217 Works

Data from: Widespread gene flow between oceans in a pelagic seabird species complex

Claire Raisin, Deborah A. Dawson, Helen Hipperson, Gavin J. Horsburgh, Jim J. Groombridge, Stefanie M.H. Ismar, Paul Sweet, Carl G. Jones, Vikash Tatayah, Kevin Ruhomaun, Norris Ken, Katherine A. Booth Jones, Malcolm A.C. Nicoll, Malcolm A. C. Nicoll, Ken Norris & Stefanie M. H. Ismar
Global-scale gene flow is an important concern in conservation biology as it has the potential to either increase or decrease genetic diversity in species and populations. Although many studies focus on the gene flow between different populations of a single species, the potential for gene flow and introgression between species is understudied, particularly in seabirds. The only well-studied example of a mixed-species, hybridizing population of petrels exists on Round Island, in the Indian Ocean. Previous...

Data from: The position of Cetacea within Mammalia: phylogenetic analysis of morphological data from extinct and extant taxa

Maureen A. O'Leary & Jonathan H. Geisler
Knowledge of the phylogenetic position of the order Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) within Mammalia is of central importance to evolutionary biologists studying the transformations of biological form and function that accompanied the shift from fully terrestrial to fully aquatic life in this clade. Phylogenies based on molecular data and those based on morphological data both place cetaceans among ungulates but are incongruent in other respects. Morphologists argue that cetaceans are most closely related to...

Data from: Evaluating behavioral responses of nesting lesser snow geese to unmanned aircraft surveys

Andrew Barnas, Robert Newman, Christopher J. Felege, Michael P. Corcoran, Samuel D. Hervey, Tanner J. Stechmann, Robert F. Rockwell & Susan N. Ellis-Felege
Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are relatively new technologies gaining popularity among wildlife biologists. As with any new tool in wildlife science, operating protocols must be developed through rigorous protocol testing. Few studies have been conducted that quantify the impacts UAS may have on unhabituated individuals in the wild using standard aerial survey protocols. We evaluated impacts of unmanned surveys by measuring UAS-induced behavioral responses during the nesting phase of lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens)...

Data from: Enigmatic hook-like structures in Mesozoic ammonites (Scaphitidae)

Isabelle Kruta, Jeremie Bardin, Christopher Smith, Paul Tafforeau & Neil Landman
In the last few decades, hook-like structures have been reported in the Mesozoic ammonite family Scaphitidae. Despite their exceptional preservation and debates about their function, no detailed reconstruction of them has yet been made. For the first time, we describe the composition and detailed morphology of these structures in the body chambers of six specimens of the Campanian ammonite Rhaeboceras halli (Meek and Hayden) using high resolution X-ray imaging. The hook-like structures are composed of...

Data from: Ontogeny of the trilobite Elrathia kingii (Meek, 1870), and comparison of growth rates between Elrathia kingii and Aulacopleura koninckii (Barrande, 1846)

Melanie J Hopkins
Trilobites offer almost unparalleled insight into the growth and development of fossil ecdysozoans. Here I use newly collected material of Elrathia kingii (Meek, 1870) to estimate growth rates and describe shape change over the ontogeny of E. kingii. Well-preserved, articulated specimens from all post-embryonic stages were collected from a 1.5-meter interval of the upper Wheeler Formation (Miaolingian Series, Cambrian) in western Utah (USA), and size and landmark-based shape data were digitized from photographs. Growth rates...

Data from: Redescription and phylogenetic affinities of the caimanine Eocaiman cavernensis (Crocodylia, Alligatoroidea) from the Eocene of Argentina

Pedro L. Godoy, Giovanne Cidade, Felipe Montefeltro, Max Langer & Mark Norell
Caimaninae is one of the few crocodylian lineages that still has living representatives. Today, most of its six extant species are restricted to South and Central America. However, recent discoveries revealed a more complex evolutionary history, with a fossil record richer than previously thought and a possible North American origin. Among the oldest caimanines is Eocaiman cavernensis, from the Eocene of Patagonia, Argentina. It was described by George G. Simpson in the 1930s, representing the...

Is Niagara Falls a barrier to gene flow in riverine fishes? A test using genome-wide SNP data from seven native species

Nathan Lujan, Jason Weir, Brice Noonan, Nathan Lovejoy & Nicholas Mandrak
Since the early Holocene, fish population genetics in the Laurentian Great Lakes have been shaped by the dual influences of habitat structure and post-glacial dispersal. Riverscape genetics theory predicts that longitudinal habitat corridors and unidirectional downstream water-flow drive the downstream accumulation of genetic diversity, whereas post-glacial dispersal theory predicts that fish genetic diversity should decrease with increasing distance from glacial refugia. This study examines populations of seven native fish species codistributed above and below the...

Data from: Patterns of intraspecific variation through ontogeny–a case study of the Cretaceous nautilid Eutrephoceras dekayi and modern Nautilus pompilius

Amane Tajika, Neil Landman, Naoki Morimoto, Kenji Ikuno & Tom Linn
The magnitude and ontogenetic patterns of intraspecific variation can provide important insights into the evolution and development of organisms. Understanding the intraspecific variation of organisms is a key to correctly pursuing studies in major fields of palaeontology. However, intraspecific variation has been largely overlooked in ectocochleate cephalopods, particularly nautilids. Furthermore, little is known regarding the evolutionary pattern. Here, we present morphological data for the Cretaceous nautilid Eutrephoceras dekayi (Morton, 1834) and the modern nautilid Nautilus...

Shifting ecosystem connectivity during the Pleistocene drove diversification and gene-flow in a species-complex of Neotropical birds (Tityridae: Pachyramphus)

Lukas Musher, Peter Galante, Gregory Thom, Jerry Huntley & Mary Blair
Aim: We aim to test the biogeographic drivers of diversification and gene-flow at the Isthmus of Panama using a species complex of suboscine birds as a case study. We specifically evaluate whether diversification in these birds is better explained by continuous parapatry or a Refuge Model of periodic isolation and gene-flow due glacial cycling. Location: The Isthmus of Panama (Neotropics) Taxon: Pachyramphus aglaiae and P. homochrous (Aves: Tityridae) Methods: We develop an approach to distinguish...

Ancient horse genomes reveal the timing and extent of dispersals across the Bering Land Bridge

Alisa Vershinina, Peter Heintzman, Duane Froese, Grant Zazula, Molly Cassatt-Johnstone, Love Dalén, Clio Der Sarkissian, Shelby Dunn, Luca Ermini, Cristina Gamba, Pamela Groves, Joshua Kapp, Daniel Mann, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, John Southon, Mathias Stiller, Matthew Wooller, Gennady Baryshnikov, Dmitry Gimranov, Eric Scott, Elizabeth Hall, Susan Hewitson, Irina Kirillova, Pavel Kosintsev, Fedor Shidlovsky … & Beth Shapiro
The Bering Land Bridge (BLB) last connected Eurasia and North America during the Pleistocene. Although the BLB would have enabled transfers of terrestrial biota in both directions, it also acted as an ecological filter whose permeability varied considerably over time. Here we explore the possible impacts of this ecological corridor on genetic diversity within, and connectivity among, populations of a once wide-ranging group, the caballine horses (Equus spp.). Using a panel of 187 mitochondrial and...

Interrogating discordance resolves relationships in the rapid radiation of Old World fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae)

Nicolas Nesi, Stephen Rossiter, Michael McGowen, Georgia Tsagkogeorga, Burton Lim, Susan Tsang, Violaine Nicolas, Aude Lalis, Silke Riesle Sbarbaro, Sigit Wiantoro, Alan Hitch, Javier Juste, Corinna Pinzari, Frank Bonaccorso, Nancy Simmons, Annette Scanlon & Christopher Todd
The family Pteropodidae (Old World fruit bats) comprises >200 species distributed across the Old World tropics and subtropics. Most pteropodids feed on fruit, suggesting an early origin of frugivory, although several lineages have shifted to nectar-based diets. Pteropodids are of exceptional conservation concern with >50% of species considered threatened, yet the systematics of this group has long been debated, with uncertainty surrounding early splits attributed to an ancient rapid diversification. Resolving the relationships among the...

Datafile - In situ adaptation and ecological release facilitate the occupied niche expansion of an invasive Madagascan day gecko in Florida

Thomas Fieldsend, Nicolas Dubos, Kenneth Krysko, Christopher Raxworthy & Sparkle Malone
Aim To investigate whether the frequently advocated climate-matching species distribution modelling approach could predict the well-characterized colonization of Florida by the Madagascar giant day gecko Phelsuma grandis. Location Madagascar and Florida, USA. Methods To determine the climatic conditions associated with the native range of P. grandis, we used native-range presence-only records and Bioclim climatic data to build a Maxent species distribution model and projected the climatic thresholds of the native range onto Florida. We then...

Decoupled dust deposition and ocean productivity in the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean over the past 1.5 million years

Michael E. Weber , Ian Bailey , Sidney R. Hemming , Yasmina M. Martos , Brendan T. Reilly , Thomas A. Ronge , Stefanie Brachfeld , Trevor Williams , Maureen Raymo , Simon T. Belt , Hendrik Vogel , Victoria Peck , Linda Armbrecht , Alix Cage , Fabricio G. Cardillo , Zhiheng Du , Gerson Fauth , Christopher J. Fogwill , Marga Garcia , Marlo Garnsworthy , Anna Glüder , Michelle Guitard , Marcus Gutjahr , Iván Hernández-Almeida , Frida S. Hoem … & Xufeng Zheng
Southern Ocean paleoceanography provides key insights into how iron fertilization and oceanic productivity developed through Pleistocene ice-ages and their role in influencing the carbon cycle. We report the first high-resolution record of dust deposition and ocean productivity for the Antarctic Zone, close to the main dust source, Patagonia. Our deep-ocean records cover the last 1.5 Ma, thus doubling that from Antarctic ice-cores. We find a ≥10-fold increase in dust deposition during glacials and a ≤5-fold...

Data from: Climatic suitability, isolation by distance and river resistance explain genetic variation in a Brazilian whiptail lizard

Eliana F. Oliveira, Pablo A. Martinez, Vinicius A. São-Pedro, Marcelo Gehara, Frank T. Burbrink, Daniel O. Mesquita, Adrian A. Garda, Guarino R. Colli & Gabriel C. Costa
Spatial patterns of genetic variation can help understand how environmental factors either permit or restrict gene flow and create opportunities for regional adaptations. Organisms from harsh environments such as the Brazilian semiarid Caatinga biome may reveal how severe climate conditions may affect patterns of genetic variation. Herein we combine information from mitochondrial DNA with physical and environmental features to study the association between different aspects of the Caatinga landscape and spatial genetic variation in the...

Data from: Combined Support for Wholesale Taxic Atavism in Gavialine Crocodylians

John Gatesy, George Amato, Mark Norell, Rob DeSalle & Cheryl Hayashi
Morphological and molecular data sets favor robustly supported, contradictory interpretations of crocodylian phylogeny. A longstanding perception in the field of systematics is that such significantly conflicting data sets should be analyzed separately. Here we utilize a combined approach, simultaneous analysis of all relevant character data, to summarize common support and to reconcile discrepancies among data sets. By conjoining rather than separating incongruent classes of data, secondary phylogenetic signals emerge from both molecular and morphological character...

Data from: Molecular phylogenetics, species diversity, and biogeography of the Andean lizards Proctoporus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae)

Noemi Goicoechea, Jose M. Padial, Juan C. Chaparro, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher & Ignacio De La Riva
The family Gymnophthalmidae comprises ca. 220 described species of Neotropical lizards distributed from southern Mexico to Argentina. It includes 36 genera, among them Proctoporus, which contains six currently recognized species occurring across the yungas forests and wet montane grasslands of the Amazonian versant of the Andes from central Peru to central Bolivia. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic relationships and species limits of Proctoporus and closely related taxa by analyzing 2121 base pairs of mitochondrial (12S,...

Data from: Flightless birds are not neuroanatomical analogs of non-avian dinosaurs

Maria Eugenia Leone Gold & Akinobu Watanabe
Background: In comparative neurobiology, major transitions in behavior are thought to be associated with proportional size changes in brain regions. Bird-line theropod dinosaurs underwent a drastic locomotory shift from terrestrial to volant forms, accompanied by a suite of well-documented postcranial adaptations. To elucidate the potential impact of this locomotor shift on neuroanatomy, we first tested for a correlation between loss of flight in extant birds and whether the brain morphology of these birds resembles that...

Data from: Rate of evolutionary change in cranial morphology of the marsupial genus Monodelphis is constrained by the availability of additive genetic variation

Arthur Porto, Harley Sebastião, Silvia Eliza Pavan, John L. VandeBerg, Gabriel Marroig & James M. Cheverud
We tested the hypothesis that the rate of marsupial cranial evolution is dependent on the distribution of genetic variation in multivariate space. To do so, we carried out a genetic analysis of cranial morphological variation in laboratory strains of Monodelphis domestica and used estimates of genetic covariation to analyze the morphological diversification of the Monodelphis brevicaudata species group. We found that within-species genetic variation is concentrated in only a few axes of the morphospace and...

Data from: Gradual assembly of avian body plan culminated in rapid rates of evolution across dinosaur-bird transition

Stephen L. Brusatte, Graeme T. Lloyd, Steve C. Wang & Mark A. Norell
Brusatte et al. 2014 Current Biology Dryad File1Supplementary appendices: list of phylogenetic characters, phylogenetic character-taxon matrix, list of taxon ages, list of supplementary figure captions (relevant to Dryad File 2)BrusatteetalRevisionDryadFile1.docxBrusatte et al. 2014 Current Biology Dryad File2Supplementary figuresBrusatteetalRevisionDryadFile2.pdfBrusatte et al. 2014 Current Biology Dryad File3R code (Graeme T. Lloyd)BrusatteetalRevisionDryadFile3.zip

Data from: Population genetics of fruit bat reservoir informs the dynamics, distribution, and diversity of Nipah virus

Kevin J. Olival, Latinne Alice, Islam Ariful, Epstein H. Jonathan, Hersch Rebecca, Engstrand C. Rachel, Gurley S. Emily, George Amato, Luby P. Stephen & Daszak Peter
The structure and connectivity of wildlife host populations may influence zoonotic disease dynamics, evolution, and therefore spillover risk to people. Fruit bats in the genus Pteropus, or flying foxes, are the primary natural reservoir for henipaviruses - a group of emerging paramyxoviruses that threaten livestock and public health. In Bangladesh, Pteropus medius is the reservoir for Nipah virus - and viral spillover has led to human fatalities nearly every year since 2001. Here we use...

Systematic revision of the arboreal Neotropical ‘Thorellii’ clade of Centruroides Marx, 1890 bark scorpions (Buthidae c.l. Koch, 1837) with descriptions of six new species

Aaron Goodman, Lorenzo Prendini, Oscar Francke & Lauren Esposito
The arboreal Neotropical ‘thorellii’ clade of Centruroides Marx, 1890 bark scorpions (Buthidae C.L. Koch, 1837) is revised, using a novel approach to species delimitation. A phylogenetic analysis, based on 112 morphological characters and 1078 aligned DNA nucleotides from the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (COI) gene, provided the framework for placing singletons from geographically disparate localities (and often with suboptimal preservation) using COI minibarcodes, thereby enlarging the taxon sample for diagnosis and delimitation of...

High-density 3-D coordinate data of avian and non-avian dinosaur endocasts

Akinobu Watanabe, Amy Balanoff, Paul Gignac, M. Eugenia Gold & Mark Norell
How do large and unique brains evolve? Historically, comparative neuroanatomical studies have attributed the evolutionary genesis of highly encephalized brains to deviations along, as well as from, conserved scaling relationships among brain regions. However, the relative contributions of these concerted (integrated) and mosaic (modular) processes as drivers of brain evolution remain unclear, especially in non-mammalian groups. While proportional brain sizes have been the predominant metric used to characterize brain morphology to date, we perform a...

Volcanism and paleoclimate change drive diversification of world’s largest whip spider (Amblypygi)

Frederic Dominique Schramm, Alejandro Valdez-Mondragón & Lorenzo Prendini
The tropics contain many of the most biodiverse regions on Earth but the processes responsible for generating this diversity remain poorly understood. This study investigated the drivers of diversification in arthropods with stenotopic ecological requirements and limited dispersal capability using as model the monotypic whip spider (Amblypygi) genus Acanthophrynus, widespread in the tropical deciduous forests of Mexico. We hypothesized that for these organisms, the tropical deciduous forests serve as a conduit for dispersal, with their...

Resolving spatial complexities of hybridization in the context of the gray zone of speciation in North American ratsnakes (Pantherophis obsoletus complex)

Frank Burbrink, Marcelo Gehara, Alexander McKelvy & Edward Myers
Inferring the history of divergence between species in a framework that permits the presence of gene flow has been crucial for characterizing the “gray zone” of speciation, which is the period of time where lineages have diverged but have not yet achieved strict reproductive isolation. However, estimates of both divergence times and rates of gene flow often ignore spatial information, for example when considering the location and width of hybrid zones with respect to changes...

Ecological divergence and the history of gene flow in the Nearctic milksnakes (Lampropeltis triangulum complex)

Frank Burbrink
Many phylogeographic studies on species with large ranges have found genetic-geographic structure associated with changes in habitat and physical barriers preventing or reducing gene flow. These interactions with the geographic space, contemporary and historical climate, and biogeographic barriers may have complex effects on population genetic structure and speciation. While allopatric speciation at biogeographic barriers is considered the primary mechanism for generating species, more recently it has been shown that parapatric modes of divergence may be...

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  • American Museum of Natural History
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