23 Works

Data from: Structure-function covariation with nonfeeding ecological variables influences evolution of feeding specialization in Carnivora

Jack Tseng & John J. Flynn
Skull shape convergence is pervasive among vertebrates. Although this is frequently inferred to indicate similar functional underpinnings, neither the specific structure-function linkages nor the selective environments in which the supposed functional adaptations arose are commonly identified and tested. We demonstrate that nonfeeding factors relating to sexual maturity and precipitation-related arboreality also can generate structure-function relationships in the skulls of carnivorans (dogs, cats, seals, and relatives) through covariation with masticatory performance. We estimated measures of masticatory...

Data from: Disentangling the genetic effects of refugial isolation and range expansion in a trans-continentally distributed species

Brendan N. Reid, Jamie M. Kass, Seth Wollney, Evelyn L. Jensen, Michael A. Russello, Ella M. Viola, Jenna Pantophlet, John B. Iverson, Marcus Z. Peery, Christopher J. Raxworthy & Eugenia Naro-Maciel
In wide-ranging taxa with historically dynamic ranges, past allopatric isolation and range expansion can both influence the current structure of genetic diversity. Considering alternate historical scenarios involving expansion from either a single refugium or from multiple refugia can be useful in differentiating the effects of isolation and expansion. Here, we examined patterns of genetic variability in the trans-continentally distributed painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). We utilized an existing phylogeographic dataset for the mitochondrial control region and...

Data from: Genomic divergence in allopatric Northern Cardinals of the North American warm deserts is linked to behavioral differentiation

Kaiya L. Provost, & Brian T Smith
Biogeographic barriers are thought to be important in initiating speciation through geographic isolation, but they rarely indiscriminately and completely reduce gene flow across the entire community. Understanding which species’ attributes regulate a barrier could help elucidate how speciation is initiated and isolation maintained. Here, we investigated the association of behavioral isolation on population differentiation in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) distributed across the Cochise Filter Barrier, a region of transitional habitat which separates the Sonoran and...

Data from: The hatching mechanism of 130-million-year-old insects: an association of neonates, egg shells and egg bursters in Lebanese amber

Ricardo Pérez-De La Fuente, Michael S. Engel, Dany Azar & Enrique Peñalver
Hatching is a pivotal moment in the life of most animals. Diverse chemical, behavioural and mechanical methods have evolved in metazoans to break the egg membranes. Among them, many arthropod and vertebrate embryos hatch using ephemeral, frequently convergent structures known as egg bursters. However, the evolutionary processes by which hatching mechanisms and related embryonic structures became established in deep time are poorly understood due to a nearly complete absence from the fossil record. Herein we...

Data from: Taxon cycle predictions supported by model-based inference in Indo-Pacific trap-jaw ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Odontomachus)

Pável Matos-Maraví, Nicholas J. Matzke, Fredrick J. Larabee, Ronald M. Clouse, Ward C. Wheeler, Daniela Magdalena Sorger, Andrew V. Suarez & Milan Janda
Non-equilibrium dynamics and non-neutral processes, such as trait-dependent dispersal, are often missing from quantitative island biogeography models despite their potential explanatory value. One of the most influential non-equilibrium models is the taxon cycle, but it has been difficult to test its validity as a general biogeographical framework. Here, we test predictions of the taxon-cycle model using six expected phylogenetic patterns and a time-calibrated phylogeny of Indo-Pacific Odontomachus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae), one of the ant genera...

Data from: Evolutionary changes in pubic orientation in dinosaurs are more strongly correlated with the ventilation system than with herbivory

Loredana Macaluso & Emanuel Tschopp
Among dinosaurs, the pubis has convergently retroverted four times in Maniraptora (Theropoda) and once in Ornithischia. Although a clear correlation has not been demonstrated, it has been previously proposed that two traits were related to pubic retroversion: the reduced importance of cuirassal ventilation, and a herbivorous diet. Here, we analyse the possible influence of these traits on pubis orientation. Cuirassal ventilation was plesiomorphically present as an accessory ventilation mechanism in Dinosauria and was powered by...

Data from: Using terrestrial haematophagous leeches to enhance tropical biodiversity monitoring programmes in Bangladesh

Sarah R. Weiskopf, Kyle P. McCarthy, Michael Tessler, Hasan A. Rahman, Jennifer L. McCarthy, Rebecca Hersch, Mohammad M. Faisal & Mark E. Siddall
1. Measuring mammal biodiversity in tropical rainforests is challenging, and methods which reduce effort while maximizing success are crucial for long-term monitoring programmes. Commonly used methods to assess mammal biodiversity may require substantial sampling effort to be effective. Genetic methods are a new and important sampling tool on the horizon, but obtaining sufficient DNA samples can be a challenge. 2. We evaluated the efficacy of using parasitic leeches Haemadipsa spp., as compared to camera trapping,...

Data from: Flightless birds are not neuroanatomical analogs of non-avian dinosaurs

Maria Eugenia Leone Gold & Akinobu Watanabe
Background: In comparative neurobiology, major transitions in behavior are thought to be associated with proportional size changes in brain regions. Bird-line theropod dinosaurs underwent a drastic locomotory shift from terrestrial to volant forms, accompanied by a suite of well-documented postcranial adaptations. To elucidate the potential impact of this locomotor shift on neuroanatomy, we first tested for a correlation between loss of flight in extant birds and whether the brain morphology of these birds resembles that...

Data from: The biogeography of deep time phylogenetic reticulation

Frank T. Burbrink & Marcelo Gehara
Most phylogenies are typically represented as purely bifurcating. However, as genomic data has become more common in phylogenetic studies, it is not unusual to find reticulation among terminal lineages or among internal nodes (deep time reticulation; DTR). In these situations, gene flow must have happened in the same or adjacent geographic areas for these DTRs to have occurred and therefore biogeographic reconstruction should provide similar area estimates for parental nodes, provided extinction or dispersal has...

Data from: Archaeogenomic evidence from the southwestern US points to a pre-Hispanic scarlet macaw breeding colony

Richard J. George, Stephen Plof, Adam S. Watson, Kari L. Schmidt, Brandon J. Culleton, Thomas K. Harper, Patricia A. Gilman, Steven A. LeBlanc, George Amato, Peter Whiteley, Logan Kistler & Douglas J. Kennett
Hundreds of scarlet macaw (Ara macao cyanoptera) skeletons have been recovered from archaeological contexts in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico (SW/NW). The location of these skeletons, >1,000 km outside their Neotropical endemic range, has suggested a far-reaching pre-Hispanic acquisition network. Clear evidence for scarlet macaw breeding within this network is only known from the settlement of Paquimé in NW dating between 1250 and 1450 CE. Although some scholars have speculated on the probable...

Community Engagement Fellows Program (CEFP) Advocacy / Ambassador Program Survey

Lou Woodley, Melanie Binder, Stephanie O'Donnell, Heidi Olds, Allen Pope, Gabrielle Rabinowitz & Rosanna Volchok
“Advocacy programs” are ways that organizations empower community members to become more active in moving forward that community’s mission. These go by many names – fellows, ambassadors, champions, and more. With so many different uses, advocacy programs are central to many scientific communities and could help others better achieve their goals. The goal of this dataset was to help gain a stronger understanding of what makes a successful advocacy/ambassador program at scientific communities.

Data from: The perceptual and chemical basis of egg discrimination in communally nesting Greater Anis (Crotophaga major)

Mark E. Hauber, Miri Dainson, Daniel T. Baldassarre, Marouf Hossain, Mande Holford & Christina Riehl
The eggshells of communally breeding Greater Anis (Crotophaga major) consist of a blue-green pigmented calcite matrix overlaid by a chalky white layer of vaterite, both of which are polymorphs of calcium carbonate. The white vaterite layer is intact in freshly laid eggs and may function in protecting the eggs from mechanical damage, but it also abrades during incubation to reveal the blue calcite shell underneath. Previous research has shown that this color change serves a...

Data from: Reproductive success of a keystone herbivore is more variable and responsive to climate in habitats with lower resource diversity

David T. Iles, Robert F. Rockwell, Dave N. Koons & David N. Koons
1. The effects of climate on wild populations are often channeled through species interactions. Population responses to climate variation can therefore differ across habitats, owing to variation in the biotic community. Theory predicts that consumer demography should be less variable and less responsive to climate in habitats with greater resource diversity. 2. We tested these predictions using a long-term study of breeding lesser snow geese along the western coast of Hudson Bay, Manitoba, Canada. Reproductive...

Data from: Ecological niche modeling for a cultivated plant species: a case study on taro (Colocasia esculenta) in Hawai‘i

Mali'o Kodis, Peter Galante, Eleanor J. Sterling & Mary E. Blair
Under the threat of ongoing and projected climate change, communities in the Pacific Islands face challenges of adapting culture and lifestyle to accommodate a changing landscape. Few models can effectively predict how biocultural livelihoods might be impacted. Here, we examine how environmental and anthropogenic factors influence an ecological niche model (ENM) for the realized niche of cultivated taro (Colocasia esculenta) in Hawai‘i. We created and tuned two sets of ENMs: one using only environmental variables,...

Data from: Fossil lemurs from Egypt and Kenya suggest an African origin for Madagascar’s aye-aye

Gregg F. Gunnell, Doug M. Boyer, Anthony F. Friscia, Steven Heritage, Fredrick K. Manthi, Ellen R. Miller, Hesham M. Sallam, Nancy B. Simmons, Nancy J. Stevens & Erik R. Seiffert
In 1967 G.G. Simpson described three partial mandibles from early Miocene deposits in Kenya that he interpreted as belonging to a new strepsirrhine primate, Propotto. This interpretation was quickly challenged, with the assertion that Propotto was not a primate, but rather a pteropodid fruit bat. The latter interpretation has not been questioned for almost half a century. Here we re-evaluate the affinities of Propotto, drawing upon diverse lines of evidence to establish that this strange...

Data from: Universal target-enrichment baits for anthozoan (Cnidaria) phylogenomics: new approaches to long-standing problems

Andrea M. Quattrini, Brant C. Faircloth, Luisa F. Dueñas, Thomas C.L. Bridge, Mercer R. Brügler, Ivan F. Calixto-Botía, Danielle M. DeLeo, Sylvain Foret, Santiago Herrera, Simon M.Y. Lee, David J. Miller, Carlos Prada, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista, Catalina Ramírez-Portilla, Juan A. Sánchez, Estefania Rodriguez, Catherine S. McFadden, Tom C. L. Bridge & Simon M. Y. Lee
Anthozoans (e.g., corals, anemones) are an ecologically important and diverse group of marine metazoans that occur from shallow to deep waters worldwide. However, our understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the ~7500 species within this class is hindered by the lack of phylogenetically informative markers that can be reliably sequenced across a diversity of taxa. We designed and tested 16,308 RNA baits to capture 720 Ultraconserved Element loci and 1,071 exon loci. Library preparation and...

Data from: Combined morphological and phylogenomic re-examination of malawimonads, a critical taxon for inferring the evolutionary history of eukaryotes.

Aaron A. Heiss, Martin Kolisko, Fleming Ekelund, Matthew W. Brown, Andrew J. Roger, Alastair G.B. Simpson & Alastair G. B. Simpson
Modern syntheses of eukaryote diversity assign almost all taxa to one of three groups: Amorphea, Diaphoretickes, and Excavata (comprising Discoba and Metamonada). The most glaring exception is Malawimonadidae, small heterotrophic flagellates that resemble Excavata by morphology, but group with Amorphea in most phylogenomic analyses. However, just one malawimonad, Malawimonas jakobiformis, has been studied with both morphological and molecular-phylogenetic approaches, raising the spectre of interpretation errors and phylogenetic artefacts from low taxon sampling. We report a...

Data from: An adaptable but threatened big cat: density, diet and prey selection of the Indochinese leopard (Panthera pardus delacouri) in eastern Cambodia

Susana Rostro-García, Jan F. Kamler, Rachel Crouthers, Keo Sopheak, Sovanna Prum, Visattha In, Chanratana Pin, Anthony Caragiulo & David W. Macdonald
We studied the Indochinese leopard (Panthera pardus delacouri) in eastern Cambodia, in one of the few potentially remaining viable populations in Southeast Asia. The aims were to determine the: (i) current leopard density in Srepok Wildlife Sanctuary (SWS) and (ii) diet, prey selection and predation impact of leopard in SWS. The density, estimated using spatially explicit capture–recapture models, was 1.0 leopard/100 km2, 72% lower than an estimate from 2009 at the same site, and one...

Data from: Debugging diversity – a pan‐continental exploration of the potential of terrestrial blood‐feeding leeches as a vertebrate monitoring tool

Ida Bærholm Schnell, Kristine Bohmann, Sebastian E. Schultze, Stine R. Richter, Dáithí C. Murray, Mikkel-Holger S. Sinding, David Bass, John E. Cadle, Mason J. Campbell, Rainer Dulch, David P. Edwards, Thomas N. E. Gray, Teis Hansen, Anh N. Q. Hoa, Christina Lehmkuhl Noer, Sigrid Heise-Pavlov, Adam F. Sander Pedersen, Juliot C. Ramamonjisoa, Mark E. Siddall, Andrew Tilker, Carl Traeholt, Nicholas Wilkinson, Paul Woodcock, Douglas W. Yu, Mads Frost Bertelsen … & Ida Baerholm Schnell
The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) has become an applicable non-invasive tool with which to obtain information about biodiversity. A sub-discipline of eDNA is iDNA (invertebrate-derived DNA), where genetic material ingested by invertebrates is used to characterise the biodiversity of the species that served as hosts. While promising, these techniques are still in their infancy, as they have only been explored on limited numbers of samples from only a single or a few different locations....

Data from: The polyphyly of Plasmodium: comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of the malaria parasites (order Haemosporida) reveal widespread taxonomic conflict

Spencer C. Galen, Janus Borner, Ellen S. Martinsen, Juliane Schaer, Christopher C. Austin, Christopher J. West & Susan L. Perkins
The evolutionary relationships among the apicomplexan blood pathogens known as the malaria parasites (order Haemosporida), some of which infect nearly 200 million humans each year, has remained a vexing phylogenetic problem due to limitations in taxon sampling, character sampling, and the extreme nucleotide base composition biases that are characteristic of this clade. Previous phylogenetic work on the malaria parasites has often lacked sufficient representation of the broad taxonomic diversity within the Haemosporida or the multi-locus...

Data from: Phylogeny and evolutionary history of diplobathrid crinoids (Echinodermata)

Selina R. Cole
Order Diplobathrida is a major clade of camerate crinoids spanning the Ordovician–Mississippian, yet phylogenetic relationships have only been inferred for Ordovician taxa. This has hampered efforts to construct a comprehensive tree of life for crinoids and develop a classification scheme that adequately reflects diplobathrid evolutionary history. Here, I apply maximum parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic approaches to the fossil record of diplobathrids to infer the largest tree of fossil crinoids to date, with over 100 genera...

Data from: Natatanuran frogs used the Indian Plate to step-stone disperse and radiate across the Indian Ocean

Zhi-Yong Yuan, Bao-Lin Zhang, Christopher J. Raxworthy, David W. Weisrock, Paul M. Hime, Jie-Qiong Jin, Emily M. Lemmon, Alan R. Lemmon, Sean D. Holland, Michelle L. Kortyna, Wei-Wei Zhou, Min-Sheng Peng, Jing Che & Elizabeth Prendini
Natatanura raw assembled sequencesNatatanura_seqs.zip

Data from: A new family of dissimilarity metrics for discrete character matrices that include inapplicable characters and its importance for disparity studies

Melanie J. Hopkins, Katherine St. John & Katherine St John
The use of discrete character data for disparity analyses has become more popular, partially due to the recognition that character data describe variation at large taxonomic scales, as well as the increasing availability of both character matrices co-opted from phylogenetic analysis and software tools. As taxonomic scope increases, the need to describe variation leads to some characters that may describe traits not found across all the taxa. In such situations, it is common practice to...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • American Museum of Natural History
  • City University of New York
  • Queens College, CUNY
  • Smithsonian Institution
  • University of Kansas
  • Columbia University
  • Australian National University
  • University of Copenhagen
  • Louisiana State University of Alexandria
  • James Cook University