211 Works

Data from: Fitness and morphological outcomes of many generations of hybridization in the copepod Tigriopus californicus

Victoria L. Pritchard, Suzanne Edmands, Jennifer Zieba, Vanessa L. Knutson & Melisa Lee
Hybridization between genetically divergent populations is an important evolutionary process, with an outcome that is difficult to predict. We used controlled crosses and freely mating hybrid swarms, followed for up to 30 generations, to examine the morphological and fitness consequences of interpopulation hybridization in the copepod Tigriopus californicus. Patterns of fitness in two generations of controlled crosses were partly predictive of long-term trajectories in hybrid swarms. For one pair of populations, controlled crosses revealed neutral...

Data from: Model sensitivity and use of the comparative finite element method in mammalian jaw mechanics: mandible performance in the Gray Wolf

Zhijie Jack Tseng, Jill L. McNitt-Gray, Henryk Flashner, Xiaoming Wang & Reyes Enciso
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a powerful tool gaining use in studies of biological form and function. This method is particularly conducive to studies of extinct and fossilized organisms, as models can be assigned properties that approximate living tissues. In disciplines where model validation is difficult or impossible, the choice of model parameters and their effects on the results become increasingly important, especially in comparing outputs to infer function. To evaluate the extent to which...

Data from: A transgenic quail model that enables dynamic imaging of amniote embryogenesis

David Huss, Bertrand Benazeraf, Allison Wallingford, Michael Filla, Jennifer Yang, Scott E. Fraser & Rusty Lansford
Embryogenesis is the coordinated assembly of tissues during morphogenesis through changes in individual cell behaviors and collective cell movements. Dynamic imaging, combined with quantitative analysis, is ideal for investigating fundamental questions in developmental biology involving cellular differentiation, growth control and morphogenesis. However, a reliable amniote model system that is amenable to the rigors of extended, high-resolution imaging and cell tracking has been lacking. To address this shortcoming, we produced a novel transgenic quail that ubiquitously...

Data from: Genetic inviability is a major driver of type-III survivorship in experimental families of a highly fecund marine bivalve

Louis V. Plough, Grace Shin & Dennis Hedgecock
The offspring of most highly fecund marine fish and shellfish suffer substantial mortality early in the life cycle, complicating prediction of recruitment and fisheries management. Early mortality has long been attributed to environmental factors and almost never to genetic sources. Previous work on a variety of marine bivalve species uncovered substantial genetic inviability among the offspring of inbred crosses, suggesting a large load of early-acting deleterious recessive mutations. However, genetic inviability of randomly bred offspring...

Seismogenesis at Hikurangi Integrated Research Experiment (SHIRE) onshore seismic acquisition field report

Katie Jacobs, Stuart A Henrys, D Okaya, H Van Avendonk, Jenny Black, Dan H. N. Barker, Sapthala C Karalliyadda, E Kurashimo, Wanda R. Stratford, M Savage, R Sullivan, Zane R. Bruce & L Hughes
This report documents the acquisition and archiving of a major controlled source and passive seismic imaging project, the Seismogenesis Hikurangi Integrated Research Experiment (SHIRE). The SHIRE project aims to identify and quantify factors controlling the long-term evolution of the Hikurangi margin and the mode of slip along the subduction megathrust. The components of the data volume were acquired in two phases; between October 2017 – April 2018 (SHIRE I) and February–March 2019 (SHIRE II). The...

Data from: A new ophiocistioid with soft-tissue preservation from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte, and the evolution of the holothurian body plan

Imran Rahman, Jeffrey Thompson, Derek Briggs, David Siveter, Derek Siveter & Mark Sutton
Reconstructing the evolutionary assembly of animal body plans is challenging when there are large morphological gaps between extant sister taxa, as in the case of echinozoans (echinoids and holothurians). However, the inclusion of extinct taxa can help bridge these gaps. Here we describe a new species of echinozoan, Sollasina cthulhu, from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte, UK. S. cthulhu belongs to the ophiocistioids, an extinct group that shares characters with both echinoids and holothurians. Using physical-optical...

Data from: FOXP2 exhibits neuron class specific expression, but is not required for multiple aspects of cortical histogenesis

Ryan J. Kast, Alexandra L. Lanjewar, Colton D. Smith & Pat Levitt
The expression patterns of the transcription factor FOXP2 in the developing mammalian forebrain have been described, and some studies have tested the role of this protein in the development and function of specific forebrain circuits by diverse methods and in multiple species. Clinically, mutations in FOXP2 are associated with severe developmental speech disturbances, and molecular studies indicate that impairment of Foxp2 may lead to dysregulation of genes involved in forebrain histogenesis. Here, anatomical and molecular...

Data from: Molecular underpinnings and biogeochemical consequences of enhanced diatom growth in a warming Southern Ocean

Loay Jabre, Andrew E. Allen, J. Scott P. McCain, John P. McCrow, Nancy Tenenbaum, Jenna L. Spackeen, Rachel E. Sipler, Beverley R. Green, Deborah A. Bronk, David A. Hutchins & Erin M. Bertrand
The Southern Ocean (SO) harbours some of the most intense phytoplankton blooms on Earth. Changes in temperature and iron availability are expected to alter the intensity of SO phytoplankton blooms, but little is known about how environmental change will influence community composition and downstream biogeochemical processes. We performed experimental manipulations on surface ocean microbial communities from McMurdo Sound in the Ross Sea, with and without iron addition, at -0.5 °C, 3 °C, and 6 °C....

Data from: Variations of mesozoic feathers: insights from the morphogenesis of extant feather rachises

Shuo Wang, Wei-Ling Chang, Qiyue Zhang, Menglu Ma, Feng Yang, De Zhuo, Harn I-Chen Hans, Rui Yang, Ping Wu, Michael Bruce Habib, Wen-Tau Juan & Cheng-Ming Chuong
The rachises of extant feathers, composed of dense cortex and spongy internal medulla, are flexible and light, yet stiff enough to withstand the load required for flight, among other functions. Incomplete knowledge of early feathers prevents a full understanding of how cylindrical rachises have evolved. Bizarre feathers with unusually wide and flattened rachises, known as “rachis-dominated feathers” (RDFs) have been observed in fossil non-avian and avian theropods. Newly discovered RDFs embedded in early Late Cretaceous...

Frequency Matching Behavior in On-line MaxEnt Learners

Charlie O'Hara

Data from: Computed tomography shows high fracture prevalence among physically active forager-horticulturalists with high fertility

Jonathan Stieglitz, Benjamin C. Trumble, Study Team HORUS, Caleb Finch, Dong Li, Matthew J. Budoff, Hillard Kaplan & Michael Gurven
Modern humans have more fragile skeletons than other hominins, which may result from physical inactivity. Here we test whether reproductive effort also compromises bone strength, by measuring using computed tomography thoracic vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture prevalence among physically active Tsimane forager-horticulturalists. Earlier onset of reproduction and shorter interbirth intervals are associated with reduced BMD for women. Tsimane BMD is lower versus Americans, but only for women, contrary to simple predictions relying on...

2019 NSF Workshop on Connecting Large Facilities and Cyberinfrastructure

Ewa Deelman, Ilya Baldin, Brian Bockelman, Adam Bolton, Patrick Brady, Tom Cheatham, Laura Christopherson, Rafael Ferreira da Silva, Tom Gulbransen, Kate Keahey, Marina Kogan, Anirban Mandal, Angela Murillo, Jarek Nabrzyski, Valerio Pascucci, Steve Petruzza, Mats Rynge, Susan Sons, Dan Stanzione, Chaudhuri Surajit, Daryl Swensen, Alexander Szalay, Douglas Thain, John Towns, Charles Vardeman … & Jane Wyngaard

Osteology of the late Triassic bipedal archosaur Poposaurus gracilis (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia) from Western North America

Emma R. Schachner, Randall B. Irmis, Adam K. Huttenlocker, Kent Sanders, Robert L. Cieri & Sterling J. Nesbitt
Poposaurus gracilis is a bipedal pseudosuchian archosaur that has been poorly understood since the discovery of the holotype fragmentary partial postcranial skeleton in 1915. Poposaurus. gracilis is a member of Poposauroidea, an unusually morphologically divergent clade of pseudosuchians containing taxa that are bipedal, quadrupedal, toothed, edentulous, and some individuals with elongated thoracic neural spines (i.e., sails). In 2003, a well preserved, fully articulated, and nearly complete postcranial skeleton of P. gracilis was discovered with some...

Data from: Mid-Cretaceous amber inclusions reveal morphogenesis of extinct rachis-dominated feathers

Nathan Carroll, Luis M. Chiappe & David J. Bottjer
We describe three-dimensionally preserved feathers in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber that share macro-morphological similarities (e.g., proportionally wide rachis with a “medial stripe”) with lithic, two-dimensionally preserved rachis-dominated feathers. These feathers in amber reveal a unique ventrally concave and dorsoventrally thin rachis, and a dorsal groove (sometimes pigmented) that we identify as the “medial stripe” visible in many rachis-dominated rectrices of Mesozoic birds. The distally pennaceous portion of these feathers shows differentiated proximal and distal barbules, the...

Sex differences in moral judgements across 67 countries

Morteza Dehghani, Mohammad Atari, Mark Lai & Morteza Dehghani
Most of the empirical research on sex differences and cultural variations in morality has relied on within-culture analyses or small-scale cross-cultural data. To further broaden the scientific understanding of sex differences in morality, the current research relies on two international samples to provide the first large-scale examination of sex differences in moral judgements nested within cultures. Using a sample from 67 countries (Study 1; n = 336,691), we found culturally-variable sex differences in moral judgements,...

Recommended fossil calibrators for time-scaled molecular phylogenies of Afrotheria

Steven Heritage, Erik Seiffert & Matthew Borths
A phylogenetic framework provides the necessary evolutionary context for studies of comparative anatomy, life history, behavior, biogeography, systematics, and conservation. Time-scaled phylogenetic analyses require researchers to include calibration ages which are used to fit a model that transforms tree branch lengths into units of time. The inclusion of multiple calibration ages (if they are available) is a best practice that brings all the available evidence to bear on the temporal model. While selecting the appropriate...

Data from: Heritable variation and lack of tradeoffs suggest adaptive capacity in Acropora cervicornis despite negative synergism under climate change scenarios

Erinn Muller, Ashley Dungan, Wyatt Million, Katherine Eaton, Chelsea Petrik, Erich Bartels, Emily Hall & Carly Kenkel
Knowledge of multi-stressor interactions and the potential for trade-offs among tolerance traits is essential for developing intervention strategies for the conservation and restoration of reef ecosystems in a changing climate. Thermal extremes and acidification are two major co-occurring stresses predicted to limit the recovery of vital Caribbean reef-building corals. Here we conducted an aquaria-based experiment to quantify the effects of increased water temperatures and pCO2 individually and in concert on 12 genotypes of the endangered...

A high-throughput assay for quantifying phenotypic traits of microalgae

Phoebe Argyle, Jana Hinners, Nathan G. Walworth, Sinead Collins, Naomi M. Levine & Martina A. Doblin
High-throughput methods for phenotyping microalgae are in demand across a variety of research and commercial purposes. Many microalgae can be readily cultivated in multi-well plates for experimental studies which can reduce overall costs, while measuring traits from low volume samples can reduce handling. Here we develop a high-throughput quantitative phenotypic assay (QPA) that can be used to phenotype microalgae grown in multi-well plates. The QPA integrates 10 low-volume, relatively high-throughput trait measurements (growth rate, cell...

Food deprivation exposes sex-specific trade-offs between stress tolerance and lifespan in the copepod Tigriopus californicus

Ning Li, Ben A Flanagan & Suzanne Edmands
Long life is standardly assumed to be associated with high stress tolerance. Previous work shows that the copepod Tigriopus californicus breaks this rule, with longer lifespan under benign conditions found in males, the sex with lower stress tolerance. Here we extended this previous work, raising animals from the same families in food-replete conditions until adulthood and then transferring them to food-limited conditions until all animals perished. As in previous work, survivorship under food-replete conditions favored...

Multivariate trait analysis reveals diatom plasticity constrained to a reduced set of biological axes

Phoebe Argyle, Nathan G. Walworth, Jana Hinners, Sinéad Collins, Naomi M. Levine & Martina A. Doblin
Trait-based approaches to phytoplankton ecology have gained traction in recent decades as phenotypic traits are incorporated into ecological and biogeochemical models. Here, we use high-throughput phenotyping to explore both intra- and interspecific constraints on trait combinations that are expressed in the cosmopolitan marine diatom genus Thalassiosira. We demonstrate that within Thalassiosira, phenotypic diversity cannot be predicted from genotypic diversity, and moreover, plasticity can create highly divergent phenotypes that are incongruent with taxonomic grouping. Significantly, multivariate...

Vegetation and vantage point influence visibility across diverse ecosystems: implications for animal ecology

Rachel Stein, Bastien Lecigne, Eitel Jan, Timothy Johnson, Craig McGowan & Janet Rachlow
Visual information can influence animal behavior and habitat use in diverse ways. Visibility is the property that relates 3D habitat structure to accessibility of visual information. Despite the importance of visibility in animal ecology, this property remains largely unstudied. Our objective was to assess how habitat structure from diverse environments and animal position within that structure can influence visibility. We gathered terrestrial lidar data (1 cm at 10 m) in four ecosystems (forest, shrub-steppe, prairie,...

Deep multiview learning to identify imaging-driven subtypes in mild cognitive impairment

Yixue Feng, Mansu Kim, Xiaohui Yao, Kefei Liu, Qi Long & Li Shen
Abstract Background In Alzheimer’s Diseases (AD) research, multimodal imaging analysis can unveil complementary information from multiple imaging modalities and further our understanding of the disease. One application is to discover disease subtypes using unsupervised clustering. However, existing clustering methods are often applied to input features directly, and could suffer from the curse of dimensionality with high-dimensional multimodal data. The purpose of our study is to identify multimodal imaging-driven subtypes in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) participants...

Impacts of menopause hormone therapy on mood disorders among postmenopausal women

P. Feng, L. Lin, Y. Wang, L. Chen, J. Min, Y. Xie, M. Liu, S. Wei, S. Lin & Q. Yu
This study aimed to explore the modulatory effects of menopause hormone therapy (MHT) on mood disorders among postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was conducted to recruit postmenopausal women, including patients (arranged MHT for over 3 years as the medication group) and non-MHT controls. All participants were asked to respond to the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7) questionnaires to assess their depression and anxiety status. A total of...

Additional file 1 of Age- and sex-related differences in the retinal capillary plexus in healthy Chinese adults

Binbin Su, Xiaoxuan Zhu, Kai Yang, Yunfan Xiao, Chunmei Li, Keai Shi, Jia Qu, Fan Lu, Ming Li & Lele Cui
Additional file 1: Figure S1. Vessel densities of the whole measured area, parafovea, and four quadrants (temporal, superior, nasal, and inferior) in the (a, c) SCP and (b, d) DCP measured with optical coherence tomography angiography stratified by age in males and females. Table S1. Baseline characteristics of male participants in the study. Table S2. Baseline characteristics of female participants in the study. Table S3. Vessel densities of the whole measured area, parafovea, and four...

Additional file 1 of Analgesic efficacy of adding the IPACK block to multimodal analgesia protocol for primary total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Xiumei Tang, Yahao Lai, Siwei Du & Ning Ning
Additional file 1. The search strategy of our study.

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