86 Works

Data from: The Victoria West: earliest prepared core technology in the Acheulean at Canteen Kopje and implications for the cognitive evolution of early hominids

Hao Li, Kathleen Kuman, Matt G. Lotter, George M. Leader & Ryan J. Gibbon
Prepared core technology illustrates in-depth planning and the presence of a mental template during the core reduction process. This technology is, therefore, a significant indicator in studying the evolution of abstract thought and the cognitive abilities of hominids. Here, we report on Victoria West cores excavated from the Canteen Kopje site in central South Africa, with a preliminary age estimate of approximately 1 Ma (million years ago) for these cores. Technological analysis shows that the...

Data from: Revision of the first therocephalian, Theriognathus Owen (Therapsida: Whaitsiidae), and implications for cranial ontogeny and allometry in nonmammaliaform eutheriodonts

Adam Huttenlocker & Fernando Abdala
Historically, the whaitsiid therocephalian Theriognathus Owen was one of the earliest described nonmammalian therapsids, its morphology helping to link phylogenetically the Paleozoic synapsids of North America and southern Africa to their mammalian successors. However, decades of taxonomic over-splitting and superficial descriptions obscured the morphologic diversity of the genus, hindering its utility as a study system for the evolution of synapsid cranial function as well as its biostratigraphic significance in the Late Permian of southern Africa....

Data from: The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: an assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods

Mana Dembo, Davorka Radovčić, Heather M. Garvin, Myra F. Laird, Lauren Schroeder, Jill E. Scott, Juliet Brophy, Rebecca R. Ackermann, Charles M. Musiba, Darryl J. De Ruiter, Arne Ø. Mooers, Mark Collard & Chares M. Musiba
Homo naledi is a recently discovered species of fossil hominin from South Africa. A considerable amount is already known about H. naledi but some important questions remain unanswered. Here we report a study that addressed two of them: “Where does H. naledi fit in the hominin evolutionary tree?” and “How old is it?” We used a large supermatrix of craniodental characters for both early and late hominin species and Bayesian phylogenetic techniques to carry out...

Data from: Diversity and abundance of macro‐invertebrates on abandoned cattle kraals in a semi‐arid savanna

Justice Muvengwi, Gift Chikorowondo, Monicah Mbiba & Edson Gandiwa
Abandoned cattle (Bos taurus) kraals are sources of habitat heterogeneity in dystrophic semi‐arid African savannas with a strong positive effect on soil nutrients and plant productivity. However, little is known regarding how macro‐invertebrate assemblages vary between abandoned kraals and the surrounding savanna matrix. We tested whether herbaceous biomass and basal and aerial covers and soil nutrients have an effect on aboveground and belowground macro‐invertebrate assemblages. Twelve abandoned kraals were contrasted with their paired control plots...

Data from: Unravelling the history of hepatitis B virus genotypes A and D infection using a full-genome phylogenetic and phylogeographic approach

Evangelia-Georgia Kostaki, Timokratis Karamitros, Garyfallia Stefanou, Ioannis Mamais, Konstantinos Angelis, Angelos Hatzakis, Anna Kramvis & Dimitrios Paraskevis
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection constitutes a global public health problem. In order to establish how HBV was disseminated across different geographic regions, we estimated the levels of regional clustering for genotypes D and A. We used 916 HBV-D and 493 HBV-A full-length sequences to reconstruct their global phylogeny. Phylogeographic analysis was conducted by reconstruction of ancestral states using the criterion of parsimony. The putative origin of genotype D was in North Africa/Middle East. HBV-D...

Data from: Ontogeny of the Massospondylus labyrinth: implications for locomotory shifts in a basal sauropodomorph dinosaur

James M. Neenan, Kimberley E. J. Chapelle, Vincent Fernandez & Jonah N. Choiniere
Ontogeny is a vital aspect of life history sometimes overlooked in palaeontological studies. However, the changing geometry of anatomical structures during growth can be informative regarding ecological and functional reconstructions. The inner ear, or labyrinth, is an ideal ontogenetic study system because it has a strong functional signal in its morphology that is linked to locomotor mode. Yet almost nothing is known about labyrinth development in dinosaurs. We quantified labyrinth scale and geometry through ontogeny...

Data from: New information on the Jurassic lepidosauromorph Marmoretta oxoniensis

Elizabeth Griffiths, David Ford, Roger Benson & Susan E. Evans
The earliest known crown-group lepidosaurs are known from the Middle Triassic, however their stem group is poorly sampled, with only a few representative fossils found. This is partly due to the small size and delicate bones of early stem-lepidosaurs (=lepidosauromorphs) which make both preservation in the fossil record and subsequent discovery less likely. The mid Jurassic lepidosauromorph Marmoretta oxoniensis Evans 1991 is re-examined using high-resolution µCT scanning to reveal parts of the skull anatomy that...

Data from: Implementation of Option B and a fixed-dose combination antiretroviral regimen for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in South Africa: a model of uptake and adherence to care

Mhairi Maskew, Lise Jamieson, Given Mohomi, Lawrence Long, Constance Mongwenyana, Dorah Bokaba, Matthew P Fox, Ian Sanne & Sydney Rosen
Introduction Initiating and retaining pregnant women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) remains a major challenge facing African HIV programs, particularly during the critical final months prior to delivery. In 2013, South Africa implemented its “Option B” PMTCT regimen (three-drug ART throughout pregnancy and breastfeeding, regardless of maternal CD4 count) and introduced once-daily fixed-dose combinations and lifelong ART. Currently, the uptake of Option B and its possible impact on adherence to...

The intensity of sexual selection, body size and reproductive success in a mating system with male-male combat: Is bigger better?

Xavier Glaudas, Stephen Rice, Rulon Clark & Graham Alexander
Body size is a key selected trait in many animal systems: larger size is sexually selected for in males because it confers a reproductive advantage during contest competition for access to females, and larger females are naturally selected for fecundity. Herein, we used radio-telemetry to gather a large dataset of male-female interactions and DNA paternity analyses to characterize the intensity of sexual selection and the link between two body size metrics (body length and condition,...

Data from: The wing venation of the Protomyrmeleontidae (Insecta: Odonatoptera) reconsidered thanks to a new specimen from Molteno (Triassic; South Africa)

Isabelle Deregnaucourt, Torsten Wappler, John M. Anderson & Olivier Béthoux
Wing venation homologies of the Protomyrmeleontidae, a widespread group of damselfly-like stem-Odonata during the Triassic, are debated. The two main interpretations essentially disagree on the identification of RP branches. Indeed, Protomyrmeleontidae display a very complex wing venation necessarily involving, in a way or another, fusions of the concave RP branches with the convex intercalary veins. As a consequence, vein elevations in the radial area are challenging to interpret. Here, we present a new Triassic specimen...

Raw data for the samples collected from Hole B of the ICDP DSeis project at the Moab Khotsong Gold Mine in South Africa

Takeshi Miyamoto, Tetsuro Hirono, Yuki Yokoyama, Shunya Kaneki, Yuhji Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi Ishikawa, Akira Tsuchiyama, Ikuo Katayama, Yasuo Yabe, Martin Ziegler, Raymond Durrheim & Hiroshi Ogasawara
This data set is corresponding to the Miyamoto, T. et al. “Characteristics of Seismogenic Fault Rock Related to the 2014 Orkney Earthquake (M5.5) Beneath the Moab Khotsong Gold Mine, South Africa” Geophysical Research Letters, 2022. This data set shows physical property, magnetic susceptibility, mineral assemblage, and element composition of all Hole B subsamples, and frictional properties of 5 Hole B subsamples.

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