73 Works

Worldwide evidence of a unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species richness

Lauchlan H. Fraser, Jason Pither, Anke Jentsch, Marcelo Sternberg, Martin Zobel, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Jonathan A. Bennett, Alex Bittel, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Ilsi I. Boldrini, Edward Bork, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, James Cahill, Cameron N. Carlyle, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Anna-Maria Csergo, Sandra Diaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Alessandra Fidelis … & Szilárd Szentes
The search for predictions of species diversity across environmental gradients has challenged ecologists for decades. The humped-back model (HBM) suggests that plant diversity peaks at intermediate productivity; at low productivity few species can tolerate the environmental stresses, and at high productivity a few highly competitive species dominate. Over time the HBM has become increasingly controversial, and recent studies claim to have refuted it. Here, by using data from coordinated surveys conducted throughout grasslands worldwide and...

Data from: Remarkably divergent regions punctuate the genome assembly of the Caenorhabditis elegans Hawaiian strain CB4856

Owen A. Thompson, L. Basten Snoek, Harm Nijveen, Mark G. Sterken, Rita J. M. Volkers, Rachel Brenchley, Arjen Van't Hof, Roel P. J. Bevers, Andrew R. Cossins, Itai Yanai, Alex Hajnal, Tobias Schmid, Jaryn D. Perkins, David Spencer, Leonid Kruglyak, Erik C. Andersen, Donald G. Moerman, LaDeana W. Hillier, Jan E. Kammenga & Robert H. Waterston
The Hawaiian strain (CB4856) of Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most divergent from the canonical laboratory strain N2 and has been widely used in developmental, population and evolutionary studies. To enhance the utility of the strain, we have generated a draft sequence of the CB4856 genome, exploiting a variety of resources and strategies. The CB4856 genome when compared against the N2 reference has 327,050 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 79,529 insertion-deletion events (indels) that...

Data from: Photos provide information on age, but not kinship, of Andean bear

Russell C. Van Horn, Becky Zug, Robyn D. Appleton, Ximena Velez-Liendo, Susanna L. Paisley, Corrin LaCombe & Susanna Paisley
Using photos of captive Andean bears of known age and pedigree, and photos of wild Andean bear cubs <6 months old, we evaluated the degree to which visual information may be used to estimate bears’ ages and assess their kinship. We demonstrate that the ages of Andean bear cubs ≤6 months old may be estimated from their size relative to their mothers with an average error of <0.01 ± 13.2 days (SD; n = 14),...

Data from: Robustness to noise in gene expression evolves despite epistatic constraints in a model of gene networks

Jeremy Draghi, Michael C. Whitlock & Michael Whitlock
Stochastic noise in gene expression causes variation in the development of phenotypes, making such noise a potential target of stabilizing selection. Here we develop a new simulation model of gene networks to study the adaptive landscape underlying the evolution of robustness to noise. We find that epistatic interactions between the determinants of the expression of a gene and its downstream effect impose significant constraints on evolution, but these interactions do allow the gradual evolution of...

Data from: From promise to practice: pairing non-invasive sampling with genomics in conservation

Michael A. Russello, Matthew D. Waterhouse, Paul D. Etter & Eric A. Johnson
Conservation genomics has become an increasingly popular term, yet it remains unclear whether the non-invasive sampling that is essential for many conservation-related studies is compatible with the minimum requirements for harnessing next-generation sequencing technologies. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of using genotyping-by-sequencing of non-invasively collected hair samples to simultaneously identify and genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a climate change-sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). We identified and genotyped 3,803 high-confidence SNPs across eight...

Data from: Oil palm plantations fail to support mammal diversity

Sam Yue, Jedediah F. Brodie, Elise F. Zipkin & Henry Bernard
Agricultural expansion is the largest threat to global biodiversity. In particular, the rapid spread of tree plantations is a primary driver of deforestation in hyperdiverse tropical regions. Plantations tend to support considerably lower biodiversity than native forest, but it remains unclear whether plantation traits affect their ability to sustain native wildlife populations, particularly for threatened taxa. If animal diversity varies across plantations with different characteristics, these traits could be manipulated to make plantations more “wildlife...

Data from: Liking the good guys: amplifying local adaptation via the evolution of condition-dependent mate choice

Thor Veen & Sarah P. Otto
Local adaptation can be strengthened through a diversity of mechanisms that reduce gene flow between contrasting environments. Recent work revealed that mate choice could enhance local adaptation when females preferentially mate with locally adapted males and that such female preferences readily evolve, but the opposing effects of recombination, migration, and costs of female preferences remain relatively unexplored. To investigate these effects, we develop a two-patch model with two genes, one influencing an ecological trait and...

Data from: The evolution of sex chromosomes in organisms with separate haploid sexes

Simone Immler & Sarah Perin Otto
The evolution of dimorphic sex chromosomes is driven largely by the evolution of reduced recombination and the subsequent accumulation of deleterious mutations. While these processes are increasingly well understood in diploid organisms, the evolution of dimorphic sex chromosomes in haploid organisms (U/V) has been virtually unstudied theoretically. We analyze a model to investigate the evolution of linkage between fitness loci and the sex-determining region in U/V species. In a second step, we test how prone...

Data from: Indirect effects of predators control herbivore richness and abundance in a benthic eelgrass (Zostera marina) mesograzer community

Sarah L. Amundrud, Diane S. Srivastava & Mary I. O'Connor
1. Herbivore communities can be sensitive to changes in predator pressure (top-down effects) and resource availability (bottom-up effects) in a wide range of systems. However, it remains unclear whether such top-down and bottom-up effects reflect direct impacts of predators and/or resources on herbivores, or are indirect, reflecting altered interactions among herbivore species. 2. We quantified direct and indirect effects of bottom-up and top-down processes on an eelgrass (Zostera marina) herbivore assemblage. In a field experiment,...

Data from: Plant diversity and endemism in the California Floristic Province

Dylan O. Burge, James H. Thorne, Susan P. Harrison, Bart C. O'Brien, Jon P. Rebman, James R. Shevock, Edward R. Alverson, Linda K. Hardison, José Delgadillo-Rodríguez, Steven A. Junak, Thomas A. Oberbauer, Hugo Riemann, Sula E. Vanderplank & Teri Barry
The California Floristic Province (CFP) is an area of high biodiversity and endemism corresponding roughly to the portion of western North America having a Mediterranean-type climate. High levels of diversity and endemism in the CFP are attributed to the unique geo-climatic setting of the region. In recent years, much has been learned about the origins of plant diversity in western North America. This work, however, has been hindered by a focus on political rather than...

Data from: Root effect haemoglobins in fish may greatly enhance general oxygen delivery relative to other vertebrates

Jodie L. Rummer & Colin J. Brauner
The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2) transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb). A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect) and carrying capacity (Root effect). This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (ΔpHa-v) relative to other...

Data from: Making pore choices: repeated regime shifts in stomatal ratio

Christopher D. Muir
Ecologically important traits do not evolve without limits. Instead, evolution is constrained by the set of available and viable phenotypes. In particular, natural selection may only favour a narrow range of adaptive optima constrained within selective regimes. Here, I integrate data with theory to test whether selection explains phenotypic constraint. A global database of 599 plant species from 94 families shows that stomatal ratio, a trait affecting photosynthesis and defence against pathogens, is highly constrained....

Data from: Species turnover (β diversity) in ectomycorrhizal fungi linked to NH4+ uptake capacity

John M. Kranabetter, Barbara J. Hawkins, Melanie D. Jones, Samantha Robbins, Tyler Dyer & Tao Li
Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal communities may be shaped by both deterministic and stochastic processes, potentially influencing ecosystem development and function. We evaluated community assembly processes for EcM fungi of Pseudotsuga menziesii among 12 sites up to 400 km apart in southwest British Columbia (Canada) by investigating species turnover (β diversity) in relation to soil nitrogen (N) availability and physical distance. We then examined functional traits for an N-related niche by quantifying net fluxes of NH4+, NO3-...

Data from: Burst muscle performance predicts the speed, acceleration, and turning performance of Anna's hummingbirds

Paolo S. Segre, Roslyn Dakin, Victor B. Zordan, Michael H. Dickinson, Andrew D. Straw & Douglas L. Altshuler
Despite recent advances in the study of animal flight, the biomechanical determinants of maneuverability are poorly understood. It is thought that maneuverability may be influenced by intrinsic body mass and wing morphology, and by physiological muscle capacity, but this hypothesis has not yet been evaluated because it requires tracking a large number of free flight maneuvers from known individuals. We used an automated tracking system to record flight sequences from 20 Anna's hummingbirds flying solo...

Data from: Quantitative DNA metabarcoding: improved estimates of species proportional biomass using correction factors derived from control material

Austen C. Thomas, Bruce E. Deagle, J. Paige Eveson, Corie H. Harsch & Andrew W. Trites
DNA metabarcoding is a powerful new tool allowing characterization of species assemblages using high-throughput amplicon sequencing. The utility of DNA metabarcoding for quantifying relative species abundances is currently limited by both biological and technical biases which influence sequence read counts. We tested the idea of sequencing 50/50 mixtures of target species and a control species in order to generate relative correction factors (RCFs) that account for multiple sources of bias and are applicable to field...

Data from: Mitochondrial responses to prolonged anoxia in brain of Red-eared slider turtles

Matthew E. Pamenter, Crisostomo R. Gomez, Jeffrey G. Richards & William K. Milsom
Mitochondria are central to aerobic energy production and play a key role in neuronal signalling. During anoxia, however, the mitochondria of most vertebrates initiate deleterious cell death cascades. Nonetheless, a handful of vertebrate species, including some freshwater turtles, are remarkably tolerant of low oxygen environments and survive months of anoxia without apparent damage to brain tissue. This tolerance suggests that mitochondria in the brains of such species are adapted to withstand prolonged anoxia, but little...

Data from: Catch reconstructions reveal that global marine fisheries catches are higher than reported and declining

Daniel Pauly & Dirk Zeller
Fisheries data assembled by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) suggest that global marine fisheries catches increased to 86 million tonnes in 1996, then slightly declined. Here, using a decade-long multinational ‘catch reconstruction’ project covering the Exclusive Economic Zones of the world’s maritime countries and the High Seas from 1950 to 2010, and accounting for all fisheries, we identify catch trajectories differing considerably from the national data submitted to the FAO. We suggest that catch...

Data from: Parallelism in adaptive radiations of experimental Escherichia coli populations

Gerda Saxer & Michael Travisano
Adaptive radiations are major contributors to species diversity. While the underlying mechanisms of adaptive radiations, specialization and trade-offs, are relatively well understood, the tempo and repeatability of adaptive radiations remain elusive. Ecological specialization can occur through the expansion into novel niches or through partitioning of an existing niche. To test how the mode of resource specialization affects the tempo and repeatability of adaptive radiations, we selected replicate bacterial populations in environments that promoted the evolution...

Data from: Phylogenetic placement of the unusual jumping spider Depreissia Lessert, and a new synapomorphy uniting Hisponinae and Salticinae (Araneae, Salticidae)

Wayne P. Maddison, David R. Maddison, Junxia Zhang & Tamás Szűts
The relationships of the unusual salticid spider Depreissia from central Africa and Borneo have been difficult to resolve, obscured by its highly modified ant-like body. Phylogenetic analysis of the gene 28S strongly supports its placement outside the major clade Salticinae and within the clade of cocalodines, spartaeines and lapsiines, with weaker support for a relationship with the cocalodines in particular. Excluding the genus from the Salticinae is supported also by the presence of a median...

Data from: Plant-mycorrhizal fungus co-occurrence network lacks substantial structure

Francisco Encinas-Viso, David Alonso, John N. Klironomos, Rampal S. Etienne & Esther R. Chang
The interactions between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) maintain a crucial link between macroscopic organisms and the soil microbial world. These interactions are of extreme importance for the diversity of plant communities and ecosystem functioning. Despite this importance, only recently has the structure of plant–AMF interaction networks been studied. These recent studies, which used genetic data, suggest that these networks are highly structured, very similar to plant–animal mutualistic networks. However, the assembly process of...

Data from: The importance (or lack thereof) of niche divergence to the maintenance of a northern species complex: the case of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum Baird)

Julie Lee-Yaw, Darren Irwin, J. A. Lee-Yaw & D. E. Irwin
The relative importance of ecological versus non-ecological factors for the origin and maintenance of species is an open question in evolutionary biology. Young lineages—such as the distinct genetic groups that make up the ranges of many northern species—represent an opportunity to study the importance of ecological divergence during the early stages of diversification. Yet, few studies have examined the extent of niche divergence between lineages in previously glaciated regions and the role of ecology in...

Data from: Rapid increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests

Gregory J. Pec, Justine Karst, Alexandra N. Sywenky, Paul W. Cigan, Nadir Erbilgin, Suzanne W. Simard, & James F. Cahill
The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on...

Data from: Patterns of domestication in the Ethiopian oil-seed crop Noug (Guizotia abyssinica)

Hannes Dempewolf, Misteru Tesfaye, Abel Teshome, Anne Bjorkman, Rose L. Andrew, Moira Scascitelli, Scott Black, Endashaw Bekele, Johannes M. M. Engels, Quentin C. B. Cronk, Loren H. Rieseberg & Anne D. Bjorkman
Noug (Guizotia abyssinica) is a semi-domesticated oil-seed crop, which is primarily cultivated in Ethiopia. Unlike its closest crop relative, sunflower, noug has small seeds, small flowering heads, many branches, many flowering heads, indeterminate flowering, and it shatters in the field. Here we conducted common garden studies and microsatellite analyses of genetic variation to test whether high levels of crop-wild gene flow and/or unfavorable phenotypic correlations have hindered noug domestication. With the exception of one population,...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of British Columbia
  • University of Alberta
  • Duke University
  • University of Aberdeen
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • The Bronx Defenders
  • Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research
  • University of Cologne
  • Oregon State University
  • University of Minnesota