76 Works

Phylogenomics reveals novel relationships among Neotropical crocodiles (Crocodylus spp.)

Yoamel Milian-Garcia, George Amato, John Gatesy, Evon Hekkala, Natalia Rossi & Michael Russello
Extant species in the order Crocodylia are remnants of an ancient lineage of large-bodied archosaur reptiles. Despite decades of systematic studies, phylogenetic relationships among members of the genus Crocodylus (true crocodiles) in the Neotropics are poorly understood. Here we estimated phylogenomic relationships among the four extant Crocodylus species in the Americas. Species-tree reconstructions using genotypic data from 17,538 SNPs collected for 33 individuals spanning six Crocodylus species (four ingroup and two outgroup) revealed novel relationships...

Data from: RapidRat: development, validation and application of a genotyping-by-sequencing panel for rapid biosecurity and invasive species management

Bryson Sjodin, Robyn Irvine & Michael Russello
Invasive alien species (IAS) are among the main causes of global biodiversity loss. Invasive brown (Rattus norvegicus) and black (R. rattus) rats, in particular, are leading drivers of extinction on islands, especially in the case of seabirds where >50% of all extinctions have been attributed to rat predation. Eradication is the primary form of invasive rat management, yet this strategy has resulted in a ~10-38% failure rate on islands globally. Genetic tools can help inform...

Local adaptation to biotic interactions: a meta-analysis across latitudes

Anna Hargreaves, Rachel Germain, Megan Bontrager, Joshua Persi & Amy Angert
Adaptation to local conditions can increase species’ geographic distributions and rates of diversification, but which components of the environment commonly drive local adaptation—particularly the importance of biotic interactions—is unclear. Biotic interactions should drive local adaptation when they impose consistent divergent selection; if this is common we expect transplant experiments to detect more frequent and stronger local adaptation when biotic interactions are left intact. We tested this hypothesis using a meta-analysis of transplant experiments from >125...

The Effect of Alignment on People’s Ability to Judge Event Sequence Similarity

Roy Ruddle, Jürgen Bernard, Hendrik Lücke-Tieke, Thorsten May & Jörn Kohlhammer

Data for: Low predictability of energy balance traits and leaf temperature metrics in desert, montane, and alpine plant communities

Benjamin Blonder, Sabastian Escobar, Rozália Kapás & Sean Michaletz
Leaf energy balance may influence plant performance and community composition. While biophysical theory can link leaf energy balance to many traits and environment variables, predicting leaf temperature and key driver traits with incomplete parameterizations remains challenging. Predicting thermal offsets (δ, Tleaf – Tair difference) or thermal coupling strengths (β, Tleaf vs. Tair slope) is challenging. We ask: 1) whether environmental gradients predict variation in energy balance traits (absorptance, leaf angle, stomatal distribution, maximum stomatal conductance,...

Sitticine jumping spiders: phylogeny, classification and chromosomes (Araneae: Salticidae: Sitticini)

Wayne Maddison, David Maddison, Shahan Derkarabetian & Marshal Hedin
We review the systematics of sitticine jumping spiders, with a focus on the Palearctic and Nearctic regions, in order to revise their generic classification, clarify the species of one region (Canada), and study their chromosomes. A genome-wide molecular phylogeny of 23 sitticine species, using more than 700 loci from the arachnid Ultra-Conserved Element (UCE) probeset, confirms the Neotropical origins of sitticines, whose basal divergence separates the new subtribe Aillutticina (a group of 5 Neotropical genera)...

Data for: Immigration counter-acts local micro-evolution of a major fitness component: migration-selection balance in free-living song sparrows

Jane Reid, Peter Arcese, Pirmin Nietlisbach, Matthew Wolak, Stefanie Muff, Lisa Dickel & Lukas Keller
Ongoing adaptive evolution, and resulting ‘evolutionary rescue’ of declining populations, requires additive genetic variation in fitness. Such variation can be increased by gene flow resulting from immigration, potentially facilitating evolution. But, gene flow could in fact constrain rather than facilitate local adaptive evolution if immigrants have low additive genetic values for local fitness. Local migration-selection balance and micro-evolutionary stasis could then result. However, key quantitative genetic effects of natural immigration, comprising the degrees to which...

Rainfall and nest site competition delay Mountain Bluebird and Tree Swallow breeding but do not impact productivity

Anna Drake & Kathy Martin
Optimizing breeding phenology, an important aspect of fitness, is complex for migratory species as they must make key timing decisions early, and remotely, from breeding sites. We examined the role of weather (locally and cross-seasonally), cavity availability, and competitive exclusion in determining among-year variation in breeding phenology over 17 years for two migratory, cavity-nesting birds: Mountain Bluebirds (Sialia currucoides; n = 462 nests) and Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor; n = 572) using natural tree cavities...

Data from: They are likely to be there: using a family-centered index-testing approach to identify HIV-positive children in Kenya

Jayne Lewis-Kulzer, Nicollate Okoko, Kirsten Ohe, Margaret Mburu, Hellen Muttai, Lisa Abuogi, Elizabeth Bukusi, Craig Cohen & Jeremy Penner
In Kenya, only half of children with an HIV-positive parent have been tested for HIV. The effectiveness of a family-centred index-testing approach to identify children (0-14 years) living with HIV was examined. A retrospective clinical record review was conducted among adult index patients newly enrolled in HIV care between May–July 2015 and family outcomes were followed through May 2016 at 60 high-volume clinics in western Kenya. HIV testing uptake and results, health facility level, enrollment...

Imaging mass cytometry and cell masks for 483 breast tumour samples from the METABRIC study

Hamid Ali
Multiplexed imaging of breast cancer tissues for 37 proteins

Speciation and gene flow across an elevational gradient in New Guinea kingfishers

Ethan Linck, Benjamin Freeman & John Dumbacher
Closely related species with parapatric elevational ranges are ubiquitous in tropical mountains worldwide. The gradient speciation hypothesis proposes that these series are the result of in situ ecological speciation driven by divergent selection across elevation. Direct tests of this scenario have been hampered by the difficulty inferring the geographic arrangement of populations at the time of divergence. In cichlids, sticklebacks, and Timema stick insects, support for ecological speciation driven by other selective pressures has come...

Fitness maps to a large-effect locus in introduced stickleback populations

Dolph Schluter, Kerry Marchinko, Matt Arnegard, Haili Zhang, Shannon Brady, Felicity Jones, Michael Bell & David Kingsley
Mutations of small effect underlie most adaptation to new environments, but beneficial variants with large fitness effects are expected to contribute under certain conditions. Genes and genomic regions having large effects on phenotypic differences between populations are known from numerous taxa, but fitness effect sizes have rarely been estimated. We mapped fitness over a generation in an F2 intercross between a marine and a lake stickleback population introduced to a freshwater pond. A QTL map...

Data for: Feedback between coevolution and epidemiology can help or hinder the maintenance of genetic variation in host-parasite models

Ailene MacPherson, Matthew Keeling & Sarah Otto
Antagonistic coevolution has long been suggested to help maintain host genetic variation. While, ecological and epidemiological feedbacks are known to have important consequences on coevolutionary allele frequency dynamics, their effects on the maintenance of genetic variation remains poorly understood.Here, we extend our previous work on the maintenance of genetic variation in a classic matching-alleles coevolutionary model by exploring the effects of ecological and epidemiological feedbacks, where both allele frequencies and population sizes are allowed to...

Genomic analyses of phenotypic differences between native and invasive populations of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa)

Kathryn Turner, Kate Ostevik, Christopher Grassa & Loren Rieseberg
Invasive species represent excellent opportunities to study the evolutionary potential of traits important to success in novel environments. Although some ecologically-important traits have been identified in invasive species, little is typically known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie invasion success in non-model species. Here, we use a genome-wide association (GWAS) approach to identify the genetic basis of trait variation in the non-model, invasive, diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam. [Asteraceae]). To assist with this analysis, we...

Data from: Priorities and motivations of marine coastal restoration research

Elisa Bayraktarov, Shantala Brisbane, Phoebe J Stewart-Sinclair, Audrey Van Herwaarden, Keila Stark, Valerie Hagger, Carter S Smith, Kerrie A Wilson, Catherine E Lovelock, Chris Gillies, Andrew D L Steven & Megan I Saunders
Active restoration is becoming an increasingly important conservation intervention to counteract the degradation of marine coastal ecosystems. Understanding what has motivated the scientific community to research the restoration of marine coastal ecosystems and how restoration research projects are funded is essential if we want to scale-up restoration interventions to meaningful extents.Here, we systematically review and synthesize data to understand the motivations for research on the restoration of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, saltmarsh, and oyster reefs....

Adaptation and latitudinal gradients in species interactions: nest predation in birds

Ben Freeman, Micah Scholer, Mannfred Boehm, Julian Heavyside & Dolph Schluter
Are rates of biotic interactions are stronger in the tropics? Here we investigate nest predation rates in birds, a canonical example of a strong tropical biotic interaction. Counter to expectations, daily rates of nest predation vary minimally with latitude. However, life history traits that influence nest predation have diverged between latitudes. For example, tropical species have evolved a longer average nesting period, which is associated with reduced rates of nest attendance by parents. Daily nest...

Hidden introductions of freshwater red algae via the aquarium trade exposed by DNA barcodes

Shing Zhan, Tsai-Yin Hsieh, Lan-Wei Yeh, Ting-Chun Kuo, Shoichiro Suda & Shao-Lun Liu
The global aquarium trade can introduce alien freshwater invaders, potentially impacting local aquatic ecosystems and their biodiversity. The role of the aquarium trade in spreading freshwater red macroalgae that hitchhike on ornamental aquatic plants and animals is unassessed. We investigated this human-mediated phenomenon via a broad biodiversity survey and genetic analysis of freshwater red algae in the field and aquarium shops in East Asia. Results We found 26 molecular operational taxonomic units (mOTUs) in Taiwan,...

Data from Beyond MAP: A guide to dimensions of rainfall variability for tropical ecology

Naomi Schwartz, Benjamin R. Lintner, Xue Feng & Jennifer S. Powers
Tropical ecologists have long recognized rainfall as the key climate filter shaping tropical ecosystem structure and function across space and time. Still, tropical ecologists have historically had a limited toolkit for characterizing rainfall, largely relying on simple metrics like mean annual precipitation (MAP) and dry season length to characterize rainfall regimes that vary along many more dimensions. Here, we review methods for quantifying dimensions of rainfall variability on multiple time scales, with a focus on...

In situ resistance, not immigration, supports invertebrate community resilience to drought intensification in a Neotropical ecosystem

Camille Bonhomme, Régis Céréghino, Jean-François Carrias, Arthur Compin, Bruno Corbara, Vincent E.J. Jassey, Joséphine Leflaive, Vinicius F. Farjalla, Nicholas A. C. Marino, Thibaut Rota, Diane S. Srivastava & Céline Leroy
While future climate scenarios predict declines in precipitations in many regions of the world, little is known of the mechanisms underlying community resilience to prolonged dry seasons, especially in “naïve” Neotropical rainforests. Predictions of community resilience to intensifying drought are complicated by the fact that the underlying mechanisms are mediated by species’ tolerance and resistance traits, as well as rescue through dispersal from source patches. We examined the contribution of in situ tolerance-resistance and immigration...

Single cell transcriptomics of of Abedinium reveals a new early-branching dinoflagellate lineage

Elizabeth Cooney, Noriko Okamoto, Anna Cho, Elisabeth Hehenberger, Thomas Richards, Alexandra Worden, Alyson Santoro, Brian Leander & Patrick Keeling
Dinoflagellates possess many unique cellular characteristics with unresolved evolutionary histories including nuclei with greatly expanded genomes and chromatin packaged using histone-like proteins and dinoflagellate-viral nucleoproteins instead of histones, highly reduced mitochondrial genomes with extensive RNA editing, a mix of photosynthetic and cryptic secondary plastids, and tertiary plastids. Resolving the evolutionary origin of these traits requires understanding their ancestral states and early intermediates. Several deep-branching dinoflagellate lineages are good candidates for such reconstruction, however they tend...

UCE and Sanger sequenced data for phylogenetic analysis of jumping spiders (Baviini and Nungia, Salticidae)

Wayne Maddison
The systematics and taxonomy of the tropical Asian jumping spiders of the tribe Baviini is reviewed, with a molecular phylogenetic study (UCE sequence capture, traditional Sanger sequencing) guiding a reclassification of the group's genera. The well-studied members of the group are placed into six genera: Bavia Simon, 1877, Indopadilla Caleb & Sankaran, 2019, Padillothorax Simon, 1901, Piranthus Thorell, 1895, Stagetillus Simon, 1885, and one new genus, Maripanthus Maddison. The identity of Padillothorax is clarified, and...

COVID-19 clinician moral injury survey

David Barbic
Background Moral injury is an emerging explanation of burnout and suicidality, but remains poorly quantified in at-risk practitioners. We hypothesized that COVID-19 pandemic-related moral injury differs between frontline clinicians, genders, age, and country of practice. Methods We conducted an online cross-sectional survey of international physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, paramedics and respiratory therapists between April and June 2020. We included the adapted version of the Expressions of Moral Injury Scale (EMIS). The primary outcome was differences...

The sunflower (Helianthus annuusL.) genome reflects a recent history of biased accumulation of transposable elements

S. Evan Staton, Bradley H. Bakken, Benjamin K. Blackman, Mark A. Chapman, Nolan C. Kane, Shunxue Tang, Mark C. Ungerer, Steven J. Knapp, Loren H. Rieseberg & John M. Burke
Aside from polyploidy, transposable elements are the major drivers of genome size increases in plants. Thus, understanding the diversity and evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), especially given its large genome size (∼3.5 Gb) and the well‐documented cases of amplification of certain transposons within the genus, is of considerable importance for understanding the evolutionary history of this emerging model species. By analyzing approximately 25% of the sunflower genome from random sequence...

Data from: Molecular underpinnings and biogeochemical consequences of enhanced diatom growth in a warming Southern Ocean

Loay Jabre, Andrew E. Allen, J. Scott P. McCain, John P. McCrow, Nancy Tenenbaum, Jenna L. Spackeen, Rachel E. Sipler, Beverley R. Green, Deborah A. Bronk, David A. Hutchins & Erin M. Bertrand
The Southern Ocean (SO) harbours some of the most intense phytoplankton blooms on Earth. Changes in temperature and iron availability are expected to alter the intensity of SO phytoplankton blooms, but little is known about how environmental change will influence community composition and downstream biogeochemical processes. We performed experimental manipulations on surface ocean microbial communities from McMurdo Sound in the Ross Sea, with and without iron addition, at -0.5 °C, 3 °C, and 6 °C....

Data from: Spatial patterns and rarity of the white-phased ‘Spirit Bear’ allele reveals gaps in habitat protection

Christina Service, Mathieu Bourbonnais, Megan Adams, Lauren Henson, Douglas Neasloss, Chris Picard, Paul Paquet & Chris Darimont
Preserving genetic and phenotypic diversity can help safeguard not only biodiversity but also cultural and economic values. Here, we present data that emerged from Indigenous-led research at the intersection of evolution and ecology to support conservation planning of a culturally salient, economically valuable, and rare phenotypic variant. We addressed three conservation objectives for the white-phased ‘Spirit bear’ polymorphism, a rare and endemic white-coated phenotype of black bear (Ursus americanus) in Kitasoo/Xai’xais and Gitga’at Territories and...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    76

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    75
  • Image
    1

Affiliations

  • University of British Columbia
    76
  • Duke University
    4
  • University of Alberta
    4
  • McGill University
    4
  • University of Toronto
    4
  • University of California, Berkeley
    3
  • University of California, Davis
    3
  • University of Washington
    2
  • The Nature Conservancy
    2
  • University of Georgia
    2