem functioning

Aliny P. F. Pires, Diane S. Srivastava, Nicholas A. C. Marino, A. Andrew M. MacDonald, Marcos Paulo Figueiredo-Barros & Vinicius F. Farjalla
Climate change and biodiversity loss are expected to simultaneously affect ecosystems, however research on how each driver mediates the effect of the other has been limited in scope. The multiple stressor framework emphasizes non-additive effects, but biodiversity may also buffer the effects of climate change, and climate change may alter which mechanisms underlie biodiversity-function relationships. Here, we performed an experiment using tank bromeliad ecosystems to test the various ways that rainfall changes and litter diversity...

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