Data from: Lifestyle and socio-economic inequalities in diabetes prevalence in South Africa: a decomposition analysisChipo Mutyambizi, Frederik Booysen, Andrew Stokes, Milena Pavlova & Wim Groot
Background: Inequalities in diabetes are widespread and are exacerbated by differences in lifestyle. Many studies that have estimated inequalities in diabetes make use of self-reported diabetes which is often biased by differences in access to health care and diabetes awareness. This study adds to this literature by making use of a more objective standardised measure of diabetes in South Africa. The study estimates socio-economic inequalities in undiagnosed diabetes, diagnosed diabetes (self-reported), as well as total...
Data from: A quantitative method for inferring locomotory shifts in amniotes during ontogeny, its application to dinosaurs, and its bearing on the evolution of postureKimberley E. J. Chapelle, Roger B. J. Benson, Josef Stiegler, Alejandro Otero, Qi Zhao & Jonah N. Choiniere
Evolutionary transitions between quadrupedal and bipedal postures are pivotal to the diversification of amniotes on land, including in our own lineage (Hominini). Heterochrony is suggested as a macroevolutionary mechanism for postural transitions, but understanding postural evolution in deep time is hindered by a lack of methods for inferring posture in extinct species. Dinosaurs are an excellent natural laboratory for understanding postural transitions, because their lineage contains at least four instances of quadrupedality evolving from bipedality,...
Data from: Foraging mode, relative prey size and diet breadth: a phylogenetically-explicit analysis of snake feeding ecologyXavier Glaudas, Kelsey L. Glennon, Marcio Martins, Luca Luiselli, Simon Fearn, Dane F. Trembath, Dusan Jelic & Graham J. Alexander
1. Foraging modes (ambush vs. active foraging) are often correlated with a suite of morphological, physiological, behavioral and ecological traits known as the adaptive syndrome or syndrome hypothesis. In snakes, an ecological correlate often reported in the literature is that ambush-hunting snakes have a higher relative meal size compared to actively foraging snakes which feed on smaller prey items. This “large meal vs. small meal” feeding hypothesis between ambush and active foragers has become a...
Data from: Evidence of large-scale range shift in the distribution of a Palaearctic migrant in AfricaCaroline Howes, Craig T. Symes & Patrik Byholm
Aim: Long-distance Palaearctic migrant birds are declining at a faster rate than short-distance migrant or resident species. This is often attributed to changes on their non-breeding grounds and along their migratory routes. The European Honey-buzzard (Pernis apivorus) is a scarce migrant in southern Africa that is declining globally. This study assessed the distribution and abundance of honey-buzzards in southern Africa over the past four decades and compared it to trends in the East African population...
Data from: A new tusked cistecephalid dicynodont (Therapsida, Anomodontia) from the upper Permian Upper Madumabisa Mudstone Formation, Luangwa Basin, ZambiaKenneth Angielczyk, Julien Benoit & Bruce Rubidge
Cistecephalids are among the most distinctive Permian dicynodonts because of their highly derived skulls and postcrania, which indicate a fossorial ecology. Four cistecephalid species have been described from India, South Africa, and Tanzania; a fifth putative species has been reported from the Luangwa Basin of Zambia but never formally described. Here we present a detailed description of the Luangwa Basin cistecephalid, which we name Kembawacela kitchingi gen. et. sp. nov. The most obvious diagnostic character...
1. Breeding systems in which group members help to raise the offspring of co-members are associated with arid, unpredictable environments. Cooperative rearing may mitigate the effects of adverse environmental conditions on pup growth and survival. However, few studies have explored the relationship between environmental variation and breeding success, and the role of helpers. 2. Here we show that increases in daily maximum air temperatures (Tmax) in the southern Kalahari over the last twenty years have...
Data from: Quantifying water requirements of African ungulates through a combination of functional traitsMichiel Veldhuis, Emilian Kihwele, Victor Mchomvu, Norman Owen-Smith, Robyn Hetem, Matthew Hutchinson, Arjun Potter & Han Olff
Climate and land use change modify surface water availability in African savannas. Surface water is a key resource for both wildlife and livestock and its spatial and temporal distribution is important for understanding the composition of large herbivore assemblages in savannas. Yet, the extent to which ungulate species differ in their water requirements remains poorly quantified. Here, we infer the water requirements of 48 African ungulates by combining six different functional traits related to physiological...
Data from: The wing venation of the Protomyrmeleontidae (Insecta: Odonatoptera) reconsidered thanks to a new specimen from Molteno (Triassic; South Africa)Isabelle Deregnaucourt, Torsten Wappler, John M. Anderson & Olivier Béthoux
Wing venation homologies of the Protomyrmeleontidae, a widespread group of damselfly-like stem-Odonata during the Triassic, are debated. The two main interpretations essentially disagree on the identification of RP branches. Indeed, Protomyrmeleontidae display a very complex wing venation necessarily involving, in a way or another, fusions of the concave RP branches with the convex intercalary veins. As a consequence, vein elevations in the radial area are challenging to interpret. Here, we present a new Triassic specimen...
University of the Witwatersrand8
Field Museum of Natural History1
George Washington University1
University of Groningen1
University of Cambridge1
National University of La Plata1
French National Centre for Scientific Research1