60 Works

Data from: Effects of riparian forest harvest on streams: a meta-analysis

John S. Richardson & Salomé Béraud
1. Riparian forest harvesting impacts streams in many ways, from altering temperature regimes, shifting geomorphic structure, increasing sediment fluxes and affecting fish populations. However, we have noted considerable variation in the results between studies that led us to ask whether the effects of forest harvesting on streams were consistent between studies. We used meta-analysis of 34 replicated studies to address the effects of riparian logging on biological and chemical components of streams in contrast to...

Data from: Genome-wide admixture and ecological niche modeling reveal the maintenance of species boundaries despite long history of interspecific gene flow

Amanda R. De La Torre, David R. Roberts & Sally N. Aitken
1.The maintenance of species boundaries despite interspecific gene flow has been a continuous source of interest in evolutionary biology. Many hybridizing species have porous genomes with regions impermeable to introgression, conferring reproductive barriers between species. 2.We used ecological niche modeling to study the glacial and postglacial recolonization patterns between the widely hybridizing spruce species Picea glauca and P. engelmannii in western North America. 3.Genome-wide estimates of admixture based on a panel of 311 candidate gene...

Data from: Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake

Les N. Harris, Louise Chavarie, Robert Bajno, Kimberly L. Howland, Simon H. Wiley, William M. Tonn & Eric B. Taylor
Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies...

Data from: Phenotypic constraints and community structure: linking trade-offs within and among species

Amy L. Angert, Sarah Kimball, Megan Peterson, Travis E. Huxman & D. Lawrence Venable
Trade-offs are central to many topics in biology, from the evolution of life histories to ecological mechanisms of species coexistence. Trade-offs observed among species may reflect pervasive constraints on phenotypes that are achievable given biophysical and resource limitations. If so, then among-species trade-offs should be consistent with trade-offs within species. Alternatively, trait variation among co-occurring species may reflect historical contingencies during community assembly rather than within-species constraints. Here, we test whether a key trade-off between...

Data from: Naturally rare versus newly rare: demographic inferences on two timescales inform conservation of Galápagos giant tortoises

Ryan C. Garrick, Brittney Kajdacsi, Michael A. Russello, Edgar Benavides, Chaz Hyseni, James P. Gibbs, Washington Tapia & Adalgisa Caccone
Long-term population history can influence the genetic effects of recent bottlenecks. Therefore, for threatened or endangered species, an understanding of the past is relevant when formulating conservation strategies. Levels of variation at neutral markers have been useful for estimating local effective population sizes (Ne) and inferring whether population sizes increased or decreased over time. Furthermore, analyses of genotypic, allelic frequency, and phylogenetic information can potentially be used to separate historical from recent demographic changes. For...

Data from: A target enrichment method for gathering phylogenetic information from hundreds of loci: an example from the Compositae

Jennifer R. Mandel, Rebecca B. Dikow, Vicki A. Funk, Rishi R. Masalia, S. Evan Staton, Alex Kozik, Richard W. Michelmore, Loren H. Rieseberg & John M. Burke
Premise of the study: The Compositae (Asteraceae) are a large and diverse family of plants, and the most comprehensive phylogeny to date is a meta-tree based on 10 chloroplast loci that has several major unresolved nodes. We describe the development of an approach that enables the rapid sequencing of large numbers of orthologous nuclear loci to facilitate efficient phylogenomic analyses. Methods and Results: We designed a set of sequence capture probes that target conserved orthologous...

Data from: Sex uncovered special issue: selective maintenance of recombination between the sex chromosomes

Sally Otto & Sarah P. Otto
A hallmark of many sex chromosomes is the dramatically reduced rate of recombination between them in the heterogametic sex (e.g., between the X and Y). Sexually antagonistic selection is thought to be the main selective driver of this reduced recombination, with tighter linkage strengthening the association between alleles favourable to females and the X, as well as alleles favourable to males and the Y. Nevertheless, many sex chromosomes retain substantial levels of recombination over millions...

Data from: Understanding the spectacular failure of DNA barcoding in willows (Salix): Does this result from a trans-specific selective sweep?

Diana M. Percy, George W. Argus, Quentin C. Cronk, Aron J. Fazekas, Prasad R. Kesanakurti, Kevin S. Burgess, Brian C. Husband, Steven G. Newmaster, Spencer C. H. Barrett, Sean W. Graham & Spencer C.H. Barrett
Willows (Salix: Salicaceae) form a major ecological component of Holarctic floras, and consequently are an obvious target for a DNA-based identification system. We surveyed two to seven plastid genome regions (~3.8 kb; ~3% of the genome) from 71 Salix species across all five subgenera, to assess their performance as DNA barcode markers. Although Salix has a relatively high level of interspecific hybridization, this may not sufficiently explain the near complete failure of barcoding that we...

Data from: The deep phylogeny of jumping spiders (Araneae, Salticidae)

Wayne P. Maddison, Daiqin Li, Melissa Bodner, Junxia Zhang, Xu Xin, Qinqing Liu, Fengxiang Liu & Wayne Maddison
In order to resolve better the deep relationships among salticid spiders, we compiled and analyzed a molecular dataset of 169 salticid taxa (and 7 outgroups) and 8 gene regions. This dataset adds many new taxa to previous analyses, especially among the non-salticoid salticids, as well as two new genes – wingless and myosin heavy chain. Both of these genes, and especially the better sampled wingless, confirm many of the relationships indicated by other genes. The...

Data from: Too much of a good thing: The unique and repeated paths toward copper adaptation

Aleeza C. Gerstein, Jasmine Ono, Dara S. Lo, Marcus L. Campbell, Anastasia Kuzmin & Sarah P. Otto
Copper is a micronutrient essential for growth due to its role as a co-factor in enzymes involved in respiration, defense against oxidative damage, and iron uptake. Yet too much of a good thing can be lethal, and yeast cells typically do not have tolerance to copper levels much beyond the concentration in their ancestral environment. Here, we report a short-term evolutionary study of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to levels of copper sulfate that are inhibitory to...

Data from: Changes in the bacterial microbiota in gut, blood, and lungs following acute LPS instillation into mice lungs

Marc A. Sze, Masashi Tsuruta, Shun-Wei Julia Yang, Yeni Oh, S. F. Paul Man, James C. Hogg & Don D. Sin
Introduction: Previous reports have shown that the gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial microbiota can have profound effects on the lungs, which has been described as the “gut-lung axis”. However, whether a “lung-gut” axis exists wherein acute lung inflammation perturbs the gut and blood microbiota is unknown. Methods: Adult C57/Bl6 mice were exposed to one dose of LPS or PBS instillation (n = 3 for each group) directly into lungs. Bacterial microbiota of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood,...

Data from: Mapping the fitness landscape of gene expression uncovers the cause of antagonism and sign epistasis between adaptive mutations

Hsin-Hung Chou, Nigel F. Delaney, Jeremy A. Draghi & Christopher J. Marx
How do adapting populations navigate the tensions between the costs of gene expression and the benefits of gene products to optimize the levels of many genes at once? Here we combined independently-arising beneficial mutations that altered enzyme levels in the central metabolism of Methylobacterium extorquens to uncover the fitness landscape defined by gene expression levels. We found strong antagonism and sign epistasis between these beneficial mutations. Mutations with the largest individual benefit interacted the most...

Data from: QTL mapping identifies candidate alleles involved in adaptive introgression and range expansion in a wild sunflower

Kenneth D. Whitney, Karl W. Broman, Nolan C. Kane, Stephen M. Hovick, Rebecca A. Randell & Loren H. Rieseberg
The wild North American sunflowers Helianthus annuus and H. debilis are participants in one of the earliest identified examples of adaptive trait introgression, and the exchange is hypothesized to have triggered a range expansion in H. annuus. However, the genetic basis of the adaptive exchange has not been examined. Here, we combine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping with field measurements of fitness to identify candidate H. debilis QTL alleles likely to have introgressed into H....

Data from: Specialization and generalization in the diversification of phytophagous insects: tests of the musical chairs and oscillation hypotheses

Nate B. Hardy & Sarah P. Otto
Evolutionary biologists have often assumed that ecological generalism comes at the expense of less intense exploitation of specific resources and that this trade-off will promote the evolution of ecologically specialized daughter species. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach with butterflies as a model system, we test hypotheses that incorporate changes in niche breadth and location into explanations of the taxonomic diversification of insect herbivores. Specifically, we compare the oscillation hypothesis, where speciation is driven by host-plant...

Data from: Origins and functional diversification of salinity-responsive Na+, K+ ATPase α1 paralogs in salmonids

Anne C. Dalziel, Jesse Bittman, Milica Mandic, Michelle Ou & Patricia M. Schulte
The Salmoniform whole-genome duplication is hypothesized to have facilitated the evolution of anadromy, but little is known about the contribution of paralogs from this event to the physiological performance traits required for anadromy, such as salinity tolerance. Here, we determined when two candidate salinity-responsive paralogs of the Na+, K+ ATPase α subunit (α1a and α1b) evolved and studied their evolutionary trajectories and tissue-specific expression patterns. We found that these paralogs arose during a small scale...

Data from: QST FST comparisons with unbalanced half-sib designs

Kimberly J. Gilbert & Michael C. Whitlock
QST, a measure of quantitative genetic differentiation among populations, is an index that can suggest local adaptation if QST for a trait is sufficiently larger than the mean FST of neutral genetic markers. A previous method by Whitlock and Guillaume derived a simulation resampling approach to statistically test for a difference between QST and FST, but that method is limited to balanced data sets with offspring related as half-sibs through shared fathers. We extend this...

Data from: Indirect genetic effects underlie oxygen-limited thermal tolerance within a coastal population of chinook salmon

Nicolas J. Muñoz, Katja Anttila, Zhongqi Chen, John W. Heath, Anthony P. Farrell, Bryan D. Neff & N. J. Munoz
With global temperatures projected to surpass the limits of thermal tolerance for many species, evaluating the heritable variation underlying thermal tolerance is critical for understanding the potential for adaptation to climate change. We examined the evolutionary potential of thermal tolerance within a population of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by conducting a full-factorial breeding design and measuring the thermal performance of cardiac function and the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of offspring from each family. Additive genetic...

Data from: Adaptive divergence along environmental gradients in a climate-change-sensitive mammal

P. Henry & M. A. Russello
In the face of predicted climate change, a broader understanding of biotic responses to varying environments has become increasingly important within the context of biodiversity conservation. Local adaptation is one potential option, yet remarkably few studies have harnessed genomic tools to evaluate the efficacy of this response within natural populations. Here we show evidence of selection driving divergence of a climate change-sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps), distributed along elevation gradients at its northern...

Data from: Social evolution in structured populations

Florence Débarre, Christoph Hauert & Michael Doebeli
Understanding the evolution of social behaviours such as altruism and spite is a long-standing problem that has generated thousands of articles and heated debates. Previous theoretical studies showed that whether altruism and spite evolve may be contingent on seemingly artificial model features, such as which rule is chosen to update the population (e.g., Birth-Death or Death-Birth), and whether the benefits and costs of sociality affect fecundity or survival. Here we unify these features in a...

Data from: Jerzego, a new hisponine jumping spider from Borneo (Araneae: Salticidae)

Wayne P. Maddison & Edyta K. Piascik
A new genus and species of hisponine jumping spider from Sarawak, Jerzego corticicola Maddison sp. nov. are described, representing one of the few hisponine jumping spiders known from Asia, and the only whose male is known. Although similar to the primarily-Madagascan genus Hispo in having an elongate and flat body, sequences of 28s and 16sND1 genes indicate that Jerzego is most closely related to Massagris and Tomomingi, a result consistent with morphology. Females of Jerzego...

Data from: Time scale matters: genetic analysis does not support adaptation-by-time as the mechanism for adaptive seasonal declines in kokanee reproductive lifespan

Yolanda E. Morbey, Evelyn L. Jensen & Michael A. Russello
Seasonal declines of fitness-related traits are often attributed to environmental effects or individual-level decisions about reproductive timing and effort, but genetic variation may also play a role. In populations of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), seasonal declines in reproductive life span have been attributed to adaptation-by-time, in which divergent selection for different traits occurs among reproductively isolated temporal components of a population. We evaluated this hypothesis in kokanee (freshwater obligate Oncorhynchus nerka) by testing for temporal...

Data from: Multiple plant traits shape the genetic basis of herbivore community assembly

Matthew A. Barbour, Mariano A. Rodriguez-Cabal, Elizabeth T. Wu, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto, Carol E. Ritland, Allyson E. Miscampbell, Erik S. Jules & Gregory M. Crutsinger
1. Community genetics research has posited a genetic basis to the assembly of ecological communities. For arthropod herbivores in particular, there is strong support that genetic variation in host plants is a key factor shaping their diversity and composition. However, the specific plant phenotypes underlying herbivore responses remain poorly explored for most systems. 2. We address this knowledge gap by examining the influence of both genetic and phenotypic variation in a dominant host-plant species, Salix...

Data from: Immune response genes and pathogen presence predict migration survival in wild salmon smolts

Ken M. Jeffries, Scott G. Hinch, Marika Kirsten Gale, Timothy D. Clark, Andrew G. Lotto, Matthew T. Casselman, Shaorong Li, Erin L. Rechisky, Aswea D. Porter, David W. Welch, Kristina M. Miller & Marika Kirstin Gale
We present the first data to link physiological responses and pathogen presence with subsequent fate during migration of wild salmonid smolts. We tagged and non-lethally sampled gill tissue from sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts as they left their nursery lake (Chilko Lake, BC, Canada) to compare gene expression profiles and freshwater pathogen loads with migration success over the first ~1150 km of their migration to the North Pacific Ocean using acoustic telemetry. Fifteen percent of...

Data from: Divergent transcriptional patterns are related to differences in hypoxia tolerance between the intertidal and the subtidal sculpins

Milica Mandic, Marina L. Ramon, Andrew Y. Gracey & Jeffrey G. Richards
Transcriptionally mediated phenotypic plasticity as a mechanism of modifying traits in response to an environmental challenge remains an important area of study. We compared the transcriptional responses to low-oxygen (hypoxia) of the hypoxia tolerant intertidal fish, the tidepool sculpin (Oligocottus maculosus) with the closely related hypoxia intolerant subtidal fish, the silverspotted sculpin (Blepsias cirrhosus) to determine if these species use different mechanisms to cope with hypoxia. Individuals from each species were exposed to environmental O2...

Data from: How much of the world is woody?

Richard G. FitzJohn, Matt W. Pennell, Amy E. Zanne, Peter F. Stevens, David C. Tank, William K. Cornwell & Matthew W. Pennell
1.The question posed by the title of this paper is a basic one, and it is surprising that the answer is not known. Recently assembled trait datasets provide an opportunity to address this, but scaling these datasets to the global scale is challenging because of sampling bias. Although we currently know the growth form of tens of thousands of species, these data are not a random sample of global diversity; some clades are exhaustively characterised,...

Registration Year

  • 2014
    60

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    60

Affiliations

  • University of British Columbia
    60
  • University of Alberta
    5
  • University of Aberdeen
    4
  • Western University
    3
  • Indiana University Bloomington
    3
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    3
  • VU University Amsterdam
    2
  • State University of New York
    2
  • University of Guelph
    2
  • University of Zurich
    2