16 Works

Data from: The ecology of herbivore-induced silicon defences in grasses

Susan E. Hartley & Jane L. DeGabriel
Silicon as a defence against herbivory in grasses has gained increasing recognition and has now been studied in a wide range of species, at scales from individual plants in pots to plant communities in the field. The impacts of these defences have been assessed on herbivores ranging from insects to rodents to ungulates. Here, we review current knowledge of silicon mediation of plant–herbivore interactions in an ecological context. The production of silicon defences by grasses...

Data from: Constrained evolution of the sex comb in Drosophila simulans

Manar S. Maraqa, Robert Griffin, Manmohan D. Sharma, Alastair J. Wilson, John Hunt, David J. Hosken & Clarissa M. House
Male fitness is dependent on sexual traits that influence mate acquisition (pre-copulatory sexual selection) and paternity (post-copulatory sexual selection), and while many studies have documented the form of selection in one or the other of these arenas, fewer have done it for both. Nonetheless, it appears that the dominant form of sexual selection is directional, although theoretically, populations should converge on peaks in the fitness surface, where selection is stabilizing. Many factors, however, can prevent...

Data from: Thyroid hormone modulates offspring sex ratio in a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination

Bao-Jun Sun, Teng Li, Yi Mu, Jessica K. McGlashan, Arthur Georges, Richard Shine & Wei-Guo Du
The adaptive significance of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) has attracted a great deal of research, but the underlying mechanisms by which temperature determines the sex of a developing embryo remain poorly understood. Here, we manipulated the level of a thyroid hormone (TH), triiodothyronine (T3), during embryonic development (by adding excess T3 to the eggs of the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta, a reptile with TSD), to test two competing hypotheses on the proximate basis for...

Data from: Do grazing intensity and herbivore type affect soil health? Insights from a semi-arid productivity gradient

David J. Eldridge, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Samantha K. Travers, James Val, Ian Oliver & David Eldridge
Grazing is one of the most widespread forms of intensive management on Earth and is linked to reductions in soil health. However, little is known about the relative influence of herbivore type, herbivore intensity and site productivity on soil health. This lack of knowledge reduces our capacity to manage landscapes where grazing is a major land use. We used structural equation modelling to assess the effects of recent (cattle, sheep, goats, kangaroos and rabbit dung)...

Data from: Leaf photosynthetic, economics and hydraulic traits are decoupled among genotypes of a widespread species of eucalypt grown under ambient and elevated CO2

Chris J. Blackman, Michael J. Aspinwall, Victor Resco De Dios, Renee Smith, David T. Tissue & Renee A. Smith
Leaf economics and hydraulic traits strongly influence photosynthesis. While the level of coordination among these traits can differ between sets of species, leaf functional trait coordination within species remains poorly understood. Furthermore, elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 commonly influence the expression of leaf photosynthetic, economics and hydraulic traits in contrasting ways, yet the effect of variable concentrations of atmospheric CO2 on patterns of trait coordination within species remains largely untested. We examined the relationships among...

Data from: Cryptic diversity in a fig wasp community – morphologically differentiated species are sympatric but cryptic species are allopatric

Clive T. Darwell & James M. Cook
A key debate in ecology centres on the relative importance of niche and neutral processes in determining patterns of community assembly with particular focus on whether ecologically similar species with similar functional traits are able to coexist. Meanwhile, molecular studies are increasingly revealing morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species with presumably similar ecological roles. Determining the geographic distribution of such cryptic species provides opportunities to contrast predictions of niche versus neutral models. Discovery of sympatric cryptic species...

Data from: An insect ecosystem engineer alleviates drought stress in plants without increasing plant susceptibility to an above-ground herbivore

Scott N. Johnson, Goran Lopaticki, Kirk Barnett, Sarah L. Facey, Jeff R. Powell & Susan E. Hartley
Climate change models predict more extreme rainfall patterns, ranging from droughts to deluges, which will inevitably affect primary productivity in many terrestrial ecosystems. Insects within the ecosystem, living above- and below-ground, may modify plant responses to water stress. For example, some functional groups improve soil conditions via resource provision, potentially alleviating water stress. Enhanced resource provision may, however, render plants more susceptible to herbivores and negate beneficial effects. Using a model system, we tested how...

Data from: Mammalian engineers drive soil microbial communities and ecosystem functions across a disturbance gradient

David J. Eldridge, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Jason N. Woodhouse & Brett A. Nielan
The effects of mammalian ecosystem engineers on soil microbial communities and ecosystem functions in terrestrial ecosystems are poorly known. Disturbance from livestock has been widely reported to reduce soil function, but disturbance by animals that forage in the soil may partially offset these negative effects of livestock, directly and/or indirectly by shifting the composition and diversity of soil microbial communities. Understanding the role of disturbance from livestock and ecosystem engineers in driving soil microbes and...

Data from: Quantifying and reducing uncertainties in estimated soil CO2 fluxes with hierarchical data-model integration

Kiona Ogle, Edmund Ryan, Fieke A. Dijkstra, Elise Pendall & Feike A. Dijkstra
Non-steady state chambers are often employed to measure soil CO2 fluxes. CO2 concentrations (C) in the headspace are sampled at different times (t), and fluxes (f) are calculated from regressions of C versus t based a limited number of observations. Variability in the data can lead to poor fits and unreliable f estimates; groups with too few observations or poor fits are often discarded, resulting in “missing” f values. We solve these problems by fitting...

Data from: Increased root herbivory under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations is reversed by silicon-based plant defences

Adam Frew, Peter G. Allsopp, Andrew N. Gherlenda & Scott N. Johnson
Predicted increases in atmospheric concentrations of CO2 may alter the susceptibility of many plants to insect herbivores due to changes in plant nutrition and defences. Silicon plays a critical role in plant defence against herbivores, so increasing such silicon-based defences in plants may help remediate situations where plants become more susceptible to herbivores. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) were subjected to fully factorial treatment combinations of ambient (aCO2) or elevated (eCO2) atmospheric CO2 concentrations; ambient silicon...

Data from: Partitioning the effect of composition and diversity of tree communities on leaf litter decomposition and soil respiration

Mark Davidson Jewell, Bill Shipley, Etienne Low-Decarie, Cornelia M. Tobner, Alain Paquette, Christian Messier & Peter B. Reich
The decomposition of plant material is an important ecosystem process influencing both carbon cycling and soil nutrient availability. Quantifying how plant diversity affects decomposition is thus crucial for predicting the effect of the global decline in plant diversity on ecosystem functioning. Plant diversity could affect the decomposition process both directly through the diversity of the litter, and/or indirectly through the diversity of the host plant community and its affect on the decomposition environment. Using a...

Data from: Climate and atmospheric change impacts on sap-feeding herbivores: a mechanistic explanation based on functional groups of primary metabolites

James M. W. Ryalls, Ben D. Moore, Markus Riegler, Lisa M. Bromfield, Aidan A. G. Hall & Scott N. Johnson
Global climate and atmospheric change are widely predicted to affect many ecosystems. Herbivorous insects account for 25% of the planet's species so their responses to environmental change are pivotal to how future ecosystems will function. Atmospheric change affects feeding guilds differently, however, with sap-feeding herbivores consistently identified as net beneficiaries of predicted increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (eCO2). The mechanistic basis for these effects remains largely unknown, and our understanding about how multiple environmental...

Data from: Meta-analysis reveals that hydraulic traits explain cross-species patterns of drought-induced tree mortality across the globe

William R. L. Anderegg, Tamir Klein, Megan Bartlett, Lawren Sack, Adam F. A. Pellegrini, Brendan Choat & Steven Jansen
Drought-induced tree mortality has been observed globally and is expected to increase under climate change scenarios, with large potential consequences for the terrestrial carbon sink. Predicting mortality across species is crucial for assessing the effects of climate extremes on forest community biodiversity, composition, and carbon sequestration. However, the physiological traits associated with elevated risk of mortality in diverse ecosystems remain unknown, although these traits could greatly improve understanding and prediction of tree mortality in forests....

Data from: The hitchhiker's guide to Europe: the infection dynamics of an ongoing Wolbachia invasion and mitochondrial selective sweep in Rhagoletis cerasi

Hannes Schuler, Kirsten Koeppler, Sabine Daxböck-Horvath, Bilal Rasool, Susanne Krumboeck, Dietmar Schwarz, Thomas Hoffmeister, Birgit Schlick-Steiner, Florian Steiner, Arndt Telschow, Christian Stauffer, Wolfgang Arthofer, Markus Riegler, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner, Florian M. Steiner & Thomas S. Hoffmeister
Wolbachia is a maternally inherited and ubiquitous endosymbiont of insects. It can hijack host reproduction by manipulations such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) to enhance vertical transmission. Horizontal transmission of Wolbachia can also result in the colonization of new mitochondrial lineages. In this study, we present a 15-year-long survey of Wolbachia in the cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi across Europe and the spatiotemporal distribution of two prevalent strains, wCer1 and wCer2, and associated mitochondrial haplotypes in...

Data from: Shrub encroachment is linked to extirpation of an apex predator

Christopher E. Gordon, David J. Eldridge, William J. Ripple, Mathew S. Crowther, Ben D. Moore & Mike Letnic
The abundance of shrubs has increased throughout Earth's arid lands. This ‘shrub encroachment’ has been linked to livestock grazing, fire-suppression and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations facilitating shrub recruitment. Apex predators initiate trophic cascades which can influence the abundance of many species across multiple trophic levels within ecosystems. Extirpation of apex predators is linked inextricably to pastoralism, but has not been considered as a factor contributing to shrub encroachment. Here, we ask if trophic cascades triggered...

Data from: Mating opportunities and energetic constraints drive variation in age-dependent sexual signalling

Thomas M. Houslay, Kirsty F. Houslay, James Rapkin, John Hunt & Luc F. Bussiere
When males repeatedly produce energetically expensive sexual signals, trade-offs between current and future investment can cause plasticity in age-dependent signalling. Such variation is often interpreted as alternate adaptive strategies: live fast and die young vs. slow and steady. An alternative (yet rarely tested) explanation is that condition-dependent constraints on allocation cause variation in signalling with age (‘late bloomers’ do not have early investment options). Testing this hypothesis is challenging because resource acquisition and allocation are...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Western Sydney University
  • University of Sydney
  • UNSW Sydney
  • University of Exeter
  • University of York
  • University of Quebec at Montreal
  • NSW Office of Environment & Heritage
  • Princeton University
  • University of Wollongong
  • Université de Sherbrooke