106 Works

Data from: Biogeography of plant root-associated fungal communities in the North-Atlantic region mirrors climatic variability

Synnøve Smebye Botnen, Marie L. Davey, Anders B. Aas, Tor Carlsen, Ella Thoen, Einar Heegaard, Unni Vik, Philipp Dresch, Sunil Mundra, Ursula Peintner, Andy F.S. Taylor & Håvard Kauserud
Aim Polar and alpine ecosystems appear to be particularly sensitive to increasing temperatures and the altered precipitation patterns linked to climate change. However, little is currently known about how these environmental drivers may affect edaphic organisms within these ecosystems. In this study, we examined communities of plant root-associated fungi (RAF) over large biogeographic scales and along climatic gradients in the North Atlantic region in order to gain insights into the potential effects of climate variability...

Data from: Structure from motion photogrammetry: does the choice of software matter for Ecology?

Joel Forsmoo, Karen Anderson, Christopher Macleod, Mark Wilkinson, Leon DeBell & Richard Brazier
Structure-from-Motion (SfM) and Multiview-Stereo (MVS) is emerging as a flexible, self-service, remote sensing tool for generating fine-grained digital surface models (DSMs) in the Earth sciences and ecology. However, drone-based SfM+MVS applications have developed at a rapid pace over the past decade and there are now many software options available for data processing. Consequently, understanding of reproducibility issues caused by variations in software choice and their influence on data quality is relatively poorly understood. This understanding...

Data from: Comparative genomics to explore phylogenetic relationship, cryptic sexual potential and host specificity of Rhynchosporium species on grasses

Daniel Penselin, Martin Muensterkoetter, Susanne Kirsten, Marius Felder, Stefan Taudien, Matthias Platzer, Kevin Ashelford, Konrad H. Paskiewicz, Richard J. Harrison, David J. Hughes, Thomas Wolf, Ekaterina Shelest, Jenny Graap, Jan Hoffmann, Claudia Wenzel, Nadine Woeltje, Kevin M. King, Bruce D. L. Fitt, Ulrich Gueldener, Anna Avrova & Wolfgang Knogge
Background: The Rhynchosporium species complex consists of hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens specialized to different sweet grass species including the cereal crops barley and rye. A sexual stage has not been described, but several lines of evidence suggest the occurrence of sexual reproduction. Therefore, a comparative genomics approach was carried out to disclose the evolutionary relationship of the species and to identify genes demonstrating the potential for a sexual cycle. Furthermore, due to the evolutionary very young...

Data from: Cohort variation in individual body mass dissipates with age in large herbivores

Sandra Hamel, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Nigel G. Yoccoz, Steve Albon, Steeve D. Côté, Joseph M. Craine, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Mathieu Garel, Phyllis Lee, Cynthia Moss, Daniel H. Nussey, Fanie Pelletier, Audun Stien & Torkild Tveraa
Environmental conditions experienced during early growth and development markedly shape phenotypic traits. Consequently, individuals of the same cohort may show similar life-history tactics throughout life. Conditions experienced later in life, however, could fine-tune these initial differences, either increasing (cumulative effect) or decreasing (compensatory effect) the magnitude of cohort variation with increasing age. Our novel comparative analysis that quantifies cohort variation in individual body size trajectories shows that initial cohort variation dissipates throughout life, and that...

Drought has negative consequences on aphid fitness and plant vigour: insights from a meta-analysis

Daniel J Leybourne, Katharine F Preedy, Tracy A Valentine, Jorunn I B Bos & Alison J Karley
1. Aphids are abundant in natural and managed vegetation, supporting a diverse community of organisms and causing damage to agricultural crops. Due to a changing climate, periods of drought are anticipated to increase, and the potential consequences of this for aphid-plant interactions are unclear. 2. Using a meta-analysis and synthesis approach, we aimed to advance understanding of how increased drought incidence will affect this ecologically and economically important insect group, and to characterise any potential...

Data from: Long-term impacts of changed grazing regimes on the vegetation of heterogeneous upland grasslands

Robin J. Pakeman, Debbie A. Fielding, Liese Everts & Nick A. Littlewood
Marginal agricultural land, which in the UK refers particularly to upland grazings, will see changes in management driven by markets, subsidies, grants and environmental change with implications for biodiversity. Using a large-scale, long-term grazing experiment in the UK uplands we assessed the impact of intensification (tripling sheep numbers), abandonment (removal of sheep) and grazer diversification (partial replacement of sheep by cattle) on vegetation composition in a heterogenous area of grassland. Species benefiting from increased grazing...

Peat survey in England, Scotland and Wales carried out during 2014 [LTLS]

H. Toberman, E. Tipping, , C. Somerville, R. Helliwell, H. Carter, P. Keenan, M.G. Pereira, M. Patel, B. Tanna, N. Thompson, C. Bryant, F. Elliott & P. Gulliver
Data comprise bulk density, loss on ignition, carbon content of peat, nitrogen content of peat, total phosphorus content of peat, soil 13 carbon content and soil 14 carbon content from samples collected during a peat survey in England, Scotland and Wales during 2014. The study was funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council under the Macronutrient Cycling Research Programme, as part of the Long-Term, Large-Scale (LTLS) project (Grant no. NE/J011533/1).

Global data for soil water, groundwater and riverine freshwater dissolved organic radiocarbon

J.L. Adams, E. Tipping, P. Keenan, R.C. Helliwell, N. Pedentchouk, S. Buckingham, E. Gjessing, P. Ascough, C.L. Bryant & M.H. Garnett
This dataset includes dissolved organic radiocarbon content and dissolved organic carbon concentration data for river waters around the globe. The riverine dataset contains already published (n=1163) and new (n=101) data between the years 1962 – 2015. Soil solution data (n=139) from North American and European natural and semi-natural ecosystems are also included, which cover the period 1988 – 2008. Groundwater data containing 49 data points from boreholes in Europe and North America are also provided....

UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) Fine Grain Vegetation data: 1994-2012

S. Rennie, J. Adamson, R. Anderson, C. Andrews, J. Bater, N. Bayfield, K. Beaton, D. Beaumont, S. Benham, V. Bowmaker, C. Britt, R. Brooker, D. Brooks, J. Brunt, G. Common, R. Cooper, S. Corbett, N. Critchley, P. Dennis, J. Dick, B. Dodd, N. Dodd, N. Donovan, J. Easter, E. Eaton … & M. Whittaker
Fine Grain Vegetation data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data are collected at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol (see supporting documentation). In this protocol, 10m x 10m plots are randomly selected within each vegetation type on the site - species presence is recorded in 40cm x 40 cm cells randomly selected within these plots. They represent continuous records every three years (some sites record data annually)...

UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) spittle bug data: 1993-2012

S. Rennie, J. Adamson, R. Anderson, C. Andrews, J. Bater, N. Bayfield, K. Beaton, D. Beaumont, S. Benham, V. Bowmaker, C. Britt, R. Brooker, D. Brooks, J. Brunt, G. Common, R. Cooper, S. Corbett, N. Critchley, P. Dennis, J. Dick, B. Dodd, N. Dodd, N. Donovan, J. Easter, E. Eaton … & M. Whittaker
Spittle Bug data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data are collected by quadrat sampling at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol . They represent continuous annual records from 1993 to 2012. Spittle Bug adults (Philaenus spumarius) are sampled and separated by sex and by colour morph; it is likely that the proportions of morphs are environmentally determined and will therefore be good indicators of environmental change. Spittle...

Growth, biomass allocation and tissue nutrient concentrations of subtropical and tropical tree seedlings in response to experimental manipulation of soil phosphorus pools

D Burslem, X. Liu, D. Johnson, A. Taylor, J. Taylor, T. Helgason, Y. Chen & M. Liang
This dataset reports metrics of plant growth, including height, total biomass and the biomass of component plant parts, and percentage root colonisation by mycorrhizas, for tree seedlings of eight tropical and seven subtropical growing in pots of soil that had been amended by addition of various sources of phosphorus (inorganic phosphate, adenosine monophosphate, phytic, or a mixture of all three) plus an unfertilized control treatment with no P additions. The aim of the experiment was...

UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) fine grain vegetation data: 1994-2015

S. Rennie, J. Adamson, R. Anderson, C. Andrews, J. Bater, N. Bayfield, K. Beaton, D. Beaumont, S. Benham, V. Bowmaker, C. Britt, R. Brooker, D. Brooks, J. Brunt, G. Common, R. Cooper, S. Corbett, N. Critchley, P. Dennis, J. Dick, B. Dodd, N. Dodd, N. Donovan, J. Easter, M. Flexen … & C. Wood
Fine Grain Vegetation data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data are collected at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol (see supporting documentation). In this protocol, 10m x 10m plots are randomly selected within each vegetation type on the site - species presence is recorded in 40cm x 40 cm cells randomly selected within these plots. They represent continuous records every three years (some sites record data annually)...

Biophysical measurements from Ethiopia’s Awassa region during the drought and subsequent floods of 2015-2016

J. Smith, P. Hallett, D. Nayak, S. Boke, M. Habte, G. Yakob, M. Rivington & E. Phimister
This dataset contains the biophysical measurements (mineral nitrogen, percent carbon, percent nitrogen, percent soil moisture, particle size analysis and aggregate stability) from soil collected from farmers’ fields in the Halaba district, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ Region in Ethiopia, after the drought of 2015 – 2016. Eighteen farms from 4 kebeles (Asore, Lay Arisho, Konicha and 1st Choroko) were sampled. Soil cores were taken from fields classed as “home”, “near” and “far” from the homestead...

Oak-associated biodiversity in the UK (OakEcol)

R.J. Mitchell, P.E. Bellamy, C.J. Ellis, R.L. Hewison, N.G. Hodgetts, G.R. Iason, N.A. Littlewood, S. Newey, J.A. Stockan & A.F.S. Taylor
This dataset contains a list of all known birds, bryophytes, fungi, invertebrates, lichens and mammals that use oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) in the UK. In total 2300 species are listed in the dataset. For each species we provide a level of association with oak, ranging from obligate (only found on oak) to cosmopolitan (found on a wide range of other tree species). Data on the ecology of each oak associated species is provided:...

UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) stream water discharge data: 1993-2012

S. Rennie, J. Adamson, R. Anderson, C. Andrews, J. Bater, N. Bayfield, K. Beaton, D. Beaumont, S. Benham, V. Bowmaker, C. Britt, R. Brooker, D. Brooks, J. Brunt, G. Common, R. Cooper, S. Corbett, N. Critchley, P. Dennis, J. Dick, B. Dodd, N. Dodd, N. Donovan, J. Easter, E. Eaton … & M. Whittaker
Stream water discharge data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. The data (stage and discharge) are collected by loggers at ECN's terrestrial sites (where a stream is present) using a standard protocol. They represent continuous 15-minutely records from 1993 to 2012. The sites at which these data are collected are: Glensaugh, Moor House-Upper Teesdale, Sourhope, Wytham and Y Wyddfa (Snowdon). ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency...

UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) frog data: 1994-2012

S. Rennie, J. Adamson, R. Anderson, C. Andrews, J. Bater, N. Bayfield, K. Beaton, D. Beaumont, S. Benham, V. Bowmaker, C. Britt, R. Brooker, D. Brooks, J. Brunt, G. Common, R. Cooper, S. Corbett, N. Critchley, P. Dennis, J. Dick, B. Dodd, N. Dodd, N. Donovan, J. Easter, E. Eaton … & M. Whittaker
Frog data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Variables measured include phenology (i.e. the dates when frogs start congregating, spawning, when hatching occurs and when the frogs leave), number of spawn masses, total surface area covered by spawn, percentage of dead spawn, depth, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, aluminium, calcium, chloride, ammonium, nitrate nitrogen, phosphate phosphorous, potassium, sulphate sulphur, sodium, total nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorous. These data are collected at ECN's terrestrial sites...

UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) woodland vegetation data: 1993-2014

S. Rennie, J. Adamson, R. Anderson, C. Andrews, J. Bater, N. Bayfield, K. Beaton, D. Beaumont, S. Benham, V. Bowmaker, C. Britt, R. Brooker, D. Brooks, J. Brunt, G. Common, R. Cooper, S. Corbett, N. Critchley, P. Dennis, J. Dick, B. Dodd, N. Dodd, N. Donovan, J. Easter, M. Flexen … & C. Wood
Woodland vegetation data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data are collected at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol (see Supporting documentation). This survey is conducted when plots surveyed during the coarse-grain survey fall in woodland. Seedlings, diameter at breast height (dbh), height and species dominance are recorded within a surrounding 10m x 10m plot. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme...

Data from: Genotypic variation in a foundation tree (Populus tremula L.) explains community structure of associated epiphytes

Chantel Davies, Christopher J. Ellis, Glenn R. Iason & Richard A. Ennos
Community genetics hypothesizes that within a foundation species the genotype of an individual significantly influences the assemblage of dependent organisms. To assess whether these intra-specific genetic effects are ecologically important, it is required to compare their impact on dependent organisms with that attributable to environmental variation experienced over relevant spatial scales. We assessed bark epiphytes on 27 aspen (Populus tremula L.) genotypes grown in a randomized experimental array at two contrasting sites spanning the environmental...

Data from: Farmers without borders - genetic structuring in century old barley (Hordeum vulgare)

Jenny Hagenblad, Nils E. G. Forsberg, Joanne Russell, Malcolm Macaulay & Matti W. Leino
The geographic distribution of genetic diversity can reveal the evolutionary history of a species. For crop plants, phylogeographic patterns also indicate how seed has been exchanged and spread in agrarian communities. Such patterns are, however, easily blurred by the intense seed trade, plant improvement and even genebank conservation during the twentieth century, and discerning fine-scale phylogeographic patterns is thus particularly challenging. Using historical crop specimens, these problems are circumvented and we show here how high-throughput...

Data from: Drone‐based structure‐from‐motion photogrammetry captures grassland sward height variability

Joel Forsmoo, Karen Anderson, Christopher J. A. Macleod, Mark E. Wilkinson & Richard Brazier
Grasslands deliver a range of ecosystem services, including the provision of food and biodiversity, and regulation of soil carbon storage and hydrology. Monitoring schemes are needed to quantify spatial changes in these multiple functions alongside ecosystem degradation. Sward height is widely recognised as a key spatial variable in the provision of these services. Current manual monitoring approaches are labour intensive, and often fail to capture spatial patterns of important features, including sward height. Proximal sensing...

European soil seed bank communities across a climate and land-cover gradient

Jan Plue, Hans Van Calster, Inger Auestad, Sofia Basto, Reneé M. Bekker, Hans Henrik Bruun, Richard Chevalier, Guillaume Decocq, Ulf Grandin, Martin Hermy, Hans Jacquemyn, Anna Jakobsson, Rein Kalamees, Rob H. Marrs, Bryndis Marteinsdóttir, Per Milberg, Robin J. Pakeman, Gareth Phoenix, Ken Thompson, Vigdis Vandvik, Markus Wagner, Sara A.O. Cousins, Ove Eriksson, Jamshid Ghorbani, Małgorzata Jankowska-Błaszczuk … & Alistair G. Auffret
This is the data set used for the publication Buffering effects of soil seed banks on plant community composition in response to land use and climate, published in the journal Global Ecology and Biogeography. Aim. Climate and land use are key determinants of biodiversity, with past and ongoing changes posing serious threats to global ecosystems. Unlike most other organism groups, plant species can possess dormant life-history stages such as soil seed banks, which may help...

Determinants of heart rate in Svalbard reindeer reveal mechanisms of seasonal energy management

L. Monica Trondrud, Gabriel Pigeon, Steve Albon, Walter Arnold, Alina L. Evans, R. Justin Irvine, Elżbieta Król, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Vebjørn Veiberg, John R. Speakman & Leif Egil Loe
Seasonal energetic challenges may constrain an animal’s ability to respond to changing individual and environmental conditions. Here we investigated variation in heart rate, a well-established proxy for metabolic rate, in Svalbard reindeer, a species with strong seasonal changes in foraging and metabolic activity. In 19 adult females we recorded heart rate, subcutaneous temperature and activity using biologgers. Mean heart rate more than doubled from winter to summer. Typical drivers of energy expenditure, such as reproduction...

Fat storage influences fasting endurance more than body size in an ungulate

L. Monica Trondrud, Gabriel Pigeon, Elżbieta Król, Steve Albon, Alina L. Evans, Walter Arnold, Catherine Hambly, R. Justin Irvine, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Vebjørn Veiberg, John R. Speakman & Leif Egil Loe
1. The fasting endurance hypothesis (FEH) predicts strong selection for large body size in mammals living in environments where food supply is interrupted over prolonged periods of time. The Arctic is a highly seasonal and food restricted environment, but contrary to predictions from the FEH, empirical evidence shows that Arctic mammals are often smaller than their temperate conspecifics. Intraspecific studies integrating physiology and behaviour of different-sized individuals, may shed light on this paradox. 2. We...

Data from: Circadian rhythmicity persists through the Polar night and midnight sun in Svalbard reindeer

Walter Arnold, Thomas Ruf, Leif Egil Loe, R. Justin Irvine, Erik Ropstad, Vebjørn Veiberg & Steve D. Albon
Studies of locomotor activity in Svalbard reindeer reported the temporary absence of diel rhythms under Arctic photic conditions. However, using Lomb-Scargle periodogram analyses with high statistical power we found diel or circadian rhythmicity throughout the entire year in measures of behaviour, temperature in the rumen and heart rate in free-living Svalbard reindeer. Significant diel rhythmicity was only lacking during some of the 15-day intervals analysed in the less frequently measured heart rate. During Polar Night...

Data from: High-nature-value grasslands have the capacity to cope with nutrient impoverishment induced by mowing and livestock grazing

Pavla Mládková, Jan Mládek, Stanislav Hejduk, Michal Hejcman, Pablo Cruz, Claire Jouany & Robin J. Pakeman
1. Management of high-nature-value (HNV) grasslands follows agri-environmental schemes across large areas of Europe. Long-term agreements and restrictions of fertilizers cause soil nutrient impoverishment, but remarkably this quite often does not reduce biomass production. Therefore, we tested how species-rich vegetation copes with nutrient impoverishment under the most frequently used treatments, that is summer mowing and livestock grazing. 2. During 2011–2012 we studied, simultaneously, plant species composition, soil and biomass chemical properties in two equally designed...

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