75 Works

Elkhorn Slough eelgrass restoration

Kathryn Beheshti
The global decline of marine foundation species (kelp forests, mangroves, salt marshes, and seagrasses) has contributed to the degradation of the coastal zone and threatens the loss of critical ecosystem services and functions. Restoration of marine foundation species has had variable success, especially for seagrasses, where a majority of restoration efforts have failed. While most seagrass restorations track structural attributes over time, rarely do restorations assess the suite of ecological functions that may be affected...

Assessing impacts of social-ecological diversity on resilience in a wetland coupled human and natural system: Data release

Nathan Van Schmidt, José Oviedo, Tracy Hruska, Lynn Huntsinger, Tony Kovach, A. Marm Kilpatrick, Norman Miller & Steven Beissinger
Theory posits that resilience of ecosystems increases when there is a diversity of agents (e.g., species) and linkages between them. If ecosystems are conceptualized as components of “coupled human and natural systems”, then a corollary would be that novel types of human-induced diversity may also foster resilience. We explored this hypothesis by studying how socially created diversity mediated the impact of a historically severe drought on a network of wetlands in the foothills of the...

Data from: Rules of thumb for predicting tropical forest recovery

Karen D. Holl, John Leighton Reid, Federico Oviedo-Brenes, Andy J. Kulikowski & Rakan A. Zahawi
Natural regeneration is increasingly recognized as a potentially cost‐effective strategy to reach ambitious forest landscape restoration targets, but rates of recovery are notoriously variable. We asked how well initial habitat conditions after cessation of agriculture predict forest recovery after nearly a decade. We aimed to provide land managers with general rules of thumb to assess when it is necessary to invest resources in active restoration, such as tree planting, to accelerate forest recovery. Location: Coto...

Data from: Tropical forest restoration enriches vascular epiphyte recovery

John Leighton Reid, José Miguel Chaves-Fallas, Karen D. Holl & Rakan A. Zahawi
Vascular epiphytes constitute a large proportion of tropical forest plant biodiversity, but are among the slowest plants to recolonize secondary forests. We asked whether tree planting for ecological restoration accelerates epiphyte community recovery. Does the spatial configuration of tree planting matter? What landscape contexts are most suitable for epiphyte restoration? Location: Restored pastures in premontane Coto Brus County, Puntarenas, Costa Rica.

Energy and water co-benefits from covering canals with solar panels

Brandi McKuin, Andrew Zumkehr, Jenny Ta, Roger Bales, Joshua Viers, Tappan Pathak & J. Elliott Campbell
In the manuscript entitled, "Energy and water co-benefits from covering canals with solar panels", we quantified the evaporation savings and financial performance of over-canal solar in comparison to over-ground solar on land adjacent to canals, using regional-scale hydrologic and cost simulations. We conducted regional hydrologic and techno-economic simulations of solar PV panels covering California’s 6350 km canal network. We examined the net effect on the financial performance of three different solar PV structures at eight...

Phylogeny of the supertribe Nebriitae (Coleoptera: Carabidae) based on analyses of DNA sequence data

David H. Kavanaugh, David Maddison, W. Brian Simison, Sean D. Schoville, Joachim Schmidt, Arnaud Faille, Wendy Moore, James M. Pflug, Sophie L. Archambeault, Tinya Hoang & Jei-Ying Chen
The phylogeny of the carabid beetle supertribe Nebriitae is inferred from analyses of DNA sequence data from eight gene fragments including one nuclear ribosomal gene (28S), four nuclear-protein coding genes (CAD, topoisomerase 1, PEPCK and wingless) and three mitochondrial gene fragments (16S + tRNA-Leu + ND1, COI (“barcode” region) and COI (“Pat/Jer” region)). Our taxon sample included 264 exemplars representing 241 species and subspecies (25% of the known nebriite fauna), 39 of 41 currently accepted...

Leaf water relations in epiphytic ferns

Courtney Campany, Jarmila Pittermann, Alex Baer, Helen Holmlund, Eric Schuettpelz, Klaus Mehltreter &
Opportunistic diversification has allowed ferns to radiate into epiphytic niches in angiosperm dominated landscapes. However, our understanding of how ecophysiological function allowed establishment in the canopy and the potential transitionary role of the hemi-epiphytic life form remain unclear. Here, we surveyed 39 fern species in Costa Rican tropical forests to explore epiphytic trait divergence in a phylogenetic context. We examined leaf responses to water deficits in terrestrial, hemi-epiphytic, and epiphytic ferns and related these findings...

Dataset for: A Cross-Laboratory Comparison Study of Titan Haze Analogs: Surface Energy

Xinting Yu & Jialin Li
In Titan's nitrogen-methane atmosphere, photochemistry leads to the production of complex organic particles, forming Titan’s thick haze layers. Laboratory-produced aerosol analogs, or "tholins", are produced in a number of laboratories; however, most previous studies have investigated analogs produced by only one laboratory rather than a systematic, comparative analysis. In this study, we performed a comparative study of an important material property, the surface energy, of seven tholin samples produced in three independent laboratories under a...

Physical and biological constraints on the capacity for life-history expression of anadromous salmonids: an Eel River, California, case study

Alyssa FitzGerald, David Boughton, Joshua Fuller, Sara John, Benjamin Martin, Lee Harrison & Nathan Mantua
Recovery of anadromous salmonid populations is complicated by the fact that these fish have complex life-histories. Habitat valuation and capacity methods need to account for spatiotemporal variability in temperature, geomorphic features, and a species’ thermal sensitivity mediated by biological interactions. We examined this interplay in a case study of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Chinook Salmon (O. tshawytscha) in California’s Eel River watershed. We estimated habitat suitability and fish capacity for each salmonid run and...

Data from: Flexible drought deciduousness in a neotropical understory herb

Julia Harenčár
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Adaptive divergence across environmental gradients is a key driver of speciation. Precipitation seasonality gradients are common in the tropics, yet drought adaptation is almost entirely unexplored in neotropical understory herbs. We examine two recently diverged neotropical spiral ginger species, one adapted to seasonal drought and one reliant on perennial water, to uncover physiological and life history traits involved in drought adaptation. METHODS: We combine ecophysiological trait measurements in the field and...

Ancient DNA-based sex determination of bison hide moccasins provides evidence for selective hunting strategies by Promontory Cave occupants

Sabrina Shirazi, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Jonas Oppenheimer, Jessica Metcalfe, Rob Found, John Ives & Beth Shapiro
The thirteenth-century human occupants of Promontory Cave, Utah, distinguished themselves from surrounding Fremont populations by being successful hunting specialists of bison in a region normally peripheral for that species. The hunters’ success is evident from the abundance of faunal remains excavated from the dry caves, which has facilitated zooarchaeological study of bison hunting strategies. The dry cave conditions also preserved hundreds of worn moccasins, which are of particular interest because of the Canadian-Subarctic style in...

Predicting the population consequences of acoustic disturbance, with application to an endangered gray whale population

Elizabeth McHuron, Elizabeth McHuron, Lisanne Aerts, Glenn Gailey, Olga Sychenko, Daniel Costa, Marc Mangel & Lisa Schwarz
Acoustic disturbance is a growing conservation concern for wildlife populations because it can elicit physiological and behavioral responses that can have cascading impacts on population dynamics. State-dependent behavioral and life history models implemented via Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) provide a natural framework for quantifying biologically meaningful population changes resulting from disturbance by linking environment, physiology, and metrics of fitness. We developed an SDP model using the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) as a case...

Parallel evolution of phenological isolation across the speciation continuum in serpentine-adapted annual wildflowers

Shelley Sianta & Kathleen Kay
Understanding the relative importance of reproductive isolating mechanisms across the speciation continuum remains an outstanding challenge in evolutionary biology. Here we examine a common isolating mechanism, reproductive phenology, between plant sister taxa at different stages of adaptive divergence to gain insight into its relative importance during speciation. We study 17 plant taxa that have independently adapted to inhospitable serpentine soils, and contrast each with a nonserpentine sister taxon to form pairs at either ecotypic or...

Pratas Island Temporary Deployment

Temporary deployment of two Guralp seismometers for comparison to the existing permanent seismometer on Pratas Island. Deployment depths are shallow due to groundwater, and stations have a high noise level. There are also numerous data gaps. One barometric pressure, humidity, and temperature sensor was deployed with one seismometer.

Merging computational fluid dynamics and machine learning to reveal animal migration strategies

Simone Olivetti
Understanding how migratory animals interact with dynamic physical environments remains a major challenge in migration biology. Interactions between migrants and wind and water currents are often poorly resolved in migration models due to both the lack of a high-resolution environmental data, and a lack of understanding of how migrants respond to fine scale structure in the physical environment. Here we develop a generalizable, data-driven methodology to study the migration of animals through complex physical environments....

Data from: Scale-dependent effects of forest restoration on Neotropical fruit bats

J. Leighton Reid, Chase D. Mendenhall, Rakan A. Zahawi & Karen D. Holl
Neotropical fruit bats (family Phyllostomidae) facilitate forest regeneration on degraded lands by dispersing shrub and tree seeds. Accordingly, if fruit bats can be attracted to restoration sites, seed dispersal could be enhanced. We surveyed bat communities at 10 sites in southern Costa Rica to evaluate whether restoration treatments attracted more fruit bats if trees were planted on degraded farmlands in plantations or island configurations versus natural regeneration. We also compared the relative influence of tree...

Data from: Consumer trait responses track change in resource supply along replicated thermal gradients

Emma Moffett, David Fryxell, Finnbar Lee, Eric Palkovacs & Kevin Simon
Temperature rise may alter consumer diets through increased metabolic demand and altered resource availability. However, current theories assessing dietary shifts with warming do not account for change in resource availability. It is unknown whether consumers will increase consumption rates or consume different resources to meet increased energy requirements and whether dietary change will lead to associated variation in morphology and nutrient utilisation. Here, we used populations of Gambusia affinis across parallel thermal gradients in New...

Weights of northern elephant seal weanlings from Año Nuevo Reserve

Patrick Robinson, Daniel Costa, Richard Condit, Patricia Morris, Joanne Reiter, Daniel Crocker, Roxanne Beltran & Burney Le Beouf
Long-term observations of foraging success at the population scale are key to understanding demographic and ecological patterns. Northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, are capital breeders and the resources delivered to the pup during the 4-week lactation period are related to both the past foraging success of the mother and the future survival of the pup post-weaning. We collected weight and basic morphometric data from more than 7,000 recently weaned elephant seals at the Año Nuevo...

Data from: Genomic signatures of spatially divergent selection at clownfish range margins

Rene Clark, Matthew Aardema, Peter Andolfatto, Paul Barber, Akihisa Hattori, Jennifer Hoey, & Malin Pinsky
Understanding how evolutionary forces interact to drive patterns of selection and distribute genetic variation across a species’ range is of great interest in ecology and evolution, especially in an era of global change. While theory predicts how and when populations at range margins are likely to undergo local adaptation, empirical evidence testing these models remains sparse. Here, we address this knowledge gap by investigating the relationship between selection, gene flow, and genetic drift in the...

Projected shifts in 21st century sardine distribution and catch in the California Current

Jerome Fiechter
Predicting changes in the abundance and distribution of small pelagic fish species in response to anthropogenic climate forcing is of paramount importance due to the ecological and socioeconomic importance of these species, especially in Eastern boundary current upwelling regions. Coastal upwelling systems are notorious for the wide range of spatial (from local to basin) and temporal (from days to decades) scales influencing their physical and biogeochemical environments and, thus, forage fish habitat. Bridging those scales...

Simulated wood duck maternity analysis results from COLONY and CERVUS

Caroline Thow, Caitlin Wells, John Eadie & Bruce Lyon
Modern genetic parentage methods reveal that alternative reproductive strategies are common in both males and females. Under ideal conditions, genetic methods accurately connect the parents to offspring produced by extra-pair matings or conspecific brood parasitism. However, some breeding systems and sampling scenarios present significant complications for accurate parentage assignment. We used simulated genetic pedigrees to assess the reliability of parentage assignment for a series of challenging sampling regimes that reflect realistic conditions for many brood-parasitic...

COVID-19 contact rates between mobile devices in Connecticut

Forrest Crawford, Sydney Jones, Matthew Cartter, Samantha Dean, Joshua Warren, Zehang Li, Jacqueline Barbieri, Jared Campbell, Patrick Kenney, Thomas Valleau & Olga Morozova
Close contact between people is the primary route for transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to quantify interpersonal contact at the population-level by using mobile device geolocation data. We computed the frequency of contact (within six feet) between people in Connecticut during February 2020 - January 2021 and aggregated counts of contact events by area of residence. When incorporated into a SEIR-type model of COVID-19 transmission, the contact...

Giant clam growth and isotope data

Daniel Killam, Matthew Clapham & Tariq Al-Najjar
The health of reef-building corals has declined due to climate change and pollution. However, less is known about whether giant clams, reef-dwelling bivalves with a photosymbiotic partnership similar to that found in reef-building corals, are also threatened by environmental degradation. To compare giant clam health against a prehistoric baseline, we collected fossil and modern Tridacna shells from the Gulf of Aqaba, Northern Red Sea. After calibrating daily/twice-daily growth lines from the outer shell layer, we...

Data from: Leaf litter arthropod responses to tropical forest restoration

Rebecca J. Cole, Karen D. Holl, Rakan A. Zahawi, Philipp Wickey & Alan R. Townsend
Soil and litter arthropods represent a large proportion of tropical biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, but little is known about the efficacy of different tropical forest restoration strategies in facilitating their recovery in degraded habitats. We sampled arthropods in four 7‐ to 8‐year‐old restoration treatments and in nearby reference forests. Sampling was conducted during the wet and dry seasons using extractions from litter and pitfall samples. Restoration treatments were replicated in 50 × 50‐m...

A migratory sparrow has personality in winter that is independent of other traits

Theadora Block, Rachel Star, Alexis Chaine, Daizaburo Shizuka & Bruce Lyon
Small birds in winter face trade-offs between predation risk and foraging, and alternate life-history strategies may arise from these trade-offs. Animal personality shows similarities with alternative life-history strategies, and using a life-history context to understand personality can provide valuable insights. Golden-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia atricapilla, a small migratory bird, have a complex winter social system with high site-fidelity, long-term social associations between individuals and competition mediated by badges of status. We asked whether golden-crowned sparrows show...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text


  • University of California, Santa Cruz
  • Organization For Tropical Studies
  • Organization for Tropical Studies
  • Stanford University
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • University of California, Davis
  • University of California, Merced
  • University of Alberta