94 Works

Data from: Deterministic processes vary during community assembly for ecologically dissimilar taxa

Jeff R. Powell, Senani Karunaratne, Colin D. Campbell, Huaiying Yao, Lucinda Robinson & Brajesh K. Singh
The continuum hypothesis states that both deterministic and stochastic processes contribute to the assembly of ecological communities. However, the contextual dependency of these processes remains an open question that imposes strong limitations on predictions of community responses to environmental change. Here we measure community and habitat turnover across multiple vertical soil horizons at 183 sites across Scotland for bacteria and fungi, both dominant and functionally vital components of all soils but which differ substantially in...

Data from: A metagenetics approach to determine the diversity and distribution of cyst nematodes at the level of the country, the field and the individual

Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker, Catherine Lilley, Alex Reid, Jon Pickup, Eric Anderson, Peter Cock, Mark Blaxter, Peter Urwin, John Jones, Vivian Blok, John T. Jones, Catherine J. Lilley, Peter E. Urwin, Vivian C. Blok & Peter J.A. Cock
Distinct populations of the potato cyst nematode (PCN) Globodera pallida exist in the UK that differ in their ability to overcome various sources of resistance. An efficient method for distinguishing between populations would enable pathogen-informed cultivar choice in the field. Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA) annually undertake national DNA diagnostic tests to determine the presence of PCN in potato seed and ware land by extracting DNA from soil floats. These DNA samples provide...

Data from: Maternal winter body mass and not spring phenology determine annual calf production in an Arctic herbivore

Vebjorn Veiberg, Leif Egil Loe, Steve Albon, Robert Irvine, Torkild Tveraa, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Steve D. Albon & R. Justin Irvine
Warming of the Arctic has resulted in earlier snowmelt and green-up of plants in spring, potentially disrupting the synchrony between plant phenology and breeding phenology in herbivores. A negative relationship between offspring survival in West-Greenland caribou and the timing of vegetation emergence was the first finding of such a mismatch in Arctic mammals. However, other studies indicate that the energy for foetal growth and early lactation is predominantly drawn from stored energy reserves typical of...

Data from: Severity of impacts of an introduced species corresponds with regional eco-evolutionary experience

Kimberley T. Davis, Ragan M. Callaway, Alex Fajardo, Anibal Pauchard, Martin A Nunez, Rob W Brooker, Bruce D. Maxwell, Romina D Dimarco, Duane A Peltzer, Bill Mason, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Anne C S McIntosh, Robin J Pakeman, Alyssa Laney Smith & Michael Gundale
Invasive plant impacts vary widely across introduced ranges. We tested the hypothesis that differences in the eco-evolutionary experience of native communities with the invader correspond with the impacts of invasive species on native vegetation, with impacts increasing with ecological novelty. We compared plant species richness and composition beneath Pinus contorta to that in adjacent vegetation and other P. contorta stands across a network of sites in its native (Canada and USA) and non-native (Argentina, Chile,...

Data from: Exploitation of interspecific diversity for monocot crop improvement

Julie King, Ian Armstead, John Harper, Luke Ramsay, John Snape, Robbie Waugh, Caron James, Ann Thomas, Dagmara Gasior, Rhys Kelly, Luned Roberts, Perry Gustafson, Ian King & L Ramsey
In many cultivated crop species there is limited genetic variation available for the development of new higher yielding varieties adapted to climate change and sustainable farming practises. The distant relatives of crop species provide a vast and largely untapped reservoir of genetic variation for a wide range of agronomically important traits that can be exploited by breeders for crop improvement. In this paper, in what we believe to be the largest introgression programme undertaken in...

Livestock grazing impacts upon components of the breeding productivity of a common upland insectivorous passerine: results from a long-term experiment

Lisa E. Malm, James W. Pearce-Higgins, Nick A. Littlewood, Alison J. Karley, Ewa Karaszewska, Robert Jaques, Robin J. Pakeman, Steve M. Redpath & Darren M. Evans
The intensity of pastoral management in areas of High Nature Value farming is declining in some regions of Europe but increasing in others. This affects open habitats of conservation concern, such as the British uplands, where bird species that benefit from low-intensity grazing may be most sensitive to such polarisation. While experimental manipulations of livestock grazing intensities have improved our understanding of upland breeding bird responses in the short-term, none have examined the longer-term impacts...

Data from: Limited effects of the maternal rearing environment on the behaviour and fitness of an insect herbivore and its natural enemy

Alison J. Karley, Lucy Gilbert, Jennifer M. Slater & David Johnson
The maternal rearing environment can affect offspring fitness or phenotype indirectly via ‘maternal effects’ and can also influence a mother’s behaviour and fecundity directly. However, it remains uncertain how the effects of the maternal rearing environment cascade through multiple trophic levels, such as in plant-insect herbivore-natural enemy interactions. Pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) show differential fitness on host legume species, while generalist aphid parasitoids can show variable fitness on different host aphid species, suggesting that maternal...

UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) rabbit and deer data: 1993-2012

S. Rennie, J. Adamson, R. Anderson, C. Andrews, J. Bater, N. Bayfield, K. Beaton, D. Beaumont, S. Benham, V. Bowmaker, C. Britt, R. Brooker, D. Brooks, J. Brunt, G. Common, R. Cooper, S. Corbett, N. Critchley, P. Dennis, J. Dick, B. Dodd, N. Dodd, N. Donovan, J. Easter, E. Eaton … & M. Whittaker
Rabbit and deer data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data are collected by transect at ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. The protocol uses an index method based on dropping counts (of deer, rabbits - and where appropriate sheep and Grouse) to estimate relative abundance. They represent twice-yearly continuous records from 1993 to 2012. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) sediment stability by Cohesive Strength Meter (CSM) in salt marsh and mud flat habitats

D.M. Paterson, J.A. Hope, K. Wade, J. Kenworthy, E.C. Defew, R.J. Weeks & A. Wyness
The dataset comprises the surface stability of sediments as determined by a Cohesive Strength Meter (CSM). Between 3 and 5 replicate measurements were taken from each of the 22 designated experiment quadrats at each of the Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) sites. At each CBESS site, a salt marsh site and a mud flat site was examined and three locations were selected in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three locations in Essex,...

Peatland vegetation: field and laboratory measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes and spectral reflectance

K.J. Lees, J.M. Clark, T. Quaife, R.R.E. Artz, M. Khomik & J. Ritson
This dataset includes laboratory and field measurements of carbon fluxes and spectral reflectance for peatland vegetation including Sphagnum species. It also includes satellite data relating to the development and use of a Temperature and Greenness (TG) model, and an annual Temperature, Greenness and Wetness (TGWa) model. The laboratory data includes Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and respiration data from samples of Sphagnum capillifolium and Sphagnum papillosum which were collected from the Forsinard Flows RSPB reserve (Northern...

Soil water measurements from Ethiopia’s Awassa region during the drought and subsequent floods of 2015-2016

J. Smith, P. Hallett, D. Nayak, S. Boke, M. Habte, G. Yakob, M. Rivington & E. Phimister
Measurements were taken in three fertility zones within households in two districts of Halaba in the SNNPR, Ethiopia. Measurements were taken after the El Niño event of 2015/16, so reflect the resilience of different areas of the farm to drought. Measurements are provided at fertility zones home, near and far from the home, and at three depths (0-5cm, 5-10cm and 10-15cm). Measurements included were volumetric water content, more water conductivity, and soil temperature. This dataset...

Soil nematode communities from peri-urban watersheds, China

M. Giles, R. Neilson, T. Daniell, X. Yang, D. Zhu, F. Zheng, H. Wang & Q. Chen
This data set contains nematode community data for soil samples collected from two different land uses (farmland and forest) in the Peri urban area of Ningbo China. Samples were collected seasonally between April 2017 and January 2018. Nematodes were removed from soil using density centrifugation, DNA extractions were then carried out on these extracted nematodes and directed TRFLP was used to obtain a measure of nematode community structure. Data are relative fluorescence for each TRFLP...

Pollinator and pollination service data from the National Pollinator and Pollination Monitoring Framework pilot study from 13 UK crop field sites 2015

M.P.D Garratt, C. Carvell, C. Hawes & S.G. Potts
This dataset contains data on insects observed visiting flowers of three crops (apples, field beans and oilseed rape) and responses by recorders to a questionnaire asking about their experience carrying out pollinator surveys. Data from thirteen flowering crop fields was collected by teams based at the University of Reading and the James Hutton Institute in Scotland. Data was collected by different recorders, some of whom were novice data collectors, experienced researchers or farmers and agronomists....

UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) atmospheric nitrogen chemistry data: 1993-2015

S. Rennie, J. Adamson, R. Anderson, C. Andrews, J. Bater, N. Bayfield, K. Beaton, D. Beaumont, S. Benham, V. Bowmaker, C. Britt, R. Brooker, D. Brooks, J. Brunt, G. Common, R. Cooper, S. Corbett, N. Critchley, P. Dennis, J. Dick, B. Dodd, N. Dodd, N. Donovan, J. Easter, M. Flexen … & C. Wood
Atmospheric Nitrogen Dioxide data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data (weight of NO2) are collected by diffusion tubes at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. They represent continuous fortnightly records from 1993 to 2015. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site...

UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) moth data: 1992-2015

S. Rennie, J. Adamson, R. Anderson, C. Andrews, J. Bater, N. Bayfield, K. Beaton, D. Beaumont, S. Benham, V. Bowmaker, C. Britt, R. Brooker, D. Brooks, J. Brunt, G. Common, R. Cooper, S. Corbett, N. Critchley, P. Dennis, J. Dick, B. Dodd, N. Dodd, N. Donovan, J. Easter, M. Flexen … & C. Wood
Moth data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Counts of individual species are recorded. These data are collected by moth traps at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol.They represent continuous nightly records from 1992 to 2015. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site...

Data from: Functional C-terminally encoded peptide (CEP) plant hormone domains evolved de novo in the plant parasite Rotylenchulus reniformis

Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker, Catherine J. Lilley, Hazijah B. Yusup, John T. Jones & Peter E. Urwin
Sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) induce and maintain an intimate relationship with their host, stimulating cells adjacent to root vascular tissue to re-differentiate into unique and metabolically active ‘feeding sites’. The interaction between PPNs and their host is mediated by nematode effectors. We describe the discovery of a large and diverse family of effector genes, encoding C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE (CEP) plant hormone mimics (RrCEPs), in the syncytia-forming plant parasite Rotylenchulus reniformis. The particular attributes of RrCEPs...

Data from: Spatiotemporal scaling of plant species richness and functional diversity in a temperate semi-natural grassland

Hannah J. White, W. Ian Montgomery, Robin J. Pakeman & Jack J. Lennon
The accumulation of biodiversity in space and time has been modelled extensively using the species-area relationship and the species-time relationship, respectively. Recently, these models have been combined into time-area curves in order to investigate spatiotemporal scaling of species richness. This study expands on previous research by applying these spatiotemporal models to functional diversity. Understanding spatiotemporal dynamics of ecological traits is important due to their crucial role in ecosystem functioning and mediating species responses to environmental...

Data from: Little impact of over-winter parasitism on a free-ranging ungulate in the high Arctic

Anja Morven Carlsson, Steve D. Albon, Stephen J. Coulson, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Ken Wilson, Leif Egil Loe, Vebjørn Veiberg, Robert Justin Irvine & Kenneth Wilson
1.Macroparasites have a central place in wildlife ecology because they have the potential to regulate host populations through effects on reproduction and/or survival. However, there remains a paucity of studies that have demonstrated the regulatory role of these parasites in free-ranging animals. 2.Previous work on Svalbard reindeer demonstrated that the experimental removal of the parasitic gastrointestinal nematode Ostertagia gruehneri transmitted in summer, improved reindeer fecundity, and that the species was capable of mediating a density-dependent...

Data from: Susceptibility of Macrosiphum euphorbiae to the parasitoid Aphidius ervi: larval development depends on host aphid genotype

Hannah Victoria Clarke, Daniel Cullen, Stephen Francis Hubbard & Alison Jane Karley
The potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Macrosiphini), is a common polyphagous aphid in Europe and North America. However, the factors influencing potato aphid dynamics and susceptibility to natural enemies are largely undescribed, particularly in relation to facultative endosymbiotic bacteria, which can provide protection against parasitism and disease in some aphid species. This study investigated whether potato aphid susceptibility to one of its principal natural enemies, the parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae),...

Data from: Translocation tactics: a framework to support the IUCN Guidelines for wildlife translocations and improve the quality of applied methods

William G. Batson, Iain J. Gordon, Donald B. Fletcher & Adrian D. Manning
1. Translocation is a popular conservation tool, but the outcomes are variable. Many tactics can be used to improve the probability of success, but a comprehensive summary of these does not exist. This increases the risk that valuable tactics will be overlooked, and inhibits effective communication. 2. We assess the diversity of ‘translocation tactics’ used in mammal and bird translocations, by reviewing the IUCN/SSC Guidelines for Reintroduction and other Conservation Translocations, 195 peer-reviewed articles and...

UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) meteorology data: 1992-2012

S. Rennie, J. Adamson, R. Anderson, C. Andrews, J. Bater, N. Bayfield, K. Beaton, D. Beaumont, S. Benham, V. Bowmaker, C. Britt, R. Brooker, D. Brooks, J. Brunt, G. Common, R. Cooper, S. Corbett, N. Critchley, P. Dennis, J. Dick, B. Dodd, N. Dodd, N. Donovan, J. Easter, E. Eaton … & M. Wilkinson
Meteorology data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Variables measured include albedo (ground and sky), temperature (dry bulb, wet bulb and soil (at 10cm and 30cm)), relative humidity, radiation (net. and solar), rainfall, surface wetness, soil moisture, wind direction and wind speed). These data are collected by Automatic Weather Stations at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. They represent continuous hourly records from 1992 to 2012. ECN is the...

UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) atmospheric nitrogen chemistry data: 1993-2012

S. Rennie, J. Adamson, R. Anderson, C. Andrews, J. Bater, N. Bayfield, K. Beaton, D. Beaumont, S. Benham, V. Bowmaker, C. Britt, R. Brooker, D. Brooks, J. Brunt, G. Common, R. Cooper, S. Corbett, N. Critchley, P. Dennis, J. Dick, B. Dodd, N. Dodd, N. Donovan, J. Easter, E. Eaton … & M. Whittaker
Atmospheric Nitrogen Dioxide data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data (weight of NO2) are collected by diffusion tubes at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. They represent continuous fortnightly records from 1993 to 2012. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site...

UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) stream water chemistry data: 1992-2012

S. Rennie, J. Adamson, R. Anderson, C. Andrews, J. Bater, N. Bayfield, K. Beaton, D. Beaumont, S. Benham, V. Bowmaker, C. Britt, R. Brooker, D. Brooks, J. Brunt, G. Common, R. Cooper, S. Corbett, N. Critchley, P. Dennis, J. Dick, B. Dodd, N. Dodd, N. Donovan, J. Easter, E. Eaton … & M. Whittaker
Stream water chemistry data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Variables measured include pH, conductivity, alkalinity, aluminium, calcium, chloride, ammonium, nitrate nitrogen, phosphate phosphorous, potassium, sulphate sulphur, sodium, total nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorous. The data are collected by dip samples at ECN's terrestrial sites (where there is a stream present) using a standard protocol. They represent continuous weekly records from 1992 to 2012. The sites at which these data are collected...

UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) moth data: 1992-2012

S. Rennie, J. Adamson, R. Anderson, C. Andrews, J. Bater, N. Bayfield, K. Beaton, D. Beaumont, S. Benham, V. Bowmaker, C. Britt, R. Brooker, D. Brooks, J. Brunt, G. Common, R. Cooper, S. Corbett, N. Critchley, P. Dennis, J. Dick, B. Dodd, N. Dodd, N. Donovan, J. Easter, E. Eaton … & I. Woiwod
Moth data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Counts of individual species are recorded. These data are collected by moth traps at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol.They represent continuous nightly records from 1992 to 2012. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site...

UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) bat data: 1993-2012

S. Rennie, J. Adamson, R. Anderson, C. Andrews, J. Bater, N. Bayfield, K. Beaton, D. Beaumont, S. Benham, V. Bowmaker, C. Britt, R. Brooker, D. Brooks, J. Brunt, G. Common, R. Cooper, S. Corbett, N. Critchley, P. Dennis, J. Dick, B. Dodd, N. Dodd, N. Donovan, J. Easter, E. Eaton … & M. Whittaker
Bat species data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. The count of individual species is recorded. These data are collected while walking a defined transect using a bat detector at ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. They represent continuous records (the transects are walked four times each year) from 1993 to 2012. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen...

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