79 Works

Data from: Estimating encounter location distributions from animal tracking data

Michael Noonan, Ricardo Martinez-Garcia, Grace H. Davis, Margaret C. Crofoot, Roland Kays, Ben T. Hirsch, Damien Caillaud, Eric Payne, Andrew Sih, David L. Sinn, Orr Spiegel, William F. Fagan, Christen H. Fleming & Justin M. Calabrese
1. Ecologists have long been interested in linking individual behavior with higher-level processes. For motile species, this 'upscaling' is governed by how well any given movement strategy maximizes encounters with positive factors, and minimizes encounters with negative factors. Despite the importance of encounter events for a broad range of ecological processes, encounter theory has not kept pace with developments in animal tracking or movement modeling. Furthermore, existing work has focused primarily on the relationship between...

Among-individual diet variation within a lake trout ecotype: Lack of stability of niche use

Louise Chavarie
In a polymorphic species, predictable differences in resource use are expected among ecotypes, and homogeneity in resource use is expected within an ecotype. Yet, using a broad resource spectrum has been identified as a strategy for fishes living in unproductive northern environments, where food is patchily distributed and ephemeral. We investigated whether specialization of trophic resources by individuals occurred within the generalist piscivore ecotype of lake trout from Great Bear Lake, Canada, reflective of a...

Data: Avian cultural services peak in tropical wet forests

Alejandra Echeverri, Daniel Karp, Luke Frishkoff, Jaya Krishnan, Robin Naidoo, Jiaying Zhao, Jim Zook & Kai Chan
The current biodiversity crisis involves major shifts in biological communities at local and regional scales. The consequences for Earth’s life-support systems are increasingly well-studied, but knowledge of how community shifts affect cultural services associated with wildlife lags behind. We integrated bird census data (three years across 150 point-count locations) with questionnaire surveys (>400 people) to evaluate changes in culturally important species across climate and land-use gradients in Costa Rica. For farmers, urbanites, and birdwatchers alike,...

Predetermined Prices and the Persistent Effects of Money on Output

Michael B. Devereux & James Yetman
This paper illustrates a model of predetermined pricing, where firms set a fixed schedule of nominal prices at the time of price readjustment, based on the work of Fischer (1977). This type of price-setting specification cannot produce any excess persistence in a fixed-duration model of staggered prices, but we show that with a probabilistic model of price adjustment, as in Calvo (1983), a predetermined pricing specification can produce excess persistence. Moreover, in response to a...

Haploid, diploid, and pooled exome capture recapitulate features of biology and paralogy in two non-model tree species

Brandon Lind, Mengmeng Lu, Dragana Obreht Vidakovic, Pooja Singh, Tom Booker, Sally Aikten & Sam Yeaman
Despite their suitability for studying evolution, many conifer species have large and repetitive giga-genomes (16-31Gbp) that create hurdles to producing high coverage SNP datasets that capture diversity from across the entirety of the genome. Due in part to multiple ancient whole genome duplication events, gene family expansion and subsequent evolution within Pinaceae, false diversity from the misalignment of paralog copies creates further challenges in accurately and reproducibly inferring evolutionary history from sequence data. Here, we...

Adapting a propane turkey fryer to manipulate temperature in aquatic environments - Thermal manipulation datasets

Cassandra Konecny, Graham Brownlee & Christopher Harley
There is a growing need to better understand the potential impacts of altered thermal regimes on biodiversity and ecosystem function as mean temperatures, and the likelihood of extreme temperatures, continue to increase. One valuable approach to identify mechanisms and pathways of thermally-driven change at the community level is through the manipulation of temperature in the field. However, where methods exist, they are often costly or unable to produce ecologically relevant changes in temperature. Here, we...

GARD 1.5 range shapefiles used in: Global diversity patterns are explained by diversification rates at ancient, not shallow, timescales

Uri Roll, Shai Meiri, Maxwell Farrell, Jonathan Davies, John Gittleman, John Wiens & Patrick Stephens
Explaining global species richness patterns is a “Holy Grail” of ecology and evolution. These richness patterns are often attributed to spatial variation in diversification rates (speciation minus extinction). Surprisingly, prominent studies of birds, fish, and angiosperms reported higher diversification rates at higher latitudes (mismatched with richness). Yet these studies only examined diversification rates at relatively recent timescales. Here, we quantify global richness patterns among lizard and snake species (10,213; 94%) and explore their underlying causes....

Queen-worker conflict can drive the evolution of social polymorphism and split sex ratios in facultatively eusocial life-cycles

Andres Quiñones, Gil Henriques & Ido Pen
Hamilton’s idea that haplodiploidy favors the evolution of altruism – the haplodiploidy hypothesis -- relies on the relatedness asymmetry between the sexes, caused by the sex-specific ploidies. Theoretical work on the consequences of relatedness asymmetries has significantly improved our understanding of sex-allocation and intra-colony conflicts, but the importance of haplodiploidy for the evolution of altruism came to be seen as minor. However, recently it was shown that haplodiploidy can strongly favor the evolution of eusociality,...

Signatures of mito-nuclear climate adaptation in a warbler species complex

Silu Wang, Madelyn Ore, Else Mikkelsen, Julie Lee-Yaw, Sievert Rohwer & Darren Irwin
Mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear (nDNA) genes interact to govern metabolic pathways of mitochondria. When differentiated populations interbreed at secondary contact, incompatibilities between mtDNA of one population and nDNA of the other could result in low fitness of hybrids. Hermit Warblers (S. occidentalis) and Townsend’s Warblers (Setophaga townsendi) exhibit distinct mtDNA haplotypes and a few nDNA regions of high differentiation, whereas coastal S. townsendi displays a mix of these genetic patterns consistent with ancient hybridization of...

Cascading effects of algal warming in a freshwater community

Michelle Tseng, Carla Di Filippo, Madeline Fung, Jihyun Kim, Ian Forster & Yilin Zhou
1. Much of our research on the effects of ongoing climate warming on ecological communities is focused on how temperature affects resource quantity. However, resource quality is also affected by warming, and changes in resource quality can have meaningful effects on the productivity of higher trophic levels. 2. Aquatic communities in particular are likely to affected by temperature-mediated shifts in resource quality because the nutritional value of algae is highly sensitive to temperature. For example,...

Beyond leaf habit: generalities in plant function across 97 tropical dry forest tree species

German Vargas G., Tim J. Brodribb, Juan M. Dupuy, Roy González‐M., Catherine M. Hulshof, David Medvigy, Tristan A. P. Allerton, Camila Pizano, Beatriz Salgado‐Negret, Naomi B. Schwartz, Skip J. Van Bloem, Bonnie G. Waring & Jennifer S. Powers
Leaf habit has been hypothesized to define a linkage between the slow-fast plant economic spectrum and the drought resistance-avoidance trade-off in tropical forests (‘slow-safe versus fast-risky’). However, variation in hydraulic traits as a function of leaf habit has rarely been explored for a large number of species. We sampled leaf and branch functional traits of 97 tropical dry forest tree species from four sites to investigate whether patterns of trait variation varied consistently in relation...

Climate change exacerbates nutrient disparities from seafood

William Cheung, Eva Maire, Muhammed Oyinlola, James Robinson, Nicholas Graham, Aaron MacNeil & Christina Hicks
Seafood is an important source of bioavailable micronutrients supporting human health, yet it is unclear how climate change will influence its availability. Here, combining observational databases and predictive models, we assess nutrient availability from fisheries and mariculture in the past, and project their future under climate change. Since the 1990s, availability of iron, calcium, omega-3 and protein from seafood has declined, with increasing contributions of invertebrates and mariculture failing to compensate for these loses. Nutrient...

Quantitative trait locus mapping reveals an independent genetic basis for joint divergence in leaf function, life-history, and floral traits between scarlet monkeyflower (Mimulus cardinalis) populations

Lila Fishman, Thomas C. Nelson, Christopher D. Muir, Angela M. Stathos, Daniel D. Vanderpool, Kayli Anderson & Amy L. Angert
PREMISE Across taxa, vegetative and floral traits that vary along a fast-slow life-history axis are often correlated with leaf functional traits arrayed along the leaf economics spectrum, suggesting a constrained set of adaptive trait combinations. Such broad-scale convergence may arise from genetic constraints imposed by pleiotropy (or tight linkage) within species, or from natural selection alone. Understanding the genetic basis of trait syndromes and their components is key to distinguishing these alternatives and predicting evolution...

Spinning in the rain: interactions between spider web morphology and microhabitat use

Andrea M. Haberkern, Philippe Fernandez-Fournier & Leticia Avilés
Although the effects of abiotic factors on species distributions and habitat selection have been widely investigated, studies have rarely succeeded at identifying the factors behind selection at the microhabitat level. Spider webs are extended phenotypes expected to be subject to fitness trade-offs. We tested the hypothesis that spiders with three-dimensional webs (tangle and sheet-and-tangle), which require more material to be built than two-dimensional orbicular webs, occupy microhabitats where they are better protected from strong rains....

Long-term change in the parasite burden of shore crabs (Hemigrapsus oregonensis and H. nudus) on the northwestern Pacific coast of North America

Jessica Quinn, Sarah Lee, Duncan Greeley, Alyssa Gehman, Armand Kuris & Chelsea Wood
The abundances of free-living species have changed dramatically in recent decades, but little is known about change in the abundance of parasitic species. We investigated whether populations of several parasites have shifted over time in two shore crab hosts, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and H. nudus, by comparing the prevalence and abundance of three parasite taxa in a historical dataset (1969–1970) to contemporary parasite abundance (2018–2020) for hosts collected from 11 intertidal sites located from Oregon, USA...

The latitudinal gradient in rates of evolution for bird beaks, a species interaction trait

Benjamin Freeman, Thomas Weeks, Dolph Schluter & Joseph Tobias Tobias
Where is evolution fastest? The biotic interactions hypothesis proposes that greater species richness creates more ecological opportunity, driving faster evolution at low latitudes, whereas the “empty niches” hypothesis proposes that ecological opportunity is greater where diversity is low, spurring faster evolution at high latitudes. We tested these contrasting predictions by analyzing rates of beak evolution for a global dataset of 1141 avian sister species. Rates of beak size evolution are similar across latitudes, with some...

142 studio visits: The emergence of artistic thinking through studio conversations

Alison Shields

Incomplete reproductive isolation and strong transcriptomic signature of hybridization between sympatric sister species of salmon

Jessica McKenzie
Global change is altering ecosystems at an unprecedented rate. The resulting shifts in species ranges and reproductive timing are opening the potential for hybridization between closely-related species which could dramatically alter the genetic diversity, adaptive capacity, and evolutionary trajectory of interbreeding taxa. Here, we used behavioural breeding experiments, in vitro fertilization experiments, and whole-transcriptome gene expression data to assess the potential for and consequences of hybridization between Chinook and Coho salmon. We show that behavioural...

Data from: Forecasting the cumulative effects of multiple stressors on breeding habitat for a steeply declining aerial insectivorous songbird, the olive-sided flycatcher (Contopus cooperi)

Andrea Norris, Leonardo Frid, Chloé Debyser, Krista De Groot, Jeffrey Thomas, Adam Lee, Kimberly Dohms, Andrew Robinson, Wendy Easton, Kathy Martin & Kristina Cockle
To halt ongoing loss in biodiversity, there is a need for landscape-level management recommendations that address cumulative impacts of anthropogenic and natural disturbances on wildlife habitat. We examined the cumulative effects of logging, roads, land-use change, fire, and bark beetle outbreaks on future habitat for olive-sided flycatcher (Contopus cooperi), a steeply declining aerial insectivorous songbird, in Canada's western boreal forest. To predict the occurrence of olive-sided flycatcher we developed a suite of habitat suitability models...

Data from: The molecular phylogeny of Chionaster nivalis reveals a novel order of psychrophilic and globally distributed Tremellomycetes (Fungi, Basidiomycota)

Nicholas Irwin, Chantelle Twynstra, Varsha Mathur & Patrick Keeling
Snow and ice present challenging substrates for cellular growth, yet microbial snow communities not only exist, but are diverse and ecologically impactful. These communities are dominated by green algae, but additional organisms, such as fungi, are also abundant and may be important for nutrient cycling, syntrophic interactions, and community structure in general. However, little is known about these non-algal community members, including their taxonomic affiliations. An example of this is Chionaster nivalis, a unicellular fungus...

Data from: Predictive mapping to identify refuges for plant communities threatened by earthworm invasion

Jesse Fleri & Peter Arcese
1. Biological invasions by cryptic ecosystem engineers can alter the ecological and socio-economic values of ecosystems in ways that may take decades to detect. The invasion of North American glacial refuges by non-native earthworms offers a prominent but understudied example of a cryptic invasion. Non-native earthworms are known to alter carbon sequestration, disrupt mycorrhizal networks, and homogenize plant communities, but natural resource managers still lack robust protocols to identify and safeguard high conservation value communities...

2D and 3D coral models imaged in Curaçao: George, Mullinix, et al PeerJ 2021

Emma E. George, James A. Mullinix, Fanwei Meng, Barbara A. Bailey, Clinton Edwards, Ben Felts, Andreas F. Haas, Aaron Hartmann, Benjamin Mueller, Ty F. Roach, Peter Salamon, Cynthia Silveira, Mark Vermeij, Forest Rohwer & Antoni Luque
Abstract from the article associated with the dataset: George, Mullinix, et al PeerJ 2021. Reef-building corals are ecosystem engineers that compete with other benthic or- ganisms for space and resources. Corals harvest energy through their surface by photosynthesis and heterotrophic feeding, and they divert part of this energy to defend their outer colony perimeter against competitors. Here, we hypothesized that corals with a larger space-filling surface and smaller perimeters increase energy gain while reducing the...

Atmospheric pressure influencing ebullition and turbidity

Kai Zhao, Edmund Tedford, Marjan Zare & Gregory Lawrence
Methane ebullition from lake sediment is an important source of atmospheric methane. Previous studies have suggested that temperature variations, water level changes, atmospheric pressure fluctuations and wind-induced current can affect ebullition. However, most of those studies were conducted during open-water season. There is a lack of observations during ice-cover, despite of the abundance of seasonally ice-covered lakes. In this dataset, we present high-frequency ebullition intensity data, atmospheric pressure data, bottom-water temperature data, and turbidite data...

Phosphorus deficiencies invoke optimal allocation of exoenzymes by ectomycorrhizas

Marty Kranabetter, Justin Meeds, Ieva Zigg, Dave Dunn, Francois Miros, Paul Shipley & Melanie Jones
Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi can acquire phosphorus (P) through the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes (exoenzymes), but it is unclear as to the manner and extent native EM fungal communities respond to declining soil P availability. We examined the activity of six exoenzymes (xylosidase, N-acetyl glucosaminidase, b-glucosidase, acid phosphomonoesterase, acid phosphodiesterase [APD], laccase) from EM roots of Pseudotsuga menzesii across a soil podzolization gradient of coastal British Columbia. We found APD activity increased 4-fold in a...

Data from: Phylogenetic history of vascular plant metabolism revealed using a macroevolutionary common garden

Barbara Neto-Bradley, Christopher Muir, Jeannette Whitton & Matthew Pennell
While the fundamental biophysics of C3 photosynthesis is highly conserved across plants, substantial variation in leaf structure and enzymatic activity translates into variability in rates of photosynthesis. Although this variation is well-documented, it remains poorly understood how photosynthetic rates evolve over short and long time scales, and whether these macroevolutionary changes are related to the evolution of key morphological and biochemical leaf traits. Large-scale comparative studies have been hampered by the substantial logistical and statistical...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    79

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    73
  • Text
    4
  • Book
    1
  • Journal Article
    1

Affiliations

  • University of British Columbia
    79
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    6
  • University of Toronto
    5
  • University of Washington
    4
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
    4
  • University of Alberta
    3
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • Dalhousie University
    3
  • McGill University
    3
  • Simon Fraser University
    3