35 Works

Data from: Global origins of invasive brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the Haida Gwaii archipelago

Bryson Sjodin, Emily Puckett, Robyn Irvine, Jason Munshi-South & Michael Russello
Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) have commensally spread from northern China and Mongolia to become among the most invasive species on the planet. Understanding the proximate source(s) of invasion can inform biosecurity plans and eradication strategies for preventing or mitigating impacts to native biodiversity. The Haida Gwaii archipelago, located off the coast of British Columbia, Canada, is a significant nesting site for 1.5 million seabirds across 12 species, half of which are now threatened by brown...

Supplementary material: How should functional relationships be evaluated using phylogenetic comparative methods? A case study using metabolic rate and body temperature

Josef Uyeda, Nic Bone, Sean McHugh, Jonathan Rolland & Matthew Pennell
Phylogenetic comparative methods are often used to test functional relationships between traits. However, million-year macroevolutionary observational datasets cannot definitively prove causal links between traits --- correlation does not equal causation and experimental manipulation over such timescales is impossible. While this caveat is widely understood, it is far less appreciated that different phylogenetic approaches make different causal assumptions about the functional relationships of traits. In order to make meaningful inferences, it is critical that our statistical...

Genome-wide shifts in climate-related variation underpin responses to selective breeding in a widespread conifer

Ian MacLachlan, Tegan McDonald, Brandon Lind, Loren Rieseberg, Samuel Yeaman & Sally Aitken
Locally adapted temperate tree populations exhibit genetic trade-offs among climate-related traits that can be exacerbated by selective breeding, and are challenging to manage under climate change. To inform climatically adaptive forest management, we investigated the genetic architecture and impacts of selective breeding on four climate-related traits in 105 natural and 20 selectively bred lodgepole pine populations from western Canada. Growth, cold injury and growth initiation and growth cessation phenotypes were tested for associations with 18,600...

Integrating high-speed videos in capture-mark-recapture studies of insects

Rassim Khelifa
Capture-mark-recapture (CMR) studies have been used extensively in ecology and evolution. While it is feasible to apply CMR in some animals, it is considerably more challenging in small fast-moving species such as insects. In these groups, low recapture rates can bias estimates of demographic parameters, thereby, handicapping effective analysis and management of wild populations. Here we use high-speed videos (HSV) to capture two large dragonfly species, Anax junius and Rhionaeschna multicolor, that rarely land and,...

Human-induced reduction in mammalian movements impacts seed dispersal in the tropics

Marlee Tucker, Michela Busana, Mark Huijbregts & Adam Ford
Seed dispersal is a key process affecting the structure, composition and spatial dynamics of plant populations. Numerous plant species in the tropics rely upon animals to disperse their seeds. Humans have altered mammalian movements, which will likely affect seed dispersal distances (SDD). Altered SDD may have a range of consequences for plant communities including reduced seedling recruitment and plant biomass, seed trait homogenization, altered gene flow and a reduced capacity to respond to environmental changes....

Data from: Evidence for ephemeral ring species formation during the diversification history of Western Fence Lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis)

Nassima Bouzid, James Archie, Roger Anderson, Jared Grummer & Adam Leaché
Divergence is often ephemeral, and populations that diverge in response to regional topographic and climatic factors may not remain reproductively isolated when they come into secondary contact. We investigated the geographic structure and evolutionary history of population divergence within Sceloporus occidentalis (Western Fence Lizards), a habitat generalist with a broad distribution that spans the major biogeographic regions of Western North America. We used double digest RAD sequencing to infer population structure, phylogeny, and demography. Population...

Data for: Nectar-dwelling microbes of common tansy are attractive to its mosquito pollinator, Culex pipiens

Daniel Peach, C. Carroll, S. Meraj, S. Gomes, E. Galloway, A. Balcita, H. Coatsworth, N. Young, Y. Uriel, R. Gries, C. Lowenberger, M. Moore & G. Gries
There is widespread interkingdom signalling between insects and microbes. For example, microbes found in floral nectar may modify its nutritional composition and produce odorants that alter the floral odor bouquet which may attract insect pollinators. Mosquitoes consume nectar and can pollinate flowers. We identified microbes isolated from nectar of common tansy, Tanacetum vulgare , identified the microbial odorants, and tested their effect on attracting the common house mosquito, Culex pipiens . Results We collected 19...

Adherence to wearing facemasks during the COVID-19 pandemic

Steven Taylor & Gordon Asmundson
This study reports a comprehensive empirical investigation of the nature and correlates of anti-mask attitudes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Accumulating evidence underscores the importance of facemasks, as worn by the general public, in limiting the spread of infection. Accordingly, mask wearing has become increasingly mandatory in public places such as stores and on public transit. Although the public has been generally adherent to mask wearing, a small but vocal group of individuals refuse to wear...

Dark Extinction: Bird dataset

Quentin Cronk
The extinction of species before they are discovered and named (dark extinction) is widely inferred as a significant part of species loss in the early modern period (1500-1800). The discovery of oceanic islands and other pristine habitats by European navigators and the consequent introduction of rodents and herbivores started a process of anthropogenic extinction. Much ecosystem change happened before systematic scientific recording, so has led to dark extinction. Methods are available to robustly estimate dark...

Adaptation across geographic ranges is consistent with strong selection in marginal climates and legacies of range expansion

Megan Bontrager, Takuji Usui, Julie Lee-Yaw, Daniel Anstett, Haley Branch, Anna Hargreaves, Christopher Muir & Amy Angert
Every species experiences limits to its geographic distribution. Some evolutionary models predict that populations at range edges are less well-adapted to their local environments due to drift, expansion load, or swamping gene flow from the range interior. Alternatively, populations near range edges might be uniquely adapted to marginal environments. In this study, we use a database of transplant studies that quantify performance at broad geographic scales to test how local adaptation, site quality, and population...

Clinician-researcher’s perspectives on clinical research during the COVID-19 pandemic

Sarah Silverberg, Lisa Puchalski-Ritchie, Nina Gobat, Alistair Nichol & Srinavas Murthy
Objectives: The outcome of well-performed clinical research is essential for evidence-based patient management during pandemics. However, conducting clinical research amidst a pandemic requires researchers to balance clinical and research demands. We seek to understand the values, experiences, and beliefs of physicians working at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in order to inform clinical research planning. We aim to understand whether pandemic settings affect physician comfort with research practices, and how physician experiences shape their...

Aquatic biodiversity enhances multiple nutritional benefits to humans

Joey R. Bernhardt & Mary I. O'Connor
Humanity depends on biodiversity for health, well-being and a stable environment. As biodiversity change accelerates, we are still discovering the full range of consequences for human health and well-being. Here, we test the hypothesis -- derived from biodiversity - ecosystem functioning theory -- that species richness and ecological functional diversity allow seafood diets to fulfill multiple nutritional requirements, a condition necessary for human health. We analyzed a newly synthesized dataset of 7245 observations of nutrient...

How latex film formation and adhesion at the nanoscale correlate to performance of pressure sensitive adhesives with cellulose nanocrystals

Elina Niinivaara, Alexandra Ouzas, Carole Fraschini, Richard M. Berry, Marc A. Dubé & Emily D. Cranston
Emulsion polymerized latex-based pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are more environmentally benign because they are synthesized in water but often underperform compared to their solution polymerized counterparts. Studies have shown a simultaneous improvement in the tack, and peel and shear strength of various acrylic PSAs upon the addition of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). This work uses atomic force microscopy (AFM) to examine the role of CNCs in (i) the coalescence of hydrophobic 2‐ethyl hexyl acrylate/n‐butyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate...

Predators override rainfall effects on tropical food webs

Fabiola Ospina, Diane Srivastava, Angélica González, Jed Sparks & Emilio Realpe
Predators alter ecological communities by inducing changes in prey abundance and phenotypes, including elemental and isotopic composition. Climatic factors are known to often moderate predator effects on prey abundance, but few studies consider the combined effects of climate and predators on prey phenotype. We examined how altered precipitation moderates the effects of predators on the abundance and the chemical composition of prey, as well as the indirect effects on the basal resource: leaf litter coated...

Data and code for: Infected juvenile salmon can experience increased predation during freshwater migration

Nathan Furey, Arthur Bass, Kristi Miller, Shaorong Li, Andrew Lotto, Stephen Healy, S Matthew Drenner & Scott Hinch
This submission constitutes the data and code for the manuscript titled "Infected juvenile salmon can experience increased predation during freshwater migration" submitted by Furey et al. It includes R code for conducting analyses, a custom-built R package (authored by Bass) for conducting analyses, data files, R objects for predicting fish lengths, and sample metadata on juvenile sockeye salmon smolts that were sampled. Please see the file "DryadData_titles_and_captions_RSOS_Furey_et_al" for list of file names included.

Argos and GPS data for a polar bear track

Marie Auger-Méthé & Andrew E. Derocher
It is rare to be able to validate state-space models for Argos data. This dataset provides a unique opportunity to do so, because it contains simultaneous Argos and GPS data for a polar bear. The GPS locations are extremely accurate (≤30 m) compared to Argos data, which can have errors as large as 36 km depending on the quality class. The dataset contains one year of movement data, starting on April 20, 2009. The dataset...

Changes in arthropod community but not plant quality benefit a specialist herbivore on plants under reduced water availability

Po-An Lin, Chia-Ming Liu, Jia-Ang Ou, Cheng-Han Sun, Wen-Po Chuang, Chuan-Kai Ho, Natsuko Kinoshita & Gary Felton
Plants growing under reduced water availability can affect insect herbivores differently, in some instances benefitting them. However, the forces mediating these positive impacts remain mostly unclear. To identify how water availability impacts plant quality and multitrophic interactions, we conducted manipulative field studies with two populations of the specialist herbivore Pieris rapae, and its host plant, Rorippa indica. We found that P. rapae larvae experienced higher survival on R. indica growing under low water availability compared...

Data from: Estimating encounter location distributions from animal tracking data

Michael Noonan, Ricardo Martinez-Garcia, Grace H. Davis, Margaret C. Crofoot, Roland Kays, Ben T. Hirsch, Damien Caillaud, Eric Payne, Andrew Sih, David L. Sinn, Orr Spiegel, William F. Fagan, Christen H. Fleming & Justin M. Calabrese
1. Ecologists have long been interested in linking individual behavior with higher-level processes. For motile species, this 'upscaling' is governed by how well any given movement strategy maximizes encounters with positive factors, and minimizes encounters with negative factors. Despite the importance of encounter events for a broad range of ecological processes, encounter theory has not kept pace with developments in animal tracking or movement modeling. Furthermore, existing work has focused primarily on the relationship between...

Among-individual diet variation within a lake trout ecotype: Lack of stability of niche use

Louise Chavarie
In a polymorphic species, predictable differences in resource use are expected among ecotypes, and homogeneity in resource use is expected within an ecotype. Yet, using a broad resource spectrum has been identified as a strategy for fishes living in unproductive northern environments, where food is patchily distributed and ephemeral. We investigated whether specialization of trophic resources by individuals occurred within the generalist piscivore ecotype of lake trout from Great Bear Lake, Canada, reflective of a...

Data: Avian cultural services peak in tropical wet forests

Alejandra Echeverri, Daniel Karp, Luke Frishkoff, Jaya Krishnan, Robin Naidoo, Jiaying Zhao, Jim Zook & Kai Chan
The current biodiversity crisis involves major shifts in biological communities at local and regional scales. The consequences for Earth’s life-support systems are increasingly well-studied, but knowledge of how community shifts affect cultural services associated with wildlife lags behind. We integrated bird census data (three years across 150 point-count locations) with questionnaire surveys (>400 people) to evaluate changes in culturally important species across climate and land-use gradients in Costa Rica. For farmers, urbanites, and birdwatchers alike,...

Predetermined Prices and the Persistent Effects of Money on Output

Michael B. Devereux & James Yetman
This paper illustrates a model of predetermined pricing, where firms set a fixed schedule of nominal prices at the time of price readjustment, based on the work of Fischer (1977). This type of price-setting specification cannot produce any excess persistence in a fixed-duration model of staggered prices, but we show that with a probabilistic model of price adjustment, as in Calvo (1983), a predetermined pricing specification can produce excess persistence. Moreover, in response to a...

Sequence alignments of Corallicolids, apicomplexan symbionts of coral

Waldan Kwong
Corals (Metazoa; Cnidaria; Anthozoa) have recently been shown to play host to a widespread and diverse group of intracellular symbionts of the phylum Apicomplexa. These symbionts, colloquially called ‘corallicolids’, are mostly known through molecular analyses, and no formal taxonomy has been proposed. Another apicomplexan, Gemmocystis cylindrus (described from the coral Dendrogyra cylindrus), may be related to corallicolids, but lacks molecular data. Here, we isolate and describe motile trophozoite (feeding) corallicolids cells using microscopic (light, SEM,...

Soil biogeochemistry across Central and South American tropical dry forests

Bonnie Waring, Mark De Guzman, Dan Du, Juan Dupuy, Maga Gei, Jessica Gutknecht, Catherine Hulshof, Nicolas Jelinski, Andrew Margenot, David Medvigy, Camila Pizano, Beatriz Salgado-Negret, Naomi Schwartz, Annette Trierweiler, Skip Van Bloem, German Vargas G & Jennifer Powers
The availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) controls the flow of carbon (C) among plants, soils, and the atmosphere, thereby shaping terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change. Soil C, N, and P cycles are linked by drivers operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales: landscape-level variation in macroclimate, seasonality, and soil geochemistry; stand-scale heterogeneity in forest composition and structure; and microbial community dynamics at the soil pore scale. Yet in many biomes, we do...

Type 1 diabetes adolescent transition study

Joseph Leung
Objectives: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes experience dramatic excursions in blood sugars as they transition to adult care. Trials on single interventions have struggled to demonstrate lasting improvements in clinical outcomes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multi-component intervention on glycemic control, clinic attendance, and diabetes distress amongst adolescents with type 1 diabetes transitioning to adult health services. Design: Prospective controlled quasi-experimental study. Setting: Adolescents with type 1...

Season, anthocyanin supplementation, and flight training have mixed effects on the antioxidant system of migratory European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

Abigail Frawley, Kristen J. DeMoranville, Katherine M. Carbeck, Lisa Trost, Amadeusz Bryła, Maciej Dzialo, Edyta T. Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger, Barbara J. Pierce & Scott McWilliams
Migratory birds engage in two periods of endurance flight annually as they travel between summer breeding and overwintering grounds, and such endurance flights likely incur oxidative costs. These costs may differ between fall and spring migration, especially for females who must prepare for breeding and egg laying in spring. The objective of this study of a migratory bird was to test proposed hypotheses about how key components of the female’s antioxidant system differ in response...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    35

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    33
  • Journal Article
    1
  • Text
    1

Affiliations

  • University of British Columbia
    35
  • University of Washington
    2
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    2
  • University of Toronto
    2
  • Imperial College London
    2
  • University of Oxford
    2
  • University of California, Davis
    2
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    1
  • University of Montana
    1
  • California State University, Long Beach
    1