175 Works

Data from: Is sexual selection driving diversification of the bioluminescent ponyfishes (Teleostei: Leiognathidae)?

Prosanta Chakrabarty, Matthew P Davis, W. Leo Smith, Zachary H Baldwin & John S Sparks
Sexual selection is a mechanism of speciation that theoretically could provide genetic isolation among populations and lead to an increase in diversification rates. In this study, we investigate the impact of potential sexual selection on the tempo and mode of ponyfish evolution. Ponyfishes (Leiognathidae) are bioluminescent marine fishes that exhibit sexually-dimorphic features of their unique light-organ system (LOS). Given that some leiognathid species have a sexually dimorphic LOS, whereas others do not, this family provides...

Data from: Resolution of a Supertree/Supermatrix Paradox

John Gatesy, Conrad Matthee, Rob DeSalle & Cheryl Hayashi
Gatesy et al Data SetSuperArtio-1.dat

Data from: Identifying heterogeneity in rates of morphological evolution: discrete character change in the evolution of lungfish (Sarcopterygii; Dipnoi)

Graeme T Lloyd, Steve C Wang & Stephen L Brusatte
Quantifying rates of morphological evolution is important in many macroevolutionary studies, and critical when assessing possible adaptive radiations and episodes of punctuated equilibrium in the fossil record. However, studies of morphological rates of change have lagged behind those on taxonomic diversification, and most authors have focused on continuous characters and quantifying patterns of morphological rates over time. Here, we provide a phylogenetic approach, using discrete characters and three statistical tests to determine points on a...

Data from: Do different disparity proxies converge on a common signal? Insights from the cranial morphometrics and evolutionary history of Pterosauria (Diapsida: Archosauria)

Christian Foth, Stephen L. Brusatte & Richard J. Butler
Disparity, or morphological diversity, is often quantified by evolutionary biologists investigating the macroevolutionary history of clades over geological timescales. Disparity is typically quantified using proxies for morphology, such as measurements, discrete anatomical characters, or geometric morphometrics. If different proxies produce differing results, then the accurate quantification of disparity in deep time may be problematic. However, despite this, few studies have attempted to examine disparity of a single clade using multiple morphological proxies. Here, as a...

Data from: Differences in caste dimorphism among three hornet species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): forewing size, shape and allometry

Adrien Perrard, Claire Villemant, James M. Carpenter & Michel Baylac
Caste shape dimorphism (CShD) has previously been studied in wasps through comparison of different body parts, originating from different imaginal discs. Using geometric morphometrics with a new protocol for measuring wings of pinned specimens from natural history collections, we tested CShD of three hornet species in an organ developed from a single imaginal disc: the forewing. Gaussian Mixture Models retrieved most castes and species levels confirming that caste is an important component of wing variations...

Data from: Systematics of spiny-backed treefrogs (Hylidae: Osteocephalus): an Amazonian puzzle

Karl-Heinz Jungfer, Julián Faivovich, José M. Padial, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, Mariana M. Lyra, Bianca Von Muller Berneck, Patricia P. Iglesias, Philippe J. R. Kok, Ross T. Macculloch, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Vanessa K. Verdade, Claudia P. Torres Gastello, Juan Carlos Chaparro, Paula H. Valdujo, Steffen Reichle, Jiří Moravec, Václav Gvoždík, Giussepe Gagliardi-Urrutia, Raffael Ernst, Ignacio De La Riva, Donald Bruce Means, Albertina P. Lima, J. Celsa Señaris, Ward C. Wheeler & Célio F. B. Haddad
Spiny-backed tree frogs of the genus Osteocephalus are conspicuous components of the tropical wet forests of the Amazon and the Guiana Shield. Here, we revise the phylogenetic relationships of Osteocephalus and its sister group Tepuihyla, using up to 6134 bp of DNA sequences of nine mitochondrial and one nuclear gene for 338 specimens from eight countries and 218 localities, representing 89% of the 28 currently recognized nominal species. Our phylogenetic analyses reveal (i) the paraphyly...

Data from: Host specificity shapes population structure of pinworm parasites in Caribbean reptiles

Bryan G. Falk & Susan L. Perkins
Host specificity is one of the potential factors affecting parasite diversification because gene flow may be facilitated or constrained by the number of host species that a parasite can exploit. We test this hypothesis using a costructure approach, comparing two sympatric pinworm parasites that differ in host specificity – Parapharyngodon cubensis and Spauligodon anolis – on the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix in the Caribbean. Spauligodon anolis specializes on Anolis lizards, whereas P. cubensis...

Data from: Population differentiation of 2 forms of Bryde’s whales in the Indian and Pacific Oceans

Francine Kershaw, Matthew S. Leslie, Tim Collins, Rubaiyat M. Mansur, Brian D. Smith, Gianna Minton, Robert Baldwin, Richard G. LeDuc, R. Charles Anderson, & Howard C. Rosenbaum
Accurate identification of units for conservation is particularly challenging for marine species as obvious barriers to gene flow are generally lacking. Bryde’s whales (Balaenoptera spp.) are subject to multiple human-mediated stressors, including fisheries bycatch, ship strikes, and scientific whaling by Japan. For effective management, a clear understanding of how populations of each Bryde’s whale species/subspecies are genetically structured across their range is required. We conducted a population-level analysis of mtDNA control region sequences with 56...

Data from: The early diversification history of didelphid marsupials: a window into South America’s “Splendid Isolation”

Sharon A. Jansa, F. Keith Barker & Robert S. Voss
The geological record of South American mammals is spatially biased because productive fossil sites are concentrated at high latitudes. As a result, the history of mammalian diversification in Amazonia and other tropical biomes is largely unknown. Here we report diversification analyses based on a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of opossums (Didelphidae), a species-rich clade of mostly tropical marsupials descended from a Late Oligocene common ancestor. Optimizations of habitat and geography on this phylogeny suggest that (1)...

Data from: Taxon cycle predictions supported by model-based inference in Indo-Pacific trap-jaw ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Odontomachus)

Pável Matos-Maraví, Nicholas J. Matzke, Fredrick J. Larabee, Ronald M. Clouse, Ward C. Wheeler, Daniela Magdalena Sorger, Andrew V. Suarez & Milan Janda
Non-equilibrium dynamics and non-neutral processes, such as trait-dependent dispersal, are often missing from quantitative island biogeography models despite their potential explanatory value. One of the most influential non-equilibrium models is the taxon cycle, but it has been difficult to test its validity as a general biogeographical framework. Here, we test predictions of the taxon-cycle model using six expected phylogenetic patterns and a time-calibrated phylogeny of Indo-Pacific Odontomachus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae), one of the ant genera...

Ecological and evolutionary drivers of hemoplasma infection and genotype sharing in a Neotropical bat community

Daniel Becker, Kelly Speer, Alexis Brown, Alex Washburne, Brock Fenton, Sonia Altizer, Daniel Streicker, Raina Plowright, Vladimir Chizhikov, Nancy Simmons & Dmitriy Volokhov
Most emerging pathogens can infect multiple species, underscoring the importance of understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors that allow some hosts to harbor greater infection prevalence and share pathogens with other species. However, our understanding of pathogen jumps is primarily based around viruses, despite bacteria accounting for the greatest proportion of zoonoses. Because bacterial pathogens in bats (Order: Chiroptera) can have conservation and human health consequences, studies that examine the ecological and evolutionary drivers of...

Data from: Assessing support for Blaberoidea phylogeny suggests optimal locus

Dominic Evangelista, Sabrina Simon, Megan M. Wilson, Akito Y. Kawahara, Manpreet K. Kohli, Jessica L. Ware, Benjamin Wipfler, Olivier Béthoux, Grandcolas Philippe & Frédéric Legendre
Phylogenomics seeks to use next-generation data to robustly infer an organism’s evolutionary history. Yet, the practical caveats of phylogenomics motivates investigation of improved efficiency, particularly when quality of phylogenies are questionable. To achieve improvements, one goal is to maintain or enhance the quality of phylogenetic inference while severely reducing dataset size. We approach this by assessing which kinds of loci in phylogenomic alignments provide the majority of support for a phylogenetic inference of cockroaches in...

Population genetic structure of the insular Ryukyu flying fox Pteropus dasymallus

Shiang-Fan Chen, Chung-Hao Juan, Stephen J. Rossiter, Teruo Kinjo, Dai Fukui, Kuniko Kawai, Susan M. Tsang, Maria Josefa Veluz, Hiroko Sakurai, Hua-Ching Lin, Nian-Hong Jang-Liaw, Keiko Osawa, Wen-Ya Ko & Masako Izawa
Small isolated populations are vulnerable to both stochastic events and the negative consequences of genetic drift. For threatened species, the genetic management of such populations has therefore become a crucial aspect of conservation. Flying foxes (Pteropus spp, Chiroptera) are keystone species with essential roles in pollination and seed dispersal in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. However, many flying fox species are also threatened, having experienced dramatic population declines driven by habitat loss and hunting. The insular...

Data from: Quantifying the human impacts on Papua New Guinea reef fish communities across space and time

Joshua A. Drew, Ruth A. Hufbauer & Kathryn L. Amatangelo
Describing the drivers of species loss and of community change are important goals in both conservation and ecology. However, it is difficult to determine whether exploited species decline due to direct effects of harvesting or due to other environmental perturbations brought about by proximity to human populations. Here we quantify differences in species richness of coral reef fish communities along a human population gradient in Papua New Guinea to understand the relative impacts of fishing...

Data from: Spatial overlap in a solitary carnivore: support for the land-tenure, kinship, or resource dispersion hypotheses?

L. Mark Elbroch, Patrick E. Lendrum, Howard Quigley & Anthony Caragiulo
1. There are several alternative hypotheses about the effects of territoriality, kinship, and prey availability on individual carnivore distributions within populations. The first is the land-tenure hypothesis, which predicts that carnivores regulate their density through territoriality and temporal avoidance. The second is the kinship hypothesis, which predicts related individuals will be clumped within populations, and the third is the resource dispersion hypothesis, which suggests that resource richness may explain variable sociality, spatial overlap, or temporary...

Data from: Laetoli footprints reveal bipedal gait biomechanics different from those of modern humans and chimpanzees

Kevin G. Hatala, Brigitte Demes & Brian G. Richmond
Bipedalism is a key adaptation that shaped human evolution, yet the timing and nature of its evolution remain unclear. Here we use new experimentally based approaches to investigate the locomotor mechanics preserved by the famous Pliocene hominin footprints from Laetoli, Tanzania. We conducted footprint formation experiments with habitually barefoot humans and with chimpanzees to quantitatively compare their footprints to those preserved at Laetoli. Our results show that the Laetoli footprints are morphologically distinct from those...

Data from: Livestock abundance predicts vampire bat demography, immune profiles, and bacterial infection risk

Daniel J. Becker, Gábor Á. Czirják, Dmitriy V. Volokhov, Alexandra B. Bentz, Jorge E. Carrera, Melinda S. Camus, Kristen J. Navara, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, M. Brock Fenton, Nancy B. Simmons, Sergio E. Recuenco, Amy T. Gilbert, Sonia Altizer & Daniel G. Streicker
Human activities create novel food resources that can alter wildlife–pathogen interactions. If resources amplify or dampen pathogen transmission likely depends on both host ecology and pathogen biology, but studies that measure responses to provisioning across both scales are rare. We tested these relationships with a four-year study of 369 common vampire bats across ten sites in Peru and Belize that differ in the abundance of livestock, an important anthropogenic food source. We quantified innate and...

Data from: Evolutionary changes in pubic orientation in dinosaurs are more strongly correlated with the ventilation system than with herbivory

Loredana Macaluso & Emanuel Tschopp
Among dinosaurs, the pubis has convergently retroverted four times in Maniraptora (Theropoda) and once in Ornithischia. Although a clear correlation has not been demonstrated, it has been previously proposed that two traits were related to pubic retroversion: the reduced importance of cuirassal ventilation, and a herbivorous diet. Here, we analyse the possible influence of these traits on pubis orientation. Cuirassal ventilation was plesiomorphically present as an accessory ventilation mechanism in Dinosauria and was powered by...

Data from: Using terrestrial haematophagous leeches to enhance tropical biodiversity monitoring programmes in Bangladesh

Sarah R. Weiskopf, Kyle P. McCarthy, Michael Tessler, Hasan A. Rahman, Jennifer L. McCarthy, Rebecca Hersch, Mohammad M. Faisal & Mark E. Siddall
1. Measuring mammal biodiversity in tropical rainforests is challenging, and methods which reduce effort while maximizing success are crucial for long-term monitoring programmes. Commonly used methods to assess mammal biodiversity may require substantial sampling effort to be effective. Genetic methods are a new and important sampling tool on the horizon, but obtaining sufficient DNA samples can be a challenge. 2. We evaluated the efficacy of using parasitic leeches Haemadipsa spp., as compared to camera trapping,...

Data from: Ecological divergence and sexual selection drive sexual size dimorphism in new world pitvipers (Serpentes: Viperidae)

Catriona R. Hendry, Timothy J. Guiher & Robert A. Pyron
Hypotheses for the origin and maintenance of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) fall into three primary categories: (i) sexual selection on male size, (ii) fecundity selection on female size and (iii) ecological selection for gender-specific niche divergence. We investigate the impact of these forces on SSD evolution in New World pitvipers (Crotalinae). We constructed a phylogeny from up to eight genes (seven mitochondrial, one nuclear) for 104 species of NW crotalines. We gathered morphological and ecological...

Data from: Predicting community structure in snakes on Eastern Nearctic islands using ecological neutral theory and phylogenetic methods

Frank T. Burbrink, Alexander D. McKelvy, R. Alexander Pyron & Edward A. Myers
Predicting species presence and richness on islands is important for understanding the origins of communities and how likely it is that species will disperse and resist extinction. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography (ETIB) and, as a simple model of sampling abundances, the unified neutral theory of biodiversity (UNTB), predict that in situations where mainland to island migration is high, species-abundance relationships explain the presence of taxa on islands. Thus, more abundant mainland species should...

Data from: Malagasy cichlids differentially limit impacts of body shape evolution on oral jaw functional morphology

Christopher M. Martinez & John Steven Sparks
Patterns of trait covariation, like integration and modularity, are vital factors that influence the evolution of vertebrate body plans. In functional systems, decoupling of morphological modules buffers functional change in one trait by reducing correlated variation with another. However, for complex morphologies with many-to-one mapping of form to function (MTOM), resistance to functional change may also be achieved by constraining morphological variation within a functionally stable region of morphospace. For this research, we used geometric...

Data from: From success to persistence: Identifying an evolutionary regime shift in the diverse Paleozoic aquatic arthropod group Eurypterida, driven by the Devonian biotic crisis

James C. Lamsdell & Paul A. Selden
Mass extinctions have altered the trajectory of evolution a number of times over the Phanerozoic. During these periods of biotic upheaval a different selective regime appears to operate, although it is still unclear whether consistent survivorship rules apply across different extinction events. We compare variations in diversity and disparity across the evolutionary history of a major Paleozoic arthropod group, the Eurypterida. Using these data, we explore the group's transition from a successful, dynamic clade to...

Data from: Range-wide snow leopard phylogeography supports three subspecies

Jan E. Janecka, Yu-Quang Zhang, Di-Qiang Li, Munkhtsog Bariushaa, Bayaraa Munkhtsog, Galsandorj Naranbaatar, Wangchuk R. Tshewang, Karmacharya Dibesh, McCarthy Thomas, Li Juan, Zhi Lu, Zhumabai Uulu Kubanychbek, Gaur Ajay, Kumar Satish, B. Kumar Kesav, Hussain Shafqat, Muhammad Ghulam, Jevit Matthew, Hacker Charlotte, Burger Pamela, Wultsch Claudia, Janecka J. Mary, Helgen Kristofer, Murphy J. William & Jackson Rodney
The snow leopard, Panthera uncia, is an elusive high-altitude specialist that inhabits vast, inaccessible habitat across Asia. We conducted the first range-wide genetic assessment of snow leopards based on noninvasive scat surveys. Thirty-three microsatellites were genotyped and a total of 683-bp of mitochondrial DNA sequenced in 70 individuals. Snow leopards exhibited low genetic diversity at microsatellites (AN = 5.8, HO = 0.433, HE = 0.568), virtually no mtDNA variation, and underwent a bottleneck in the...

Data from: Genetics of urban colonization: neutral and adaptive variation in coyotes (Canis latrans) inhabiting the New York metropolitan area

Alexandra L. DeCandia, Carol S. Henger, Amelia Krause, Linda J. Gormezano, Mark Weckel, Christopher Nagy, Jason Munshi-South & Bridgett M. VonHoldt
Theory predicts that range expansion results in genetic diversity loss in colonizing populations. Rapid reduction of population size exacerbates negative effects of genetic drift, while sustained isolation decreases neutral variation. Amid this demographic change, natural selection can act to maintain functional diversity. Thus, characterizing neutral and functional variation is critical for disentangling the evolutionary forces that shape genetic variation in newly established populations. Coyotes (Canis latrans) provide an ideal study system for examining the genetic...

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