20 Works

Data from: Sexual selection and population divergence II. divergence in different sexual traits and signal modalities in field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus)

Sonia Pascoal, Magdalena Mendrok, Alastair J. Wilson, John Hunt & Nathan W. Bailey
Sexual selection can target many different types of traits. However, the relative influence of different sexually-selected traits during evolutionary divergence is poorly understood. We used the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus to quantify and compare how five traits from each of three sexual signal modalities and components diverge among allopatric populations: male advertisement song, cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles and forewing morphology. Population divergence was unexpectedly consistent: we estimated the among-population (genetic) variance-covariance matrix, D, for all...

Data from: Impacts of silicon-based grass defences across trophic levels under both current and future atmospheric CO2 scenarios

James M.W. Ryalls, Sue E. Hartley, Scott N. Johnson, James M. W. Ryalls & Susan E. Hartley
Silicon (Si) has important functional roles in plants, including resistance against herbivores. Environmental change, such as increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2, may alter allocation to Si defences in grasses, potentially changing the feeding behaviour and performance of herbivores, which may in turn impact on higher trophic groups. Using Si-treated and untreated grasses (Phalaris aquatica) maintained under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (640 and 800 ppm) CO2 concentrations, we show that Si reduced feeding by crickets...

Data from: Subfamily-dependent alternative reproductive strategies in worker honey bees

Boris Yagound, Michael Duncan, Nadine C. Chapman & Benjamin P. Oldroyd
Functional worker sterility is the defining feature of insect societies. Yet, workers are sometimes found reproducing in their own or foreign colonies. The proximate mechanisms underlying these alternative reproductive phenotypes are key to understanding how reproductive altruism and selfishness are balanced in eusocial insects. In this study we show that in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies the social environment of a worker, i.e. the presence and relatedness of the queens in a worker’s natal colony...

Data from: Feminizing Wolbachia endosymbiont disrupts maternal sex chromosome inheritance in a butterfly species

Daisuke Kageyama, Mizuki Ohno, Tatsushi Sasaki, Atsuo Yoshido, Tatsuro Konagaya, Akiya Jouraku, Seigo Kuwazaki, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Yuichi Katayose, Satoko Narita, Mai Miyata, Markus Riegler & Ken Sahara
Wolbachia is a maternally inherited ubiquitous endosymbiotic bacterium of arthropods that displays a diverse repertoire of host reproductive manipulations. For the first time, we demonstrate that Wolbachia manipulates sex chromosome inheritance in a sexually reproducing insect. Eurema mandarina butterfly females on Tanegashima Island, Japan, are infected with the wFem Wolbachia strain and produce all-female offspring, while antibiotic treatment results in male offspring. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that wFem-positive and wFem-negative females have Z0...

Data from: Evaluating multilocus Bayesian species delimitation for discovery of cryptic mycorrhizal diversity

Michael R. Whitehead, Renee A. Catullo, Monica Ruibal, Kingsley W. Dixon, Rod Peakall & Celeste C. Linde
The increasing availability of DNA sequence data enables exciting new opportunities for fungal ecology. However, it amplifies the challenge of how to objectively classify the diversity of fungal sequences into meaningful units, often in the absence of morphological characters. Here, we test the utility of modern multilocus Bayesian coalescent-based methods for delimiting cryptic fungal diversity in the orchid mycorrhiza morphospecies Serendipita vermifera. We obtained 147 fungal isolates from Caladenia, a speciose clade of Australian orchids...

Data from: Do temperate tree species diversity and identity influence soil microbial community function and composition?

Rim Khlifa, Alain Paquette, Christian Messier, Peter Reich, Alison Munson, Peter B. Reich & Alison D. Munson
Studies of biodiversity-ecosystem function in treed ecosystems have generally focused on aboveground functions. The present study investigates inter-trophic links between tree diversity and soil microbial community function and composition.We examined how microbial communities in surface mineral soil responded to experimental gradients of tree species richness (SR), functional diversity (FD), community-weighted mean trait value (CWM) and tree identity. The site was a 4-yr-old common garden experiment near Montreal, Canada, consisting of deciduous and evergreen tree species...

Data from: Impact of predicted precipitation scenarios on multitrophic interactions

Ruth N. Wade, Alison J. Karley, Scott N. Johnson & Sue E. Hartley
1. Predicted changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall events in the UK have the potential to disrupt terrestrial ecosystem function. However, responses of different trophic levels to these changes in rainfall patterns, and the underlying mechanisms, are not well characterised. 2. This study aimed to investigate how changes in both the quantity and frequency of rainfall events will affect the outcome of interactions between plants, insect herbivores (above- and below- ground) and...

Data from: Microbial richness and composition independently drive soil multifunctionality

Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Pankaj Trivedi, Chanda Trivedi, David J. Eldridge, Peter B. Reich, Thomas C. Jeffries & Brajesh K. Singh
Soil microbes provide multiple ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling, decomposition and climate regulation. However, we lack a quantitative understanding of the relative importance of microbial richness and composition in controlling multifunctionality. This knowledge gap limits our capacity to understand the influence of biotic attributes in the provision of services and functions on which humans depend. We used two independent approaches (i.e. experimental and observational), and applied statistical modeling to identify the role and relative...

Plant Respiration Modelling with JULES for a changing climate (1860-2100)

C. Huntingford, O.K. Atkin, A. Martinez-De La Torre, L.M. Mercado, M.A. Heskel, A.B. Harper, K.J. Bloomfield, O.S. O'Sullivan, P.B. Reich, K.R. Wythers, E.E. Butler, M. Chen, K.L. Griffin, P. Meir, M.G. Tjoelker, M.H. Turnbull, S. Sitch, A. Wiltshire & Y. Malhi
The dataset contains annual global plant respiration (and related diagnostics, such as Net Primary Productivity, Gross Primary Productivity and soil respiration), applicable for pre-industrial times (taken as year 1860) through to the end of the 21st Century (year 2100). The spatial resolution of the data is 2.5 degrees latitude x 3.75 degrees longitude. These diagnostics are outputs from the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES land surface model) under four different approaches to calcluate leaf...

Data from: Plant water potential improves prediction of empirical stomatal models

William R. L. Anderegg, Stephen Pacala, John S. Sperry, Brendan Choat, Daniel J. Chmura, Thomas Kolb, Frederick Meinzer, Pilar Pita, Víctor Resco De Dios & Brett T. Wolfe
Climate change is expected to lead to increases in drought frequency and severity, with deleterious effects on many ecosystems. Stomatal responses to changing environmental conditions form the backbone of all ecosystem models, but are based on empirical relationships and are not well-tested during drought conditions. Here, we use a dataset of 34 woody plant species spanning global forest biomes to examine the effect of leaf water potential on stomatal conductance and test the predictive accuracy...

Data from: Little evidence for intralocus sexual conflict over the optimal intake of nutrients for lifespan and reproduction in the black field cricket Teleogryllus commodus

James Rapkin, C. Ruth Archer, Charles E. Grant, Kim Jensen, Clarissa M. House, Alastair J. Wilson & John Hunt
There is often large divergence in the effects of key nutrients on lifespan and reproduction in the sexes, yet nutrient intake is regulated in the same way in males and females given dietary choice. This suggests that the sexes are constrained from feeding to their sex-specific nutritional optima for these traits. Here we examine the potential for intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) over optimal protein and carbohydrate intake for lifespan and reproduction to constrain the evolution...

Data from: Species but not genotype diversity strongly impacts the establishment of rare colonisers

Christian Schöb, Sara Hortal, Alison J. Karley, Luna Morcillo, Adrian C. Newton, Robin J. Pakeman, Jeff R. Powell, Ian C. Anderson & Rob W. Brooker
1. Understanding species coexistence and regulation of biodiversity are major research challenges, yet there is no consensus on the effects of diversity on diversity, including their mediation through plant–plant interactions. 2. We examined how the diversity of recipient communities impacted on the establishment of colonising species. We ran a greenhouse-based community experiment, creating artificial arable crop communities with varying levels of barley genotype and weed species diversity, analysed with structural equation modelling of responses across...

Data from: Contemporary evolution of a Lepidopteran species, Heliothis virescens, in response to modern agricultural practices

Megan L. Fritz, Alexandra M. DeYonke, Alexie Papanicolaou, Stephen Micinski, John Westbrook & Fred Gould
Adaptation to human-induced environmental change has the potential to profoundly influence the genomic architecture of affected species. This is particularly true in agricultural ecosystems, where anthropogenic selection pressure is strong. Heliothis virescens primarily feeds on cotton in its larval stages and US populations have been declining since the widespread planting of transgenic cotton, which endogenously expresses proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). No physiological adaptation to Bt toxin has been found in the field, so...

Data from: A tale of two studies: detection and attribution of the impacts of invasive plants in observational surveys

Kevin E. Mueller, Alexandra G. Lodge, Alexander M. Roth, Timothy J. S. Whitfeld, Sarah E. Hobbie & Peter B. Reich
1.Short-term experiments cannot characterize how long-lived, invasive shrubs influence ecological properties that can be slow to change, including native diversity and soil fertility. Observational studies are thus necessary, but often suffer from methodological issues. 2.To highlight ways of improving the design and interpretation of observational studies that assess the impacts of invasive plants, we compare two studies of nutrient cycling and earthworms along two separate gradients of invasive shrub abundance. By considering the divergent sampling...

Data from: Silicon-induced root nodulation and synthesis of essential amino acids in a legume is associated with higher herbivore abundance

Scott N. Johnson, Susan E. Hartley, James M.W. Ryalls, Adam Frew, Jane L. DeGabriel, Michael Duncan, Andrew N. Gherlenda & James M. W. Ryalls
Ecologists have become increasingly aware that silicon uptake by plants, especially the Poaceae, can have beneficial effects on both plant growth and herbivore defence. The effects of silicon on other plant functional groups, such as nitrogen-fixing legumes, have been less well studied. Silicon could, however, indirectly promote herbivore performance in this group if reported increases in N2-fixation caused improvements in host plant quality for herbivores. We tested how silicon supplementation in the legume Medico sativa...

Data from: Effects of macronutrient intake on the lifespan and fecundity of the marula fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra (Tephritidae): extreme lifespan in a host specialist.

Kevin Malod, C. Ruth Archer, John Hunt, Susan W. Nicolson & Christopher W. Weldon
In insects, lifespan and reproduction are strongly associated with nutrition. The ratio and amount of nutrients individuals consume affects their life expectancy and reproductive investment. The geometric framework (GF) enables us to explore how animals regulate their intake of multiple nutrients simultaneously and determine how these nutrients interact to affect life history traits of interest. Studies using the GF on host-generalist tephritid flies have highlighted trade-offs between longevity and reproductive effort in females, mediated by...

Data from: Cold adaptation drives variability in needle structure and anatomy in Pinus sylvestris L. along a 1,900 km temperate–boreal transect

Artur Jankowski, Tomasz P. Wyka, Roma Żytkowiak, Bengt Nihlgård, Peter B. Reich & Jacek Oleksyn
1. Occupancy of cold habitats by evergreen species requires structural modification of photosynthetic organs for stress resistance and longevity. Such modifications have been described at inter-specific level while intra-specific variation has been underexplored. 2. To identify structural and anatomical traits that may be adaptive in cold environments, we studied intra-specific variability of needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), a wide-ranging tree, along a 1900 km temperate-boreal transect in Europe. 3. Needles from 20 sites...

Data from: Shoot growth of woody trees and shrubs is predicted by maximum plant height and associated traits

Sean M. Gleason, Andrea E.A. Stephens, Wade C. Tozer, Chris J. Blackman, Don W. Butler, Yvonne Chang, Alicia M. Cook, Julia Cooke, Claire A. Laws, Julieta A. Rosell, Stephanie A. Stuart, Mark Westoby & Andrea E. A. Stephens
1. The rate of elongation and thickening of individual branches (shoots) varies across plant species. This variation is important for the outcome of competition and other plant-plant interactions. Here we compared rates of shoot growth across 44 species from tropical, warm temperate, and cool temperate forests of eastern Australia. 2. Shoot growth rate was found to correlate with a suite of traits including the potential height of the species, xylem-specific conductivity, leaf size, leaf area...

Data from: Identifying environmental drivers of greenhouse gas emissions under warming and reduced rainfall in boreal-temperate forests

Catarina S. C. Martins, Loïc Nazaries, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Catriona A. Macdonald, Ian C. Anderson, Sarah E. Hobbie, Rhodney T. Venterea, Peter B. Reich, Brajesh K. Singh & Rodney T. Venterea
1.Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are predicted to increase as a consequence of fossil fuel emissions and the impact on biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Forest ecosystems in general, and forest soils in particular, can be sinks or sources for CO2, CH4, and N2O. Environmental studies traditionally target soil temperature and moisture as the main predictors of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) flux from different ecosystems; however, these emissions are primarily biologically...

Data from: Competition drives the response of soil microbial diversity to increased grazing by vertebrate herbivores

David J. Eldridge, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Samantha K. Travers, James Val, Ian Oliver, Kelly Hamonts & Brajesh K. Singh
Scientists have largely neglected the effects of grazing on soil microbial communities despite their importance as drivers of ecosystem functions and services. We hypothesised that changes in soil properties resulting from grazing regulate the diversity of soil microbes by releasing/suppressing subordinate microbial taxa via competition. To test this, we examined intensity of vertebrate herbivores influences the diversity and composition of soil bacteria and fungi at 216 soil samples from 54 sites and four microsites. Increasing...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    20

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    20

Affiliations

  • Western Sydney University
    20
  • University of Minnesota
    6
  • University of Exeter
    4
  • University of York
    3
  • Australian National University
    2
  • Institute of Dendrology
    2
  • Macquarie University
    2
  • University of Colorado Boulder
    2
  • UNSW Sydney
    2
  • James Hutton Institute
    2