Data from: The early diversification history of didelphid marsupials: a window into South America’s “Splendid Isolation”Sharon A. Jansa, F. Keith Barker & Robert S. Voss
The geological record of South American mammals is spatially biased because productive fossil sites are concentrated at high latitudes. As a result, the history of mammalian diversification in Amazonia and other tropical biomes is largely unknown. Here we report diversification analyses based on a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of opossums (Didelphidae), a species-rich clade of mostly tropical marsupials descended from a Late Oligocene common ancestor. Optimizations of habitat and geography on this phylogeny suggest that (1)...
Host specificity is one of the potential factors affecting parasite diversification because gene flow may be facilitated or constrained by the number of host species that a parasite can exploit. We test this hypothesis using a costructure approach, comparing two sympatric pinworm parasites that differ in host specificity – Parapharyngodon cubensis and Spauligodon anolis – on the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix in the Caribbean. Spauligodon anolis specializes on Anolis lizards, whereas P. cubensis...
Spiny-backed tree frogs of the genus Osteocephalus are conspicuous components of the tropical wet forests of the Amazon and the Guiana Shield. Here, we revise the phylogenetic relationships of Osteocephalus and its sister group Tepuihyla, using up to 6134 bp of DNA sequences of nine mitochondrial and one nuclear gene for 338 specimens from eight countries and 218 localities, representing 89% of the 28 currently recognized nominal species. Our phylogenetic analyses reveal (i) the paraphyly...
Accurate identification of units for conservation is particularly challenging for marine species as obvious barriers to gene flow are generally lacking. Bryde’s whales (Balaenoptera spp.) are subject to multiple human-mediated stressors, including fisheries bycatch, ship strikes, and scientific whaling by Japan. For effective management, a clear understanding of how populations of each Bryde’s whale species/subspecies are genetically structured across their range is required. We conducted a population-level analysis of mtDNA control region sequences with 56...
Data from: Fossil grebes from the Truckee Formation (Miocene) of Nevada and a new phylogenetic analysis of Podicipediformes (Aves)Daniel T. Ksepka, Amy M. Balanoff, Michael A. Bell & Michel D. Houseman
Podicipediformes is a cosmopolitan clade of foot-propelled diving birds that, despite inhabiting marine and lacustrine environments, have a poor fossil record. In this contribution, we describe three new grebe fossils from the diatomite beds of the Late Miocene Truckee Formation (10.2 ± 0.2 Ma) of Nevada (USA). Two postcranial skeletons and an associated set of wing elements indicate that at least two distinct grebe species occupied the large, shallow Lake Truckee during the Miocene. Phylogenetic...
Data from: Utilizing descriptive statements from the Biodiversity Heritage Library to expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy OntologyKatja C. Seltmann, Zsolt Pénzes, Matthew J. Yoder, Matthew A. Bertone & Andrew R. Deans
Hymenoptera, the insect order that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants, exhibits an incredible diversity of phenotypes, with over 145,000 species described in a corpus of textual knowledge since Carolus Linnaeus. In the absence of specialized training, often spanning decades, however, these articles can be challenging to decipher. Much of the vocabulary is domain-specific (e.g., Hymenoptera biology), historically without a comprehensive glossary, and contains much homonymous and synonymous terminology. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology was developed...
Although it is generally agreed that the arctic flora is among the youngest and least diverse on Earth, the processes that shaped it are poorly understood. Here we present 50 thousand years (kyr) of arctic vegetation history, derived from the first large-scale ancient DNA metabarcoding study of circumpolar plant diversity. For this interval we additionally explore nematode diversity as a proxy for modelling vegetation cover and soil quality, and diets of herbivorous megafaunal mammals, many...
Gobioidei is one of the largest suborders of teleost fishes, with nearly 2000 extant species currently recognized. They have a worldwide distribution and show a spectacular variety in morphology, ecology, and behavior. Despite their importance, phylogenetic relationships among many groups of gobioids (including some of the major lineages) still remain poorly understood. In this study, we analyze sequence data of five molecular markers (two mitochondrial and three nuclear) averaging 6000 bp for 222 species of...
Data from: Biogeography of scorpions in the Pseudouroctonus minimus complex (Vaejovidae) from south-western North America: implications of ecological specialization for pre-Quaternary diversificationRobert W. Bryson, Warren E. Savary & Lorenzo Prendini
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of pre-Quaternary tectonics and orogeny relative to that of Pleistocene climate change on diversification within the Pseudouroctonus minimus complex, a group of vaejovid scorpions with stenotopic habitat requirements. Location: South-western North America (United States and Mexico). Methods: Multilocus sequence data (1899 base pairs from two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes) were generated from 65 samples of scorpions in the minimus complex. Phylogeographical structure within...
Data from: Historical changes in northeastern US bee pollinators related to shared ecological traitsIgnasi Bartomeus, John S. Ascher, Jason Gibbs, Bryan N. Danforth, David L. Wagner, Shannon M. Hedtke & Rachael Winfree
Pollinators such as bees are essential to the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. However, despite concerns about a global pollinator crisis, long-term data on the status of bee species are limited. We present a long-term study of relative rates of change for an entire regional bee fauna in the northeastern United States, based on >30,000 museum records representing 438 species. Over a 140-y period, aggregate native species richness weakly decreased, but richness declines were significant only...
American Museum of Natural History10
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales2
North Carolina State University2
Bernardino Rivadavia Natural Sciences Museum1
University of Buenos Aires1
University of Adelaide1
Sao Paulo State University1
University of Sussex1
University of Washington1