450 Works

Risk perceptions of extreme heat events at the state, county, and census tract level in the U.S.

Peter Howe, Jennifer R. Marlon, Xinran Wang & Anthony Leiserowitz
Project summary, description or abstract: This dataset contains model estimates of how Americans perceive the health risks of extreme heat events at the state, county, and census tract level in the U.S. Estimates are produced using a statistical model based on national survey data. These data are associated with the following publication: Howe, Peter D., Jennifer R. Marlon, Xinran Wang, and Anthony Leiserowitz. “Public perceptions of the health risks of extreme heat across U.S. states,...

Rasch Measurement v. Item Response Theory: Knowing When to Cross the Line

Steven E. Stemler & Adam Naples
When students receive the same score on a test, does that mean they know the same amount about the topic? The answer to this question is more complex than it may first appear. This paper compares classical and modern test theories in terms of how they estimate student ability. Crucial distinctions between the aims of Rasch Measurement and IRT are highlighted. By modeling a second parameter (item discrimination) and allowing item characteristic curves to cross,...

Thomas von Aquin – Anstoß und Anstöße für das evangelische Gedächtnis

Volker Leppin
Zeitschrift für Theologie und Philosophie, 143 (2021) 4, 584-601

Data from: Optogenetically induced low-frequency correlations impair perception

Anirvan S. Nandy, Jonathan J. Nassi, Monika P. Jadi & John H. Reynolds
Deployment of covert attention to a spatial location can cause large decreases in low-frequency correlated variability among neurons in macaque area V4 whose receptive-fields lie at the attended location. It has been estimated that this reduction accounts for a substantial fraction of the attention-mediated improvement in sensory processing. These estimates depend on assumptions about how population signals are decoded and the conclusion that correlated variability impairs perception, is purely hypothetical. Here we test this proposal...

Inferring the mammal tree: Species-level sets of phylogenies for questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation

Nathan S. Upham, Jacob A. Esselstyn & Walter Jetz
Big, time-scaled phylogenies are fundamental to connecting evolutionary processes to modern biodiversity patterns. Yet inferring reliable phylogenetic trees for thousands of species involves numerous trade-offs that have limited their utility to comparative biologists. To establish a robust evolutionary timescale for all ~6000 living species of mammals, we developed credible sets of trees that capture root-to-tip uncertainty in topology and divergence times. Our ‘backbone-and-patch’ approach to tree-building applies a newly assembled 31-gene supermatrix to two levels...

Microsatellite data for Aedes aegypti populations in Florida and southern California

Evlyn Pless & Jeffrey Powell
In the affiliated paper we compare likely the oldest populations of Aedes aegypti in continental North America with some of the newest to illuminate the range of genetic diversity and structure that can be found within the invasive range of this important disease vector. Aedes aegypti populations in Florida have likely persisted since the 1600-1700s, while populations in southern California derive from new invasions that occurred in the last ten years. For this comparison, we...

Pairwise FST values for Aedes aegypti populations in Florida and southern California

Evlyn Pless & Jeffrey Powell
In the affiliated paper we compare likely the oldest populations of Aedes aegypti in continental North America with some of the newest to illuminate the range of genetic diversity and structure that can be found within the invasive range of this important disease vector. Aedes aegypti populations in Florida have likely persisted since the 1600-1700s, while populations in southern California derive from new invasions that occurred in the last ten years. For this comparison, we...

The future urban forest: a survey of tree planting programs in the Northeastern United States

Danica Doroski
Cities around the world are pursuing tree planting as a way to increase tree cover. Despite the growing interest in planting trees as a way to offset climate change, counter the negative impacts of urbanization, and provide benefits to city dwellers, there has not been a recent effort to quantify the number of trees being planted nor the species composition of these plantings. Because ecosystem services and ecosystem threats can transcend municipal boundaries, understanding trends...

Assessing the effects of elephant foraging on the structure and diversity of an Afrotropical forest

Cooper Rosin, Kendall Beals, Michael Belovitch, Ruby Harrison, Megan Pendred, Megan Sullivan, Nicolas Yao & John Poulsen
African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) are ecosystem engineers that browse and damage large quantities of vegetation during their foraging and movement. Though elephant trail networks and clearings are conspicuous features of many African forests, the consequences of elephant foraging for forest structure and diversity are poorly documented. In this study in northeastern Gabon, we compare stem size, stem density, proportional damage, species diversity, and species relative abundance of seedlings and saplings in the vicinity of...

Fragmentation reduces community-wide taxonomic and functional diversity of dispersed tree seeds in the Central Amazon

Elaine Hooper & Mark Ashton
The Amazon harbors one of the most diverse tree floras on earth, and most species depend on mutualists for pollination and seed dispersal. This makes them susceptible to reproductive decline in fragmented forest because many of these mutualists suffer area-related extinction in fragments. It remains unknown, however, whether this highly biodiverse tree flora will reproduce and ultimately persist in fragmented forest. We conducted a two-year study of seed-fall in an experimentallyfragmented, highly-diverse Central Amazonian forest....

Data from: Genetic effects of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation on remnant animal and plant populations: a meta-analysis

Daniel R. Schlaepfer, Brigitte Braschler, Hans-Peter Rusterholz & Bruno Baur
Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the biggest threats to biodiversity. Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation leads to small and isolated remnant plant and animal populations. The combination of increased random genetic drift, inbreeding, and reduced gene flow may substantially reduce genetic variation of remnant populations. However, the magnitude of these responses may depend on several poorly understood factors including organism group, habitat type of both the fragment and the surrounding matrix, life‐history traits, and time since...

Data from: Early bursts of body size and shape evolution are rare in comparative data

Luke J. Harmon, Jonathan B. Losos, T. Jonathan Davies, Rosemary G. Gillespie, John L. Gittleman, W. Bryan Jennings, Kenneth H. Kozak, Mark A. McPeek, Franck Moreno-Roark, Thomas J. Near, Andy Purvis, Robert E. Ricklefs, Dolph Schluter, , Ole Seehausen, Brian L. Sidlauskas, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Jason T. Weir & Arne Ø. Mooers
George Gaylord Simpson famously postulated that much of life's diversity originated as adaptive radiations—more or less simultaneous divergences of numerous lines from a single ancestral adaptive type. However, identifying adaptive radiations has proven difficult due to a lack of broad-scale comparative datasets. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative data on body size and shape in a diversity of animal clades to test a key model of adaptive radiation, in which initially rapid morphological evolution is followed...

Data from: Different clades and traits yield similar grassland functional responses

Elisabeth J. Forrestel, Michael J. Donoghue, Erika J. Edwards, Walter Jetz, Justin C. O. Du Toit & Melinda D. Smith
Plant functional traits are viewed as key to predicting important ecosystem and community properties across resource gradients within and among biogeographic regions. Vegetation dynamics and ecosystem processes, such as aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), are increasingly being modeled as a function of the quantitative traits of species, which are used as proxies for photosynthetic rates, and nutrient and water-use efficiency. These approaches rely on an assumption that a certain trait value consistently confers a specific...

Data from: Nymphalid eyespot serial homologs originate as a few individualized modules

Jeffrey C. Oliver, Jeremy M. Beaulieu, Lawrence F. Gall, William H. Piel & Antónia Monteiro
Serial homologues are repeated traits that share similar development but occur in different parts of the body. Variation in number of repeats accounts for substantial diversity in animal form and considerable work has focused on identifying the factors accounting for this variation. Little is known, however, about how serial homologues originally become repeated, or about the relative timing of repeat individuation relative to repeat origin. Here, we show that the serially repeated eyespots on nymphalid...

Data from: Tracing the diversification history of a Neogene rodent invasion into South America

Renan Maestri, Nathan S. Upham & Bruce D. Patterson
We investigated spatial patterns of evolutionary relatedness and diversification rates to test hypotheses about the historical biogeographic processes underlying the radiation of Neotropical rats and mice (Sigmodontinae, ~400 species). A negative correlation between mean phylogenetic distance and diversification rates of rodent assemblages reveals a pattern of species co-occurrence in which assemblages of closely related species are also the fastest diversifying ones. Subregions of the Neotropics occupied by distantly related species that are on average more...

Data from: Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects

Christopher Krupenye, Alexandra G. Rosati & Brian Hare
Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a ‘framed’ option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option...

Data from: The ecology of a continental evolutionary radiation: Is the radiation of sigmodontine rodents adaptive?

Renan Maestri, Leandro Rabello Monteiro, Rodrigo Fornel, Nathan S. Upham, Bruce D. Patterson & Thales Renato Ochotorena De Freitas
Evolutionary radiations on continents are less well-understood and appreciated than those occurring on islands. The extent of ecological influence on species divergence can be evaluated to determine whether a radiation was ultimately the outcome of divergent natural selection or else arose mainly by nonecological divergence. Here, we used phylogenetic comparative methods to test distinct hypotheses corresponding to adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary scenarios for the morphological evolution of sigmodontine rodents. Results showed that ecological variables (diet...

Data from: Group augmentation, collective action, and territorial boundary patrols by male chimpanzees

Kevin E. Langergraber, David P. Watts, Linda Vigilant & John C. Mitani
How can collective action evolve when individuals benefit from cooperation regardless of whether they pay its participation costs? According to one influential perspective, collective action problems are common, especially when groups are large, but may be solved when individuals who have more to gain from the collective good or can produce it at low costs provide it to others as a byproduct. Several results from a 20-y study of one of the most striking examples...

Data from: C4 photosynthesis boosts growth by altering physiology, allocation and size

Rebecca R. L. Atkinson, Emily J. Mockford, Christopher Bennett, Pascal-Antoine Christin, Elizabeth L. Spriggs, Robert P. Freckleton, Ken Thompson, Mark Rees & Colin P. Osborne
C4 photosynthesis is a complex set of leaf anatomical and biochemical adaptations that have evolved more than 60 times to boost carbon uptake compared with the ancestral C3 photosynthetic type1,​2,​3. Although C4 photosynthesis has the potential to drive faster growth rates4,5, experiments directly comparing C3 and C4 plants have not shown consistent effects1,6,7. This is problematic because differential growth is a crucial element of ecological theory8,9 explaining C4 savannah responses to global change10,11, and research...

Data from: Gradual loading ameliorates maladaptation in computational simulations of vein graft growth and remodelling

Abhay Bangalore Ramachandra, Jay D. Humphrey & Alison L. Marsden
Vein graft failure is a prevalent problem in vascular surgeries, including bypass grafting and arteriovenous fistula procedures in which veins are subjected to severe changes in pressure and flow. Animal and clinical studies provide significant insight, but understanding the complex underlying coupled mechanisms can be advanced using computational models. Towards this end, we propose a new model of venous growth and remodelling (G&R) based on a constrained mixture theory. First, we identify constitutive relations and...

Data from: A phylogenomic resolution of the sea urchin tree of life

Nicolás Mongiardino Koch, Simon E. Coppard, Harilaos A. Lessios, Derek E.G. Briggs, Rich Mooi & Greg W. Rouse
Background: Echinoidea is a clade of marine animals including sea urchins, heart urchins, sand dollars and sea biscuits. Found in benthic habitats across all latitudes, echinoids are key components of marine communities such as coral reefs and kelp forests. A little over 1,000 species inhabit the oceans today, a diversity that traces its roots back at least to the Permian. Although much effort has been devoted to elucidating the echinoid tree of life using a...

Data from: Fruit evolution and diversification in campanulid angiosperms

Jeremy Michael Beaulieu & Michael J. Donoghue
With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and...

Data from: Phylogeny and biogeography of the American live oaks (Quercus subsection Virentes): a genomic and population genetics approach

Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Deren A. R. Eaton, Andrew A. L. Hipp, Anne Beulke & Paul S. Manos
The nature and timing of evolution of niche differentiation among closely related species remains an important question in ecology and evolution. The American live oak clade, Virentes, which spans the unglaciated temperate and tropical regions of North America and Mesoamerica, provides an instructive system in which to examine speciation and niche evolution. We generated a fossil-calibrated phylogeny of Virentes using RADseq data to estimate divergence times and used nuclear microsatellites, chloroplast sequences and an intron...

Data from: Inferring pathobiology from structural MRI in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: modeling head motion and neuroanatomical specificity

Nailin Yao, Anderson M. Winkler, Jennifer Barrett, Gregory A. Book, Tamara Beetham, Rachel Horseman, Olivia Leach, Karen Hodgson, Emma E. Knowles, Samuel Mathias, Michael C. Stevens, Michal Assaf, Theo G. M. Van Erp, Godfrey D. Pearlson & David C. Glahn
Despite over 400 peer-reviewed structural MRI publications documenting neuroanatomic abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, the confounding effects of head motion and the regional specificity of these defects are unclear. Using a large cohort of individuals scanned on the same research dedicated MRI with broadly similar protocols, we observe reduced cortical thickness indices in both illnesses, though less pronounced in bipolar disorder. While schizophrenia (n = 226) was associated with wide-spread surface area reductions, bipolar...

Data from: Genetic structure in village dogs reveals a Central Asian domestication origin

Laura M. Shannon, Ryan H. Boyko, Marta Castelhano, Elizabeth Corey, Jessica J. Hayward, Corin McLean, Michelle E. White, Mounir Abi Said, Baddley A. Anita, Nono Bondjengo Ikombe, Jorge Calero, Ana Galov, Marius Hedimbi, Bulu Imam, Rajashree Khalap, Douglas Lally, Andrew Masta, Kyle C. Oliveira, Lucía Pérez, Julia Randall, Nguyen Minh Tam, Francisco J. Trujillo-Cornejo, Carlos Valeriano, Nathan B. Sutter, Rory J. Todhunter … & Adam R. Boyko
Dogs were the first domesticated species, originating at least 15,000 y ago from Eurasian gray wolves. Dogs today consist primarily of two specialized groups—a diverse set of nearly 400 pure breeds and a far more populous group of free-ranging animals adapted to a human commensal lifestyle (village dogs). Village dogs are more genetically diverse and geographically widespread than purebred dogs making them vital for unraveling dog population history. Using a semicustom 185,805-marker genotyping array, we...

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