75 Works

Variation in purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) morphological traits in relation to resource availability

Joshua Smith & Sabrina Garcia
Flexible resource investment is a risk-sensitive reproductive strategy where individuals trade resources spent on reproduction for basic metabolic maintenance and survival. This study examined morphological variation in herbivorous sea urchin grazers across a mosaic landscape of macroalgae-dominated habitats interspersed with patches of sea urchin barrens to determine whether sea urchins shift energy allocation in response to food limitation. Extensive underwater surveys of habitat attributes (e.g., sea urchin density, algae cover) were paired with detailed laboratory...

Mesopredators retain their fear of humans across a development gradient

Chloe Reilly, Justin Suraci, Justine Smith, Yiwei Wang & Christopher Wilmers
Anthropogenic impacts on wildlife behavior arise both from the immediate presence of people, which induces fear responses in many species, and the human footprint on the landscape (i.e., development), which affects animal movement and habitat use. Where both disturbance types co-occur, disentangling their impacts remains a challenge. Disturbance effects may interact such that species respond to increased human footprint by either reducing (habituation) or increasing (sensitization) avoidance of human presence. We experimentally manipulated perceived human...

Advances in thermal physiology of diving marine mammals: The dual role of peripheral perfusion

Arina Favilla, Markus Horning & Daniel Costa
The ability to maintain a high core body temperature is a defining characteristic of all mammals, yet their diverse habitats present disparate thermal challenges that have led to specialized adaptations. Marine mammals inhabit a highly conductive environment. Their thermoregulatory capabilities far exceed our own despite having limited avenues of heat transfer. Additionally, marine mammals must balance their thermoregulatory demands with those associated with diving (i.e., oxygen conservation), both of which rely on cardiovascular adjustments. This...

Data from: Rethinking sustainability in seafood: synergies and trade-offs between fisheries and climate change

Brandi McKuin, Jordan Watson, Stephen Stohs & J. Elliott Campbell
In the manuscript entitled, "Rethinking sustainability in seafood: synergies and trade-offs between fisheries and climate change", we quantified the climate forcing per unit fish protein associated with several different U.S. tuna fishing fleets, among the most important capture fisheries by both volume and value. The fishing fleets include the U.S. purse seine that operates in the Western Central Pacific Fisheries Commission convention area, the U.S. North Pacific albacore surface gear (which includes both troll and...

A comparative study between outcomes of an in-person vs. online introductory field course

Alexandra Race, Maria De Jesus, Roxanne Beltran & Erika Zavaleta
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted many standard approaches to STEM education. Particularly impacted were field courses, which rely on specific natural spaces often accessed through shared vehicles. As in-person field courses have been found to be particularly impactful for undergraduate student success in the sciences, we aimed to compare and understand what factors may have been lost or gained during the conversion of an introductory field course to an online format. Using a mixed methods...

Data from: Testing applied nucleation as a strategy to facilitate tropical forest recovery

Rakan A. Zahawi, Karen D. Holl, Rebecca J. Cole & J. Leighton Reid
Active forest restoration typically involves planting trees over large areas; this practice is costly, however, and establishing homogeneous plantations may favour the recruitment of a particular suite of species and strongly influence the successional trajectory. An alternative approach is to plant nuclei (islands) of trees to simulate the nucleation model of succession and accelerate natural recovery. We evaluated natural tree recruitment over 4 years in a restoration study replicated at eight former pasture sites in...

Surrounding forest cover dataset 2005

David Morales, R. J. Cole, Karen D. Holl & R. A. Zahawi
Forest cover within 100 and 500 m radii from the center of each experimental plot was hand digitized from ortho-rectified 2005 aerial photographs and comprehensively ground checked. Forest cover spans a range from <1% to 66% within a 100-m radius surrounding the plots and from 9% to 89% in a 500-m radius.

Southern Cascadia earthquake catalog 2014-July to 2015-October

Travis Alongi
Fault coupling is vital in determining the amount of strain that is accumulated along faults. The magnitude and location of stored elastic strain energy in highly coupled regions has important implications for understanding the full range of slip behavior at plate boundary faults, as well as earthquake and tsunami hazards. We use the temporary dense amphibious array of seismometers offered by the Cascadia Initiative to create a high-resolution catalog of events to examine the spatio-temporal...

Data for: The genetic basis of floral mechanical isolation between two hummingbird-pollinated Neotropical understory herbs

Kathleen Kay & Yann Surget-Groba
Floral divergence can contribute to reproductive isolation among plant lineages, and thus provides an opportunity to study the genetics of speciation, including the number, effect size, mode of action, and interactions of quantitative trait loci (QTL). Moreover, flowers represent suites of functionally interrelated traits, but it is unclear to what extent the phenotypic integration of the flower is underlain by a shared genetic architecture, which could facilitate or constrain correlated evolution of floral traits. Here,...

Effects of insect herbivory on seedling mortality in restored and remnant tropical forest

Andy J. Kulikowski, Rakan A. Zahawi & Karen D. Holl
Insect herbivory is one of the major drivers of seedling mortality in the tropics and influences plant abundances and community composition. Anthropogenic disturbance can alter patterns of insect herbivory with potential consequences on plant communities in restored forests. We planted seedlings of early- and later-stage successional tree species in 13–15-year-old restored and remnant tropical forests. We then either excluded insect herbivores or left seedlings exposed to examine how insect herbivory-affected seedling mortality. Early-successional seedlings experienced...

Data from: Temporal scale of habitat selection for large carnivores: Balancing energetics, risk and finding prey

Anna Nisi, Justin Suraci, Nathan Ranc, Laurence Frank, Alayne Oriol-Cotterill, Steven Ekwanga, Terrie Williams & Christopher Wilmers
1. When navigating heterogeneous landscapes, large carnivores must balance trade-offs between multiple goals, including minimizing energetic expenditure, maintaining access to hunting opportunities, and avoiding potential risk from humans. The relative importance of these goals in driving carnivore movement likely changes across temporal scales, but our understanding of these dynamics remains limited. 2. Here we quantified how drivers of movement and habitat selection changed with temporal grain for two large carnivore species living in human-dominated landscapes,...

Secondary Contact LTREB: Lake metadata

David Post & Eric Palkovacs
This dataset contains metadata for the core lakes of the Secondary Contact LTREB and other lakes that are occasionally sampled by the project.

Data from: Density-dependent effects on reproductive output in a capital breeding carnivore, the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris)

Daniel Costa, Rachel Holser, Daniel Crocker, Patrick Robinson, Gitte McDonald, Melinda Fowler, Jason Hassrick, Luis Hückstädt, Sarah Peterson, Samantha Simmons & Theresa Keates
All organisms face resource limitations that will ultimately restrict population growth, but the controlling mechanisms vary across ecosystems, taxa, and reproductive strategies. Using four decades of data, we examine how variation in the environment and population density affect reproductive outcomes in a capital-breeding carnivore, the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). This species provides a unique opportunity to examine the relative importance of resource acquisition and density-dependence on breeding success. Capital breeders accrue resources over large...

CATS tag example deployment

William Gough & David Cade
Biologging tags are capable of capturing high-resolution data from cryptic species that spend a significant portion of their lives in remote or inaccessible environments, such as below the sea surface. The advancement of biologging technologies over the last ~30 years has lead to an explosion of research into the hidden lives of these elusive animals. Information about locomotion, feeding, migratory patterns, reproduction, and metabolism have all been determined using data obtained with biologging tags. CATS...

Online phylogenetics using parsimony produces slightly better trees and is dramatically more efficient for large SARS-CoV-2 phylogenies than de novo and maximum-likelihood approaches

Bryan Thornlow
Phylogenetics has been foundational to SARS-CoV-2 research and public health policy, assisting in genomic surveillance, contact tracing, and assessing emergence and spread of new variants. However, phylogenetic analyses of SARS-CoV-2 have often relied on tools designed for de novo phylogenetic inference, in which all data are collected before any analysis is performed and the phylogeny is inferred once from scratch. SARS-CoV-2 datasets do not fit this mould. There are currently over 5 million sequenced SARS-CoV-2...

Numerical simulation of cool hydrothermal processes in the upper volcanic crust beneath a marine sediment pond: North Pond, North Atlantic Ocean

Adam N. Price, Andrew T. Fisher, Philip H. Stauffer & Carl W. Gable
Low temperature hydrothermal systems hosted in the volcanic oceanic crust are responsible for ~20% of Earth's global heat loss. Marine sediment ponds comprise an important type-setting on young ridge flanks where hydrothermal circulation advectively extracts lithospheric heat, but the nature of coupled fluid-heat transport in these settings remains poorly understood. Here we present coupled (fluid-heat) numerical simulations of ocean crustal hydrogeology in and below North Pond, a sediment pond on ~8 Ma seafloor of the...

Genomic basis for skin phenotype and cold adaptation in the extinct Steller's sea cow

Diana Le Duc, Akhil Velluva, Molly Cassatt-Johnstone, Remi-Andre Olsen, Sina Baleka, Chen-Ching Lin, Johannes R. Lemke, John R. Southon, Alexander Burdin, Ming-Shan Wang, Sonja Grunewald, Wilfried Rosendahl, Ulrich Joger, Sereina Rutschmann, Thomas B. Hildebrandt, Guido Fritsch, James A. Estes, Janet Kelso, Love Dalén, Michael Hofreiter, Beth Shapiro & Torsten Schöneberg
Steller’s sea cow, an extinct sirenian and one of the largest Quaternary mammals, was described by Georg Steller in 1741 and eradicated by humans within 27 years. Here, we complement Steller’s descriptions with paleogenomic data from 12 individuals. We identified convergent evolution between Steller’s sea cow and cetaceans but not extant sirenians, suggesting a role of several genes in adaptation to cold environments. Among these are inactivations of lipoxygenase genes, which in humans and mouse...

Birth timing after the long feeding migration in northern elephant seals

Richard Condit, Roxanne S. Beltran, Patrick W. Robinson, Daniel E. Crocker & Daniel P. Costa
A prominent phase of the annual cyle in migratory animals is the transition between migration and reproduction. The transition is a small part of the annual cycle, but details of its timing deserve attention. From a distant location, animals must initiate a long migration so that they arrive at the breeding ground on a precise schedule. Here we take advantage of a sample of female northern elephant seals that were tracked by satellite during their...

What evolutionary processes maintain MHCIIβ diversity within and among populations of stickleback?

Foen Peng, Kimberly Ballare, S. Hollis Woodard, Stijn Haan & Daniel Bolnick
Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes encode for proteins that recognize foreign protein antigens to initiate T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses. They are often the most polymorphic genes in vertebrate genomes. How evolution maintains this diversity is still an unsettled issue. Three main hypotheses seek to explain the maintenance of MHC diversity by invoking pathogen-mediated selection: heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent selection, and fluctuating selection across landscapes or through time. Here, we use a large-scale field parasite survey...

Australian fur seal foraging consistency data

Cassie Speakman, John Arnould, Sebastian Lloyd, Elodie Camprasse, Andrew Hoskins, Mark Hindell, Daniel Costa & John Arnould
Substantial variation in foraging strategies can exist within populations, even those typically regarded as generalists. Specialisations arise from the consistent exploitation of a narrow behavioural, spatial or dietary niche over time, which may reduce intra-specific competition and influence adaptability to environmental change. However, few studies have investigated whether behavioural consistency confers benefits at the individual and/or population level. While still recovering from commercial sealing over-exploitation, Australian fur seals (AUFS; Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) represent the largest...

Data from: A mummified Pleistocene gray wolf pup

Julie Meachen, Matthew Wooller, Benjamin Barst, Juliette Funck, Carley Crann, Molly Cassatt-Johnstone, Beth Shapiro, Elizabeth Hall, Susan Hewitson, Jess Heath & Grant Zazula
Here we describe the oldest, most complete wolf pup mummy discovered to date: “Zhùr”, as she was named by the local indigenous Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in community was discovered in 2016 in Yukon, Canada, and is complete with skin, fur, and other soft tissues. We infer that Zhùr died ~57,000 years ago and was ~7 weeks old at death. Her mitochondrial genome falls within a clade comprising ancient Beringian and Russian wolf mitochondrial genomes, and isotopic analyses...

Behavioral responses across a mosaic of ecosystem states restructure a sea otter-urchin trophic cascade

Joshua Smith, Joseph Tomoleoni, Michelle Staedler, Sophia Lyon, Jessica Fujii & Tim M. Tinker
Consumer and predator foraging behavior can impart profound trait-mediated constraints on community regulation that scale-up to influence the structure and stability of ecosystems. Here we demonstrate how the behavioral response of an apex predator to changes in prey behavior and condition can dramatically alter the role and relative contribution of top-down forcing, depending on the spatial organization of ecosystem states. In this study, a rapid and dramatic decline in the abundance of a meso-predator (Pycnopodia...

Long-term study reveals top-down effect of crabs on a California salt marsh

Kathryn Beheshti
Consumers can structure plant communities, and may function as keystone species or ecosystem engineers. In salt marshes, the prevailing paradigm has shifted in recent decades from nearly complete focus on bottom-up processes to inclusion of top-down effects. Although the number of studies investigating top-down control continues to climb, few experiments span multiple years, so temporal variability in or long-term impacts of consumers have not been well characterized. In addition, while top-down control has been found...

Soil nutrients

Karen Holl
Surface soil nutrients collected in 2007, 2012, 2017 from research plots described in Holl, K. D., J. L. Reid, R. J. Cole, F. Oviedo-Brenes, J. A. Rosales, and R. A. Zahawi. 2020. Applied nucleation facilitates tropical forest recovery: Lessons learned from a 15-year study. Journal of Applied Ecology 57:2316-2328 (https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13684).

Canopy cover data from: Applied nucleation facilitates tropical forest recovery

Karen D. Holl, J. Leighton Reid, Rebecca J. Cole, Federico Oviedo‐Brenes, Juan A. Rosales & Rakan A. Zahawi
Applied nucleation, mostly based upon planting tree islands, has been proposed as a cost‐effective strategy to meet ambitious global forest and landscape restoration targets. We review results from a 15‐year study, replicated at 15 sites in southern Costa Rica, that compares applied nucleation to natural regeneration and mixed‐species tree plantations as strategies to restore tropical forest. We have collected data on planted tree survival and growth, woody vegetation recruitment and structure, seed rain, litterfall, epiphytes,...

Registration Year

  • 2021
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Affiliations

  • University of California, Santa Cruz
    74
  • Organization For Tropical Studies
    10
  • Organization for Tropical Studies
    4
  • Stanford University
    3
  • University of California, Berkeley
    3
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks
    3
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    3
  • University of California, Davis
    3
  • University of California, Merced
    2
  • University of Alberta
    2