217 Works

Community phylogeographic patterns reveal how a barrier filters and structures taxa in North American warm deserts

Kaiya Provost, Edward A. Myers & Brian Smith
Aim: The study of biogeographic barriers has been instrumental in understanding the evolution and distribution of taxa. With the increasing availability of empirical datasets, emergent patterns can be inferred from communities by synthesizing how barriers filter and structure populations across species. We assemble phylogeographic data across a barrier and perform spatially-explicit simulations to quantify spatiotemporal patterns of divergence, the influence of species traits on these patterns, and the statistical power needed to differentiate alternative diversification...

Data from: Accelerated diversification explains the exceptional species richness of tropical characoid fishes

Bruno Melo, Brian Sidlauskas, Thomas Near, Fabio Roxo, Ava Ghezelayagh, Luz Ochoa, Melanie Stiassny, Jairo Arroyave, Jonathan Chang, Brant Faircloth, Daniel MacGuigan, Richard Harrington, Ricardo Benine, Michael Burns, Kendra Hoekzema, Natalia Sanches, Javier Maldonado-Ocampo, Ricardo Castro, Fausto Foresti, Michael Alfaro & Claudio Oliveira
The Neotropics harbor the most species-rich freshwater fish fauna on the planet, but the timing of that exceptional diversification remains unclear. Did the Neotropics accumulate species steadily throughout their long history, or attain their remarkable diversity recently? Biologists have long debated the relative support for these museum and cradle hypotheses, but few phylogenies of megadiverse tropical clades have included sufficient taxa to distinguish between them. We used 1288 ultraconserved element loci spanning 293 species, 211...

Evolutionary and morphological patterns underlying carnivoran body shape diversity

Chris Law
The diversity of body shapes is one of the most prominent features of phenotypic variation in vertebrates. Biologists, however, still lack a full understanding of the underlying morphological components that contribute to its diversity, particularly in endothermic vertebrates such as mammals. In this study, I tested hypotheses pertaining to the evolution of the cranial and axial components that contribute to the diversity of carnivoran body shapes. I found three trends in the evolution of carnivoran...

Data from: Universal target-enrichment baits for anthozoan (Cnidaria) phylogenomics: new approaches to long-standing problems

Andrea M. Quattrini, Brant C. Faircloth, Luisa F. Dueñas, Thomas C.L. Bridge, Mercer R. Brügler, Ivan F. Calixto-Botía, Danielle M. DeLeo, Sylvain Foret, Santiago Herrera, Simon M.Y. Lee, David J. Miller, Carlos Prada, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista, Catalina Ramírez-Portilla, Juan A. Sánchez, Estefania Rodriguez, Catherine S. McFadden, Tom C. L. Bridge & Simon M. Y. Lee
Anthozoans (e.g., corals, anemones) are an ecologically important and diverse group of marine metazoans that occur from shallow to deep waters worldwide. However, our understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the ~7500 species within this class is hindered by the lack of phylogenetically informative markers that can be reliably sequenced across a diversity of taxa. We designed and tested 16,308 RNA baits to capture 720 Ultraconserved Element loci and 1,071 exon loci. Library preparation and...

Data from: Whence the beardogs? Reappraisal of the Middle to Late Eocene ‘Miacis’ from Texas, USA, and the origin of Amphicyonidae (Mammalia, Carnivora)

Susumu Tomiya & Zhijie Jack Tseng
The Middle to Late Eocene sediments of Texas have yielded a wealth of fossil material that offers a rare window on a diverse and highly endemic mammalian fauna from that time in the southern part of North America. These faunal data are particularly significant because the narrative of mammalian evolution in the Paleogene of North America has traditionally been dominated by taxa that are known from higher latitudes, primarily in the Rocky Mountain and northern...

Data from: Genome-wide SNP data reveal cryptic phylogeographic structure and microallopatric divergence in a rapids-adapted clade of cichlids from the Congo River

S. Elizabeth Alter, Jason Munshi-South & M.L.J. Stiassny
The lower Congo River (LCR) is a freshwater biodiversity hotspot in Africa characterized by some of the world's largest rapids. However, little is known about the evolutionary forces shaping this diversity, which include numerous endemic fishes. We investigated phylogeographic relationships in Teleogramma, a small clade of rheophilic cichlids, in the context of regional geography and hydrology. Previous studies have been unable to resolve phylogenetic relationships within Teleogramma due to lack of variation in nuclear genes...

Data from: Model misspecification confounds the estimation of rates and exaggerates their time dependency

Brent Emerson, Diego Alvarado-Serrano, Michael Hickerson, Brent C. Emerson & Michael J. Hickerson
While welcoming the comment of Ho et al. (2015), we find little that undermines the strength of our criticism, and it would appear they have misunderstood our central argument. Here we respond with the purpose of reiterating that we are (i) generally critical of much of the evidence presented in support of the time-dependent molecular rate (TDMR) hypothesis and (ii) specifically critical of estimates of μ derived from tip-dated sequences that exaggerate the importance of...

Data from: Earth history and the passerine superradiation

Carl H. Oliveros, Daniel J. Field, Daniel T. Ksepka, F. Keith Barker, Alexandre Aleixo, Michael J. Andersen, Per Alström, Brett W. Benz, Edward L. Braun, Michael J. Braun, Gustavo A. Bravo, Robb T. Brumfield, R. Terry Chesser, Santiago Claramunt, Joel Cracraft, Andrés M. Cuervo, Elizabeth P. Derryberry, Travis C. Glenn, Michael G. Harvey, Peter A. Hosner, Leo Joseph, Rebecca T. Kimball, Andrew L. Mack, Colin M. Miskelly, A. Townsend Peterson … & Brant C. Faircloth
Avian diversification has been influenced by global climate change, plate tectonic movements, and mass extinction events. However, the impact of these factors on the diversification of the hyperdiverse perching birds (passerines) is unclear because family level relationships are unresolved and the timing of splitting events among lineages is uncertain. We analyzed DNA data from 4,060 nuclear loci and 137 passerine families using concatenation and coalescent approaches to infer a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis that clarifies relationships...

Data from: Combined morphological and phylogenomic re-examination of malawimonads, a critical taxon for inferring the evolutionary history of eukaryotes.

Aaron A. Heiss, Martin Kolisko, Fleming Ekelund, Matthew W. Brown, Andrew J. Roger, Alastair G.B. Simpson & Alastair G. B. Simpson
Modern syntheses of eukaryote diversity assign almost all taxa to one of three groups: Amorphea, Diaphoretickes, and Excavata (comprising Discoba and Metamonada). The most glaring exception is Malawimonadidae, small heterotrophic flagellates that resemble Excavata by morphology, but group with Amorphea in most phylogenomic analyses. However, just one malawimonad, Malawimonas jakobiformis, has been studied with both morphological and molecular-phylogenetic approaches, raising the spectre of interpretation errors and phylogenetic artefacts from low taxon sampling. We report a...

Data from: The polyphyly of Plasmodium: comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of the malaria parasites (order Haemosporida) reveal widespread taxonomic conflict

Spencer C. Galen, Janus Borner, Ellen S. Martinsen, Juliane Schaer, Christopher C. Austin, Christopher J. West & Susan L. Perkins
The evolutionary relationships among the apicomplexan blood pathogens known as the malaria parasites (order Haemosporida), some of which infect nearly 200 million humans each year, has remained a vexing phylogenetic problem due to limitations in taxon sampling, character sampling, and the extreme nucleotide base composition biases that are characteristic of this clade. Previous phylogenetic work on the malaria parasites has often lacked sufficient representation of the broad taxonomic diversity within the Haemosporida or the multi-locus...

Data from: Natatanuran frogs used the Indian Plate to step-stone disperse and radiate across the Indian Ocean

Zhi-Yong Yuan, Bao-Lin Zhang, Christopher J. Raxworthy, David W. Weisrock, Paul M. Hime, Jie-Qiong Jin, Emily M. Lemmon, Alan R. Lemmon, Sean D. Holland, Michelle L. Kortyna, Wei-Wei Zhou, Min-Sheng Peng, Jing Che & Elizabeth Prendini
Natatanura raw assembled sequencesNatatanura_seqs.zip

Data from: Molecular phylogenetics of Gobioidei and phylogenetic placement of European gobies

Ainhoa Agorreta, Diego San Mauro, Ulrich Schliewen, James L. Van Tassell, Marcelo Kovačić, Rafael Zardoya & Lukas Rüber
Gobioidei is one of the largest suborders of teleost fishes, with nearly 2000 extant species currently recognized. They have a worldwide distribution and show a spectacular variety in morphology, ecology, and behavior. Despite their importance, phylogenetic relationships among many groups of gobioids (including some of the major lineages) still remain poorly understood. In this study, we analyze sequence data of five molecular markers (two mitochondrial and three nuclear) averaging 6000 bp for 222 species of...

Data from: Patriline differences reveal genetic influence on forewing size and shape in a yellowjacket wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Vespula flavopilosa Jacobson, 1978)

Adrien Perrard & Kevin J. Loope
The wing venation is frequently used as a morphological marker to distinguish biological groups among insects. With geometric morphometrics, minute shape differences can be detected between closely related species or populations, making this technique useful for taxonomy. However, the direct influence of genetic differences on wing morphology has not been explored within colonies of social insects. Here, we show that the father’s genotype has a direct effect on wing morphology in colonies of social wasps....

Data from: The evolution of cranial form and function in theropod dinosaurs: insights from geometric morphometrics

Stephen L. Brusatte, Manabu Sakamoto, Shaena Montanari & William E. H. Harcourt Smith
Theropod dinosaurs, an iconic clade of fossil species including Tyrannosaurus and Velociraptor, developed a great diversity of body size, skull form, and feeding habits over their 160+ million year evolutionary history. Here we utilise geometric morphometrics to study broad patterns in theropod skull shape variation, and compare the distribution of taxa in cranial morphospace (form) to both phylogeny and quantitative metrics of biting behaviour (function). We find that theropod skulls primarily differ in relative anteroposterior...

Data from: Isolation with asymmetric gene flow during the nonsynchronous divergence of dry forest birds

Jessica A. Oswald, Isaac Overcast, , Michael J. Andersen & Brian Tilston Smith
Dry forest bird communities in South America are often fragmented by intervening mountains and rainforests, generating high local endemism. The historical assembly of dry forest communities likely results from dynamic processes linked to numerous population histories among codistributed species. Nevertheless, species may diversify in the same way through time if landscape and environmental features, or species ecologies, similarly structure populations. Here we tested whether six co-distributed taxon pairs that occur in the dry forests of...

Data from: The chemical basis of a signal of individual identity: Shell pigment concentrations track the unique appearance of Common Murre eggs

Mark E Hauber, Alexander L Bond, Amy-Lee Kouwenberg, Gregory J Robertson, Erpur S Hansen, Mande Holford, Miri Dainson, Alec Luro & James Dale
In group-living species with parental care, the accurate recognition of one’s own young is critical to fitness. Because discriminating offspring within a large colonial group may be challenging, progeny of colonial breeders often display familial or individual identity signals to elicit and receive costly parental provisions from their own parents. For instance, the Common Murre (or Common Guillemot: Uria aalge) is a colonially breeding seabird that does not build a nest and lays and incubates...

Data from: Mutations in different pigmentation genes are associated with parallel melanism in island flycatchers

J. Albert C. Uy, Elizabeth A. Cooper, Stephen Cutie, Moira R. Concannon, Jelmer W. Poelstra, Robert G. Moyle & Christopher E. Filardi
The independent evolution of similar traits across multiple taxa provides some of the most compelling evidence of natural selection. Little is known, however, about the genetic basis of these convergent or parallel traits: are they mediated by identical or different mutations in the same genes, or unique mutations in different genes? Using a combination of candidate gene and reduced representation genomic sequencing approaches, we explore the genetic basis of and the evolutionary processes that mediate...

Data from: Considering gene flow when using coalescent methods to delimit lineages of North American pitvipers of the genus Agkistrodon

Frank T. Burbrink & Timothy J. Guiher
Examining species diversity and mechanisms of speciation using coalescent models provides a framework for how regional diversity is accrued, even in well-studied areas such as the Nearctic. It is likely, that gene flow among closely-related species with adjacent distributions may be common. However, the absence of gene flow is a primary assumption of many phylogeographical methods that produce species trees and delimit species using Bayesian or likelihood functions in a coalescent framework. In the present...

Data from: Why is Amazonia a ‘source’ of biodiversity? climate-mediated dispersal and synchronous speciation across the Andes in an avian group (Tityrinae)

Lukas J. Musher, Mateus Ferreira, Anya L. Auerbach, Jessica McKay & Joel Cracraft
Amazonia is a ‘source’ of biodiversity for other Neotropical ecosystems, but which conditions trigger in situ speciation and emigration is contentious. Three hypotheses for how communities have assembled include (1) a stochastic model wherein chance dispersal events lead to gradual emigration and species accumulation, (2) diversity-dependence wherein successful dispersal events decline through time due to ecological limits, and (3) barrier displacement wherein environmental change facilitates dispersal to other biomes via transient habitat corridors. We sequenced...

Data from: X-Ray computed tomography of two mammoth calf mummies

Daniel C. Fisher, Ethan A. Shirley, Christopher D. Whalen, Zachary T. Calamari, Adam N. Rountrey, Alexei N. Tikhonov, Bernard Buigues, Frédéric Lacombat, Semyon Grigoriev & Piotr A. Lazarev
Two female woolly mammoth neonates from permafrost in the Siberian Arctic are the most complete mammoth specimens known. Lyuba, found on the Yamal Peninsula, and Khroma, from northernmost Yakutia, died at ages of approximately one and two months, respectively. Both specimens were CT-scanned, yielding detailed information on the stage of development of their dentition and skeleton and insight into conditions associated with death. Both mammoths died after aspirating mud. Khroma's body was frozen soon after...

Data from: Debugging diversity – a pan‐continental exploration of the potential of terrestrial blood‐feeding leeches as a vertebrate monitoring tool

Ida Bærholm Schnell, Kristine Bohmann, Sebastian E. Schultze, Stine R. Richter, Dáithí C. Murray, Mikkel-Holger S. Sinding, David Bass, John E. Cadle, Mason J. Campbell, Rainer Dulch, David P. Edwards, Thomas N. E. Gray, Teis Hansen, Anh N. Q. Hoa, Christina Lehmkuhl Noer, Sigrid Heise-Pavlov, Adam F. Sander Pedersen, Juliot C. Ramamonjisoa, Mark E. Siddall, Andrew Tilker, Carl Traeholt, Nicholas Wilkinson, Paul Woodcock, Douglas W. Yu, Mads Frost Bertelsen … & Ida Baerholm Schnell
The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) has become an applicable non-invasive tool with which to obtain information about biodiversity. A sub-discipline of eDNA is iDNA (invertebrate-derived DNA), where genetic material ingested by invertebrates is used to characterise the biodiversity of the species that served as hosts. While promising, these techniques are still in their infancy, as they have only been explored on limited numbers of samples from only a single or a few different locations....

Data from: Phylogeny and new taxonomy of the Booted Eagles (Accipitriformes: Aquilinae)

Heather R. L. Lerner, Les Christidis, Anita Gamauf, Carole Griffiths, Elisabeth Haring, Christopher J. Huddleston, Sonia Kabra, Annett Kocum, Meade Krosby, Kirsti Kvaloy, David Mindell, Pamela Rasmussen, Nils Rov, Rachel Wadleigh, Michael Wink & Jan Ove Gjershaug
We present a phylogeny of all booted eagles (38 extant and one extinct species) based on analysis of published sequences from seven loci. We find molecular support for five major clades within the booted eagles: Nisaetus (10 species), Spizaetus (4 species), Clanga (3 species), Hieraaetus (6 species) and Aquila (11 species), requiring generic changes for 14 taxa. Additionally, we recommend that the Long-crested Eagle (Lophaetus occipitalis) and the Black Eagle (Ictinaetus malaiensis) remain in their...

Data from: Phylogenetic tests reject Emery’s rule in the evolution of social parasitism in yellowjackets and hornets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Vespinae)

Federico Lopez-Osorio, Adrien Perrard, Kurt M. Pickett, James M. Carpenter & Ingi Agnarsson
Social parasites exploit the brood-care behaviour and social structure of one or more host species. Within the social Hymenoptera there are different types of social parasitism. In its extreme form, species of obligate social parasites, or inquilines, do not have the worker caste and depend entirely on the workers of a host species to raise their reproductive offspring. The strict form of Emery's rule states that social parasites share immediate common ancestry with their hosts....

Data from: A new family of dissimilarity metrics for discrete character matrices that include inapplicable characters and its importance for disparity studies

Melanie J. Hopkins, Katherine St. John & Katherine St John
The use of discrete character data for disparity analyses has become more popular, partially due to the recognition that character data describe variation at large taxonomic scales, as well as the increasing availability of both character matrices co-opted from phylogenetic analysis and software tools. As taxonomic scope increases, the need to describe variation leads to some characters that may describe traits not found across all the taxa. In such situations, it is common practice to...

Data from: Phylogeny and evolutionary history of diplobathrid crinoids (Echinodermata)

Selina R. Cole
Order Diplobathrida is a major clade of camerate crinoids spanning the Ordovician–Mississippian, yet phylogenetic relationships have only been inferred for Ordovician taxa. This has hampered efforts to construct a comprehensive tree of life for crinoids and develop a classification scheme that adequately reflects diplobathrid evolutionary history. Here, I apply maximum parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic approaches to the fossil record of diplobathrids to infer the largest tree of fossil crinoids to date, with over 100 genera...

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