75 Works

Data from: Genomic and morphological evidence converge to resolve the enigma of Strepsiptera

Oliver Niehuis, Gerrit Hartig, Sonja Grath, Hans Pohl, Jörg Lehmann, Hakim Tafer, Alexander Donath, Veiko Krauss, Carina Eisenhardt, Jana Hertel, Malte Petersen, Christoph Mayer, Karen Meusemann, Ralph S. Peters, Peter F. Stadler, Rolf G. Beutel, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Duane D. McKenna & Bernhard Misof
The phylogeny of insects, one of the most spectacular radiations of life on earth, has received considerable attention. However, the evolutionary roots of one intriguing group of insects, the twisted-wing parasites (Strepsiptera), remain unclear despite centuries of study and debate. Strepsiptera exhibit exceptional larval developmental features, consistent with a predicted step from direct (hemimetabolous) larval development to complete metamorphosis that could have set the stage for the spectacular radiation of metamorphic (holometabolous) insects. Here we...

Data from: Visual phenotype matching: cues to paternity are present in rhesus macaque faces

Anahita J. N. Kazem & Anja Widdig
The ability to recognize kin and thus behaviourally discriminate between conspecifics based on genetic relatedness is of importance both in acquiring inclusive fitness benefits and to enable optimal inbreeding. In primates, mechanisms allowing recognition of paternal relatives are of particular interest, given that in these mating systems patrilineal information is unlikely to be available via social familiarity. Humans use visual phenotype matching based on facial features to identify their own and other's close relatives, and...

Data from: Characterization of unexplored deadwood mycobiome in highly diverse subtropical forests using culture-independent molecular technique

Witoon Purahong, Katherina A. Pietsch, Guillaume Lentendu, Ricardo Schöps, Helge Bruelheide, Christian Wirth, François Buscot & Tesfaye Wubet
The deadwood mycobiome, also known as wood-inhabiting fungi (WIF), are among the key players in wood decomposition, having a large impact on nutrient cycling in forest soils. However, our knowledge of WIF richness and distribution patterns in different forest biomes is limited. Here, we used pyrotag sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region to characterize the deadwood mycobiome of two tree species with greatly different wood characteristics (Schima superba and Pinus massoniana) in...

Data from: Early Miocene marine ostracods from southwestern India: implications for their biogeography and the closure of the Tethyan Seaway

Moriaki Yasuhara, Yuanyuan Hong, Skye Yunshu Tian, Wing Ki Chong, Rachel Wai Ching Chu, Hisayo Okahashi, Markus Reuter, Werner E. Piller & Mathias Harzhauser
Twenty-six genera and 34 species of early Miocene Indian shallow-marine ostracods were examined for taxonomy and paleobiogeography. A new genus Paractinocythereis and new species Costa ponticulocarinata were described. Early Miocene Indian ostracod fauna shows strong affinity to Eocene–Miocene Eastern and Western Tethyan ostracod faunas and Miocene–Recent Indo-Pacific ostracod fauna, supporting the Hopping Hotspot Hypothesis that Tethyan biodiversity hotspot have shifted eastward through Arabia to Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) together with concomitant biogeographic shifts of the Tethyan...

Data from: Re-assessing the diversity of negative strand RNA viruses in insects

Simon Käfer, Sofia Paraskevopoulou, Florian Zirkel, Nicolas Wieseke, Alexander Donath, Malte Petersen, Terry C. Jones, Shanlin Liu, Xin Zhou, Martin Middendorf, Sandra Junglen, Bernhard Misof & Christian Drosten
The spectrum of viruses in insects is important for subjects as diverse as public health, veterinary medicine, food production, and biodiversity conservation. The traditional interest in vector-borne diseases of humans and livestock has drawn the attention of virus studies to hematophagous insect species. However, these represent only a tiny fraction of the broad diversity of Hexapoda, the most speciose group of animals. Here, we systematically probed the diversity of negative strand RNA viruses in the...

Data from: Trophic and non-trophic interactions influence the mechanisms underlying biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships under different abiotic conditions

Nathaly R. Guerrero-Ramírez & Nico Eisenhauer
Plant diversity effects on ecosystem functioning usually have been studied from a plant perspective. However, the mechanisms underlying biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships may also depend on positive or negative interactions between plants and other biotic and abiotic factors, which remain poorly understood. Here we assessed whether plant–herbivore and/or plant–detritivore interactions modify the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationship and the mechanisms underlying biodiversity effects, including complementarity and selection effects, biomass allocation, vertical distribution of roots, and plant survival using...

Data from: Temperature effects on prey and basal resources exceed that of predators in an experimental community

Madhav P. Thakur, John N. Griffin, Tom Künne, Susanne Dunker, Andrea Fanesi & Nico Eisenhauer
Climate warming alters the structure of ecological communities by modifying species interactions at different trophic levels. Yet, the consequences of warming-led modifications in biotic interactions at higher trophic levels on lower trophic groups are lesser known. Here, we test the effects of multiple predator species on prey population size and traits, and subsequent effects on basal resources along an experimental temperature gradient (12-15C, 17-20C, and 22-25C). We experimentally assembled food web modules with two congeneric...

Data from: Functional basis of the sexual dimorphism in the auditory fovea of the duetting bushcricket Ancylecha fenestrata

Jan Scherberich, Jennifer Hummel, Stefan Schöneich & Manuela Nowotny
From mammals to insects, acoustic communication is in many species crucial for successful reproduction. In the duetting bushcricket Ancylecha fenestrata, the mutual acoustic communication between males and females is asymmetrical. We investigated how those signalling disparities are reflected by sexual dimorphism of their ears. Both sexes have tympanic ears in their forelegs, but male ears possess a significantly longer crista acustica containing 35% more scolopidia. With more sensory cells to cover a similar hearing range,...

An application of machine learning to explore relationships between factors of organisational silence and culture, with specific focus on predicting silence behaviours

Dr. Stephen Barrett, Dr. Geraldine Gray, Dr. Colm McGuinness & Dr. Michael Knoll

Plant history and soil history jointly influence the selection environment for plant species in a long-term grassland biodiversity experiment

Peter Dietrich, Nico Eisenhauer, Peter Otto & Christiane Roscher
Long-term biodiversity experiments have shown increasing strengths of biodiversity effects on plant productivity over time. However, little is known about rapid evolutionary processes in response to plant community diversity, which could contribute to explaining the strengthening positive relationship. To address this issue, we performed a transplant experiment with offspring of seeds collected from four grass species in a 14-year old biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). We used two- and six-species communities and removed the vegetation of...

Data from: An eco-epidemiological study of Morbilli-related paramyxovirus infection in Madagascar bats reveals host-switching as the dominant macro-evolutionary mechanism

Julien Mélade, Nicolas Wieseke, Beza Ramasindrazana, Olivier Flores, Erwan Lagadec, Yann Gomard, Steven M. Goodman, Koussay Dellagi & Hervé Pascalis
An eco-epidemiological investigation was carried out on Madagascar bat communities to better understand the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental factors that affect virus transmission among bat species in closely related members of the genus Morbillivirus, currently referred to as Unclassified Morbilli-related paramyxoviruses (UMRVs). A total of 947 bats were investigated originating from 52 capture sites (22 caves, 18 buildings, and 12 outdoor sites) distributed over different bioclimatic zones of the island. Using RT-PCR targeting the L-polymerase...

Data from: Nitrogen deposition cancels out exotic earthworm effects on plant-feeding nematode communities

Yuanhu Shao, Weixin Zhang, Nico Eisenhauer, Tao Liu, Yanmei Xiong, Chenfei Liang & Shenglei Fu
The activity and spread of exotic earthworms often are spatially correlated with N deposition because both arise from human activities. Exotic earthworms, in turn, can also greatly affect soil abiotic and biotic properties, as well as related ecological processes. Previous studies showed, for example, that earthworms can counteract the detrimental effects of plant-feeding nematodes on plant growth. However, potential interactive effects of N deposition and exotic earthworms on ecosystems are poorly understood. We explored the...

Data from: Invasive earthworms erode soil biodiversity: a meta-analysis

Olga Ferlian, Nico Eisenhauer, Martin Aguirrebengoa, Mariama Camara, Irene Ramirez-Rojas, Fabio Santos, Krizler Tanalgo & Madhav P. Thakur
1. Biological invasions pose a serious threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning across ecosystems. Invasions by ecosystem engineers, in particular, have been shown to have dramatic effects in recipient ecosystems. For instance, invasion by earthworms, a belowground invertebrate ecosystem engineer, in previously earthworm-free ecosystems dramatically alters the physico-chemical characteristics of the soil. Studies have shown that such alterations in the soil can have far-reaching impacts on soil organisms, which form a major portion of terrestrial...

Data from: Belowground complementarity effects in a grassland biodiversity experiment are related to deep-rooting species

Natalie J. Oram, Janneke M. Ravenek, Kathryn E. Barry, Alexandra Weigelt, Hongmei Chen, Arthur Gessler, Annette Gockele, Hans De Kroon, Jan Willem Van Der Paauw, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Annemiek Smit-Tiekstra, Jasper Van Ruijven & Liesje Mommer
1. Belowground resource partitioning is often proposed as the underlying mechanism for the positive relationship between plant species richness and productivity. For example, if species have different root distributions, a mixture of plant species may be able to use the available resources more completely than the individual species in a monoculture. However, there is little experimental evidence for differentiation in vertical root distributions among species and its contribution to biodiversity effects. 2. We determined species-specific...

Data from: Convergent evolution of the ladder-like ventral nerve cord in Annelida

Conrad Helm, Patrick Beckers, Thomas Bartolomaeus, Stephan H. Drukewitz, Ioannis Kourtesis, Anne Weigert, Günter Purschke, Katrine Worsaae, Torsten H. Struck & Christoph Bleidorn
Background: A median, segmented, annelid nerve cord has repeatedly been compared to the arthropod and vertebrate nerve cords and became the most used textbook representation of the annelid nervous system. Recent phylogenomic analyses, however, challenge the hypothesis that a subepidermal rope-ladder-like ventral nerve cord (VNC) composed of a paired serial chain of ganglia and somata-free connectives represents either a plesiomorphic or a typical condition in annelids. Results: Using a comparative approach by combining phylogenomic analyses...

Data from: Applying generalised allometric regressions to predict live body mass of tropical and temperate arthropods

Esra H. Sohlström, Lucas Marian, Andrew D. Barnes, Noor F. Haneda, Stefan Scheu, Björn C. Rall, Ulrich Brose & Malte Jochum
1. The ecological implications of body size extend from the biology of individual organisms to ecosystem–level processes. Measuring body mass for high numbers of invertebrates can be logistically challenging, making length-mass regressions useful for predicting body mass with minimal effort. However, standardised sets of scaling relationships covering a large range in body length, taxonomic groups, and multiple geographical regions are scarce. 2. We collected 6212 arthropods from 19 higher-level taxa in both temperate and tropical...

Data from: Incomplete datasets obscure associations between traits affecting dispersal ability and geographic range size of reef fishes in the Tropical Eastern Pacific

Adriana Alzate, Fons Van Der Plas, Fernando A. Zapata, Dries Bonte & Rampal S. Etienne
Dispersal is thought to be an important process determining range size, especially for species in highly spatially structured habitats, such as tropical reef fishes. Despite intensive research efforts, there is conflicting evidence about the role of dispersal on determining range size. We hypothesize that traits related to dispersal drive range sizes, but that complete and comprehensive datasets are essential for detecting relationships between species’ dispersal ability and range size. We investigate the roles of six...

Forest inventory data from Finland and Sweden for: Demographic performance of European tree species at their hot and cold climatic edges, plus ancillary climate data

Sophia Ratcliffe, Jonas Dahlgren, Aleksi Lehtonen, Christian Wirth, Paloma Ruiz-Benito, Miguel A. Zavala, Gerald Kaendler, Raisa Mäkipää & Georges Kunstler
1. Species range limits are thought to result from a decline in demographic performance at range edges. However, recent studies reporting contradictory patterns in species demographic performance at their edges cast doubt on our ability to predict climate change demographic impacts. To understand these inconsistent demographic responses at the edges, we need to shift the focus from geographic to climatic edges and analyse how species responses vary with climatic constraints at the edge and species’...

Abundances of xylobiont beetles in the Leipzig floodplain forest 2016

Nora Haack, Ingo Brunk, Martin Schlegel, Detlef Bernhard, Klaus Henle, Annegret Grimm-Seyfarth & Christian Wirth
The dataset includes abundance data from xylobiont beetles, captured in the Leipzig floodplain forest between March and October 2016. We sampled three strata and three tree species. The strata were the understory with 2 traps, the lower canopy with 12 traps and the upper canopy with 12 traps. The 24 traps in the lower and upper canopy can further be assigned to the tree species Quercus robur, Tilia cordata and Fraxinus excelsior. Each tree was...

Evaluating the educational effectiveness of a structured, simulator-assisted, peer-led training on cardiovascular physical examination in third-year medical students: A randomized, controlled trial

David Kronschnabl, Christoph Baerwald & Daisy Rotzoll
Background: Previous research suggests that cardiac examination skills in undergraduate medical students frequently need improvement. There are different ways to enhance physical examination (PE) skills such as simulator-based training or peer-assisted learning (PAL). Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured, simulator-assisted, peer-led training on cardiovascular PE. Methods: Participants were third-year medical students at Leipzig University Faculty of Medicine. Students were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG) and...

Data from: Invasive lumbricid earthworms in North America – different life-histories but common dispersal?

Andreas Klein, Nico Eisenhauer & Ina Schaefer
Aim Lumbricid earthworms are invasive across northern North America, causing notable changes in forest ecosystems. During their range expansion, they encountered harsher climatic conditions compared to their native ranges in short time (~400 years). This study investigated if (1) dispersal barriers, (2) climatic selection, or (3) anthropogenic activities, i.e. fishing bait disposal, structure the dispersal of free-living earthworm populations. Location North America, forest habitats along former Wisconsinan glaciation line Taxon Lumbricus terrestris, L. rubellus Methods...

Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands

Judith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … &
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...

A graphical null model for scaling biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships

Kathryn Barry, Gabriella Pinter, Joseph Strini, Karrisa Yang, Istvan Lauko, Stefan Schnizter, Adam Clark, Jane Cowles, Akira Mori, Laura Williams, Peter Reich & Alexandra Wright
1. Global biodiversity is declining at rates faster than at any other point in human history. Experimental manipulations at small spatial scales have demonstrated that communities with fewer species consistently produce less biomass than higher diversity communities. Understanding how the global extinction crisis is likely to impact global ecosystem functioning requires applying these local experimental results at substantially larger spatial and temporal scales. 2. Here we propose a null model for scaling biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships...

Data from Soil chemistry turned upside down: a meta-analysis of invasive earthworm effects on soil chemical properties

Olga Ferlian, Madhav P. Thakur, Alejandra Castañeda González, Layla M. San Emeterio, Susanne Marr, Barbbara Da Silva Rocha & Nico Eisenhauer
Recent studies have shown that invasive earthworms can dramatically reduce native biodiversity, both above and below the ground. However, we still lack a synthetic understanding of the underlying mechanisms behind these changes, such as whether earthworm effects on soil chemical properties drive such relationships. Here, we investigated the effects of invasive earthworms on soil chemical properties (pH, water content, and the stocks and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) by conducting a meta-analysis. Invasive earthworms...

Data from: Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) predicts non-structural carbohydrate concentrations in different tissue types of a broad range of tree species

Jorge A. Ramirez, Juan M. Posada, I. Tanya Handa, Günter Hoch, Michael Vohland, Christian Messier & Björn Reu
1. The allocation of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) to reserves constitutes an important physiological mechanism associated with tree growth and survival. However, procedures for measuring NSC in plant tissue are expensive and time-consuming. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a high-throughput technology that has the potential to infer the concentration of organic constituents for a large number of samples in a rapid and inexpensive way based on empirical calibrations with chemical analysis. 2. The main objectives of this...

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