217 Works

Data from: The perceptual and chemical basis of egg discrimination in communally nesting Greater Anis (Crotophaga major)

Mark E. Hauber, Miri Dainson, Daniel T. Baldassarre, Marouf Hossain, Mande Holford & Christina Riehl
The eggshells of communally breeding Greater Anis (Crotophaga major) consist of a blue-green pigmented calcite matrix overlaid by a chalky white layer of vaterite, both of which are polymorphs of calcium carbonate. The white vaterite layer is intact in freshly laid eggs and may function in protecting the eggs from mechanical damage, but it also abrades during incubation to reveal the blue calcite shell underneath. Previous research has shown that this color change serves a...

Data from: A new genus of horse from Pleistocene North America

Peter D. Heintzman, Grant D. Zazula, Ross D.E. MacPhee, Eric Scott, James A. Cahill, Brianna K. McHorse, Joshua D. Kapp, Mathias Stiller, Matthew J. Wooller, Ludovic Orlando, John R. Southon, Duane G. Froese, Beth Shapiro & John Southon
The extinct “New World stilt-legged”, or NWSL, equids constitute a perplexing group of Pleistocene horses endemic to North America. Their slender distal limb bones resemble those of Asiatic asses, such as the Persian onager. Previous palaeogenetic studies, however, have suggested a closer relationship to caballine horses than to Asiatic asses. Here, we report complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes from NWSL equids from across their geographic range. Although multiple NWSL equid species have been named,...

Data from: Biogeography of scorpions in the Pseudouroctonus minimus complex (Vaejovidae) from south-western North America: implications of ecological specialization for pre-Quaternary diversification

Robert W. Bryson, Warren E. Savary & Lorenzo Prendini
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of pre-Quaternary tectonics and orogeny relative to that of Pleistocene climate change on diversification within the Pseudouroctonus minimus complex, a group of vaejovid scorpions with stenotopic habitat requirements. Location: South-western North America (United States and Mexico). Methods: Multilocus sequence data (1899 base pairs from two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes) were generated from 65 samples of scorpions in the minimus complex. Phylogeographical structure within...

Data from: The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae)

Martín J. Ramírez
A phylogenetic analysis of the two-clawed spiders grouped in Dionycha is presented, with 166 representative species of 49 araneomorph families, scored for 393 characters documented through standardized imaging protocols. The study includes 44 outgroup representatives of the main clades of Araneomorphae, and a revision of the main morphological character systems. Novel terminology is proposed for stereotyped structures on the chelicerae, and the main types of setae and silk spigots are reviewed, summarizing their characteristics. Clear...

Data from: The impact of anchored phylogenomics and taxon sampling on phylogenetic inference in narrow-mouthed frogs (Anura, Microhylidae)

Pedro L. V. Peloso, Darrel R. Frost, Stephen J. Richards, Miguel T. Rodrigues, Stephen Donnellan, Masafumi Matsui, Cristopher J. Raxworthy, S. D. Biju, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Ward C. Wheeler, Alan R. Lemmon, Pedro L.V. Peloso & S.D. Biju
Despite considerable progress in unravelling the phylogenetic relationships of microhylid frogs, relationships among subfamilies remain largely unstable and many genera are not demonstrably monophyletic. Here, we used five alternative combinations of DNA sequence data (ranging from seven loci for 48 taxa to up to 73 loci for as many as 142 taxa) generated using the anchored phylogenomics sequencing method (66 loci, derived from conserved genome regions, for 48 taxa) and Sanger sequencing (seven loci for...

Data from: Spatially explicit summary statistics for historical population genetic inference

Diego F. Alvarado-Serrano & Michael J. Hickerson
The integration of population genetics with explicit spatial analyses is crucial to address a range of evolutionary and ecological questions under realistic scenarios. Ignoring space can lead to misleading inferences, yet incorporating spatial realism leads to using complex evolutionary models that necessitate distilling raw genetic data into summary statistics that capture information relevant to the models in question. However, summary statistics derived from traditional population genetic theory overlook the valuable spatial component of genetic variation...

Data from: Historical changes in northeastern US bee pollinators related to shared ecological traits

Ignasi Bartomeus, John S. Ascher, Jason Gibbs, Bryan N. Danforth, David L. Wagner, Shannon M. Hedtke & Rachael Winfree
Pollinators such as bees are essential to the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. However, despite concerns about a global pollinator crisis, long-term data on the status of bee species are limited. We present a long-term study of relative rates of change for an entire regional bee fauna in the northeastern United States, based on >30,000 museum records representing 438 species. Over a 140-y period, aggregate native species richness weakly decreased, but richness declines were significant only...

Data from: Phylogeography and species-limits in the red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus): characterization of the northern Florida suture zone in birds

George F. Barrowclough, Jeff G. Groth, & Mary E. Blair
The North American red-shouldered hawk, Buteo lineatus, is comprised of two widely allopatric eastern and western populations with an additional well-marked subspecies in the Florida peninsula. The two eastern populations meet in northern Florida, the location of a well-known suture zone in many non-avian organisms. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial ND2 gene and two nuclear introns to investigate its genetic population structure and species status. No mitochondrial haplotypes were shared between the eastern and western...

Datasets from: Craniodental morphology and phylogeny of marsupials

Robin M. D. Beck, Robert S. Voss & Sharon A. Jansa
The current literature on marsupial phylogenetics includes numerous studies based on analyses of morphological data with limited sampling of Recent and fossil taxa and many studies based on analyses of molecular data with dense sampling of Recent taxa, but few studies have combined both data types. Another dichotomy in the marsupial phylogenetic literature is between studies focused on New World taxa, and those focused on Sahulian taxa. To date, there has been no attempt to...

Data from: Phylogenetic signal in mitochondrial and nuclear markers in sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria)

Marymegan Daly, Luciana C. Gusmão, Abigail J. Reft & Estefanía Rodríguez
The mitochondrial genome of basal animals is generally more slowly evolving than that of bilaterians. This difference in rate complicates the study of relationships among members of these lineages and the discovery of cryptic species or the testing of morphological species concepts within them. We explore the properties of mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal genes in the cnidarian order Actiniaria, using both an ordinal-scale and familyfamilial-scale sample of taxa. Although the markers do not show significant...

Data from: The evolution of cranial form and function in theropod dinosaurs: insights from geometric morphometrics

Stephen L. Brusatte, Manabu Sakamoto, Shaena Montanari & William E. H. Harcourt Smith
Theropod dinosaurs, an iconic clade of fossil species including Tyrannosaurus and Velociraptor, developed a great diversity of body size, skull form, and feeding habits over their 160+ million year evolutionary history. Here we utilise geometric morphometrics to study broad patterns in theropod skull shape variation, and compare the distribution of taxa in cranial morphospace (form) to both phylogeny and quantitative metrics of biting behaviour (function). We find that theropod skulls primarily differ in relative anteroposterior...

Data from: Combined Support for Wholesale Taxic Atavism in Gavialine Crocodylians

John Gatesy, George Amato, Mark Norell, Rob DeSalle & Cheryl Hayashi
Morphological and molecular data sets favor robustly supported, contradictory interpretations of crocodylian phylogeny. A longstanding perception in the field of systematics is that such significantly conflicting data sets should be analyzed separately. Here we utilize a combined approach, simultaneous analysis of all relevant character data, to summarize common support and to reconcile discrepancies among data sets. By conjoining rather than separating incongruent classes of data, secondary phylogenetic signals emerge from both molecular and morphological character...

Data from: The position of Cetacea within Mammalia: phylogenetic analysis of morphological data from extinct and extant taxa

Maureen A. O'Leary & Jonathan H. Geisler
Knowledge of the phylogenetic position of the order Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) within Mammalia is of central importance to evolutionary biologists studying the transformations of biological form and function that accompanied the shift from fully terrestrial to fully aquatic life in this clade. Phylogenies based on molecular data and those based on morphological data both place cetaceans among ungulates but are incongruent in other respects. Morphologists argue that cetaceans are most closely related to...

Data from: Splitting an ancient icon: mummy DNA resurrects a cryptic Nile crocodile

Evon Hekkala, Matthew H. Shirley, George Amato, James D. Austin, Suellen Charter, John Thorbjarnarson, Kent A. Vliet, Marlys L. Houck, Robert DeSalle & Michael J. Blum
The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an ancient icon of both cultural and scientific interest. The species is emblematic of the great civilizations of the Nile River valley and serves as a model for international wildlife conservation. Despite its familiarity, a centuries-long dispute over the taxonomic status of the Nile crocodile remains unresolved. This dispute not only confounds our understanding of the origins and biogeography of the “true crocodiles” of the crown genus Crocodylus, but...

Data from: Resolution of a Supertree/Supermatrix Paradox

John Gatesy, Conrad Matthee, Rob DeSalle & Cheryl Hayashi
Gatesy et al Data SetSuperArtio-1.dat

Data from: Is sexual selection driving diversification of the bioluminescent ponyfishes (Teleostei: Leiognathidae)?

Prosanta Chakrabarty, Matthew P Davis, W. Leo Smith, Zachary H Baldwin & John S Sparks
Sexual selection is a mechanism of speciation that theoretically could provide genetic isolation among populations and lead to an increase in diversification rates. In this study, we investigate the impact of potential sexual selection on the tempo and mode of ponyfish evolution. Ponyfishes (Leiognathidae) are bioluminescent marine fishes that exhibit sexually-dimorphic features of their unique light-organ system (LOS). Given that some leiognathid species have a sexually dimorphic LOS, whereas others do not, this family provides...

Data from: Identifying heterogeneity in rates of morphological evolution: discrete character change in the evolution of lungfish (Sarcopterygii; Dipnoi)

Graeme T Lloyd, Steve C Wang & Stephen L Brusatte
Quantifying rates of morphological evolution is important in many macroevolutionary studies, and critical when assessing possible adaptive radiations and episodes of punctuated equilibrium in the fossil record. However, studies of morphological rates of change have lagged behind those on taxonomic diversification, and most authors have focused on continuous characters and quantifying patterns of morphological rates over time. Here, we provide a phylogenetic approach, using discrete characters and three statistical tests to determine points on a...

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