355 Works

Risk perceptions of extreme heat events at the state, county, and census tract level in the U.S.

Peter D. Howe, Jennifer R. Marlon, Xinran Wang & Anthony Leiserowitz

Data from: Understanding angiosperm diversification using small and large phylogenetic trees

Stephen A. Smith, Jeremy M. Beaulieu, Alexandros Stamatakis & Michael J. Donoghue
How will the emerging possibility of inferring ultra-large phylogenies influence our ability to identify shifts in diversification rate? For several large angiosperm clades (Angiospermae, Monocotyledonae, Orchidaceae, Poaceae, Eudicotyledonae, Fabaceae, and Asteraceae), we explore this issue by contrasting two approaches: (1) using small backbone trees with an inferred number of extant species assigned to each terminal clade and (2) using a mega-phylogeny of 55473 seed plant species represented in GenBank. The mega-phylogeny approach assumes that the...

Data from: Networks, trees, and treeshrews: assessing support and identifying conflict with multiple loci and a problematic root

Trina E. Roberts, Eric J. Sargis & Link E. Olson
Multiple unlinked genetic loci often provide a more comprehensive picture of evolutionary history than any single gene can, but analyzing multigene data presents particular challenges. Differing rates and patterns of nucleotide substitution, combined with the limited information available in any data set, can make it difficult to specify a model of evolution. In addition, conflict among loci can be the result of real differences in evolutionary process or of stochastic variance and errors in reconstruction....

Data from: Fear of predation slows plant-litter decomposition

Dror Hawlena, Michael S. Stickland, Mark A. Bradford & Oswald J. Schmitz
Aboveground consumers are believed to affect ecosystem functioning by regulating the quantity and quality of plant-litter entering the soil. We uncover a novel pathway whereby terrestrial predators regulate ecosystem processes via indirect control over soil community function. Grasshopper herbivores stressed by spider predators have a higher body carbon-to-nitrogen ratio than grasshoppers raised without spiders. This change in elemental content does not slow grasshopper decomposition but perturbs belowground community function, decelerating subsequent decomposition of plant-litter. This...

Data from: Integrative testing of how environments from the past to the present shape genetic structure across landscapes

Qixin He, Danielle L. Edwards & L. Lacey Knowles
Tests of the genetic structure of empirical populations typically focus on the correlative relationships between population connectivity and geographic and/or environmental factors in landscape genetics. However, such tests may overlook or misidentify the impact of such factors on genetic structure, especially when connectivity patterns differ between past and present populations because of shifting environmental conditions over time. Here we account for the underlying demographic component of population connectivity associated with a temporarily dynamic landscape in...

Data from: Geographic population structure of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae suggests a role for the forest-savannah biome transition as a barrier to gene flow

Joao Pinto, Alexander Egyir-Yawson, José L. Vicente, Bruno Gomes, Federica Santalomazza, Marta Moreno, Jacques D. Charlwood, Frederic Simard, Nohal Elissa, David Weetman, Martin J. Donnelly, Adalgisa Caccone, Alessandra Della Torre, Caccone A, Simard F, Pinto J, Vicente JL, Gomes B, Elissa N, Weetman D & Donnelly MJ
The primary Afrotropical malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto has a complex population structure. In western Africa, this species is split into two molecular forms and displays local and regional variation in chromosomal arrangements and behaviours. To investigate patterns of macro-geographic population substructure, 25 An. gambiae samples from 12 African countries were genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci. This analysis detected the presence of additional population structuring, with the M-form being subdivided into distinct west,...

Data from: Fruit evolution and diversification in campanulid angiosperms

Jeremy Michael Beaulieu & Michael J. Donoghue
With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and...

Data from: Large fluctuations in the effective population size of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. during vector control cycle

Theresa K. Hodges, Giridhar Athrey, Kevin C. Deitz, Hans J. Overgaard, Abrahan Matias, Aldalgisa Caccone, Michel A. Slotman & Adalgisa Caccone
On Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, indoor residual spraying (IRS) has been part of the Bioko Island Malaria Control Project since early 2004. Despite success in reducing childhood infections, areas of high transmission remained on the island. We therefore examined fluctuations in the effective population size (N_e) of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in an area of persistent high transmission over two spray rounds. We analyzed data for 13 microsatellite loci from 791 An. gambiae specimens...

Data from: A Silurian short-great-appendage arthropod

Derek J. Siveter, Derek E. G. Briggs, David J. Siveter, Mark D. Sutton, David J. Legg, Sarah Joomun & D. Legg
A new arthropod, Enalikter aphson gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Silurian (Wenlock Series) Herefordshire Lagerstätte of the UK. It belongs to the Megacheira (=short-great-appendage group), which is recognized here, for the first time, in strata younger than mid-Cambrian age. Discovery of this new Silurian taxon allows us to identify a Devonian megacheiran representative, Bundenbachiellus giganteus from the Hunsrück Slate of Germany. The phylogenetic position of megacheirans is controversial: they have been interpreted...

Data from: Electrophoretic mobility confirms reassortment bias among geographic isolates of segmented RNA phages

Samuel L. Díaz-Muñoz, Olivier Tenaillon, Daniel Goldhill, Kristen Brao, Paul E. Turner & Lin Chao
Background: Sex presents evolutionary costs and benefits, leading to the expectation that the amount of genetic exchange should vary in conditions with contrasting cost-benefit equations. Like eukaryotes, viruses also engage in sex, but the rate of genetic exchange is often assumed to be a relatively invariant property of a particular virus. However, the rates of genetic exchange can vary within one type of virus according to geography, as highlighted by phylogeographic studies of cystoviruses. Here...

Data from: Early bursts of body size and shape evolution are rare in comparative data

Luke J. Harmon, Jonathan B. Losos, T. Jonathan Davies, Rosemary G. Gillespie, John L. Gittleman, W. Bryan Jennings, Kenneth H. Kozak, Mark A. McPeek, Franck Moreno-Roark, Thomas J. Near, Andy Purvis, Robert E. Ricklefs, Dolph Schluter, , Ole Seehausen, Brian L. Sidlauskas, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Jason T. Weir & Arne Ø. Mooers
George Gaylord Simpson famously postulated that much of life's diversity originated as adaptive radiations—more or less simultaneous divergences of numerous lines from a single ancestral adaptive type. However, identifying adaptive radiations has proven difficult due to a lack of broad-scale comparative datasets. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative data on body size and shape in a diversity of animal clades to test a key model of adaptive radiation, in which initially rapid morphological evolution is followed...

Data from: Inferring pathobiology from structural MRI in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: modeling head motion and neuroanatomical specificity

Nailin Yao, Anderson M. Winkler, Jennifer Barrett, Gregory A. Book, Tamara Beetham, Rachel Horseman, Olivia Leach, Karen Hodgson, Emma E. Knowles, Samuel Mathias, Michael C. Stevens, Michal Assaf, Theo G. M. Van Erp, Godfrey D. Pearlson & David C. Glahn
Despite over 400 peer-reviewed structural MRI publications documenting neuroanatomic abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, the confounding effects of head motion and the regional specificity of these defects are unclear. Using a large cohort of individuals scanned on the same research dedicated MRI with broadly similar protocols, we observe reduced cortical thickness indices in both illnesses, though less pronounced in bipolar disorder. While schizophrenia (n = 226) was associated with wide-spread surface area reductions, bipolar...

Data from: An inverse latitudinal gradient in speciation rate for marine fishes

Daniel L. Rabosky, Jonathan Chang, Pascal O. Title, Peter F. Cowman, Lauren Sallan, Matt Friedman, Kristin Kaschner, Cristina Garilao, Thomas J. Near, Marta Coll & Michael E. Alfaro
Far more species of organisms are found in the tropics than in temperate and polar regions, but the evolutionary and ecological causes of this pattern remain controversial1,2. Tropical marine fish communities are much more diverse than cold-water fish communities found at higher latitudes3,4, and several explanations for this latitudinal diversity gradient propose that warm reef environments serve as evolutionary ‘hotspots’ for species formation5,6,7,8. Here we test the relationship between latitude, species richness and speciation rate...

Data from: Global geographic patterns in the colours and sizes of animal‐dispersed fruits

Miranda A. Sinnott-Armstrong, Alexander E. Downie, Sarah Federman, Alfredo Valido, Pedro Jordano & Michael J. Donoghue
Aim. Fruit colours attract animal seed dispersers, yet the causes of fruit colour diversity remain controversial. The lack of knowledge of large-scale spatial patterns in fruit colours has limited our ability to formulate and test alternative hypotheses to explain fruit colour, fruit size, and fruit colour diversity. We describe spatial (especially latitudinal) variation in fruit colour, colour diversity, and length, and test for correlations between fruit colour, length, and plant habit. Location. Global. Time period....

Data from: Tracing the diversification history of a Neogene rodent invasion into South America

Renan Maestri, Nathan S. Upham & Bruce D. Patterson
We investigated spatial patterns of evolutionary relatedness and diversification rates to test hypotheses about the historical biogeographic processes underlying the radiation of Neotropical rats and mice (Sigmodontinae, ~400 species). A negative correlation between mean phylogenetic distance and diversification rates of rodent assemblages reveals a pattern of species co-occurrence in which assemblages of closely related species are also the fastest diversifying ones. Subregions of the Neotropics occupied by distantly related species that are on average more...

A new species of bridled darter endemic to the Etowah River system in Georgia (Percidae: Etheostomatinae: Percina)

Thomas Near, Daniel MacGuigan, Emily Boring, Jeffrey Simmons, Brett Albanese, Benjamin Keck, Richard Harrington & Gerald Dinkins
Percina freemanorum, the Etowah Bridled Darter, is described as a new species endemic to the Etowah River system in Georgia, specifically in Long Swamp Creek, Amicalola Creek, and the upper portion of the Etowah River. The earliest collection records for Percina freemanorum date to 1948 and in 2007 the species was delimited as populations of Percina kusha. Our investigation into the systematics of Percina kusha is motivated by the uncertain status of populations in the...

Data from: Mechanism for analogous illusory motion perception in flies and humans.

Margarida Agrochao, Ryosuke Tanaka, Emilio Salazar-Gatzimas & Damon Clark
Visual motion detection is one of the most important computations performed by visual circuits. Yet, we perceive vivid illusory motion in stationary, periodic luminance gradients that contain no true motion. This illusion is shared by diverse vertebrate species, but theories proposed to explain this illusion have remained difficult to test. Here, we demonstrate that in the fruit fly Drosophila, the illusory motion percept is generated by unbalanced contributions of direction-selective neurons’ responses to stationary edges....

Diversification in evolutionary arenas – assessment and synthesis

Nicolai M. Nürk, H. Peter Linder, Renske E. Onstein, Matthew J. Larcombe, Colin E. Hughes, Laura Piñeiro Fernández, Philipp M. Schlüter, Luis Valente, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Vanessa Cutts, Michael J. Donoghue, Erika J. Edwards, Richard Field, Suzette G.A. Flantua, Steven I. Higgins, Anke Jentsch, Sigrid Liede-Schumann & Michael D. Pirie
Understanding how and why rates of evolutionary diversification vary is a central issue in evolutionary biology, ecology and biogeography. The concept of adaptive radiation has attracted much interest, but is metaphorical and verbal in nature, making it difficult to quantitatively compare different evolutionary lineages or geographic regions. In addition, the causes of evolutionary stasis are relatively neglected. Here we review the central concepts in the evolutionary diversification literature and bring these together by proposing a...

Pairwise FST values for Aedes aegypti populations in Florida and southern California

Evlyn Pless & Jeffrey Powell
In the affiliated paper we compare likely the oldest populations of Aedes aegypti in continental North America with some of the newest to illuminate the range of genetic diversity and structure that can be found within the invasive range of this important disease vector. Aedes aegypti populations in Florida have likely persisted since the 1600-1700s, while populations in southern California derive from new invasions that occurred in the last ten years. For this comparison, we...

Microsatellite data for Aedes aegypti populations in Florida and southern California

Evlyn Pless & Jeffrey Powell
In the affiliated paper we compare likely the oldest populations of Aedes aegypti in continental North America with some of the newest to illuminate the range of genetic diversity and structure that can be found within the invasive range of this important disease vector. Aedes aegypti populations in Florida have likely persisted since the 1600-1700s, while populations in southern California derive from new invasions that occurred in the last ten years. For this comparison, we...

Data from: Prior evolution in stochastic versus constant temperatures affects RNA virus evolvability at a thermal extreme

Andrea Gloria-Soria, Sandra Y. Mendiola, Valerie J. Morley, Barry W. Alto & Paul E. Turner
It is unclear how historical adaptation versus maladaptation in a prior environment affects population evolvability in a novel habitat. Prior work showed that vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) populations evolved at Constant 37oC improved in cellular infection at both 29oC and 37oC; in contrast, those evolved under Random changing temperatures between 29oC and 37oC failed to improve. Here we tested whether prior evolution affected the rate of adaptation at the thermal-niche edge: 40oC. After 40 virus...

Data from: Genetic effects of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation on remnant animal and plant populations: a meta-analysis

Daniel R. Schlaepfer, Brigitte Braschler, Hans-Peter Rusterholz & Bruno Baur
Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the biggest threats to biodiversity. Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation leads to small and isolated remnant plant and animal populations. The combination of increased random genetic drift, inbreeding, and reduced gene flow may substantially reduce genetic variation of remnant populations. However, the magnitude of these responses may depend on several poorly understood factors including organism group, habitat type of both the fragment and the surrounding matrix, life‐history traits, and time since...

The future urban forest: a survey of tree planting programs in the Northeastern United States

Danica Doroski
Cities around the world are pursuing tree planting as a way to increase tree cover. Despite the growing interest in planting trees as a way to offset climate change, counter the negative impacts of urbanization, and provide benefits to city dwellers, there has not been a recent effort to quantify the number of trees being planted nor the species composition of these plantings. Because ecosystem services and ecosystem threats can transcend municipal boundaries, understanding trends...

Locomotion and paleoclimate explain the re-evolution of quadrupedal body form in Brachymeles lizards

Philip Bergmann, , Elyse Freitas, Duncan Irschick, Gunter Wagner & Cameron Siler
Evolutionary reversals, including re-evolution of lost structures, are commonly found in phylogenetic studies. However, we lack an understanding of how these reversals happen mechanistically. A snake-like body form has evolved many times in vertebrates, and occasionally, a quadrupedal form has re-evolved, including in Brachymeles lizards. We use body form and locomotion data for species ranging from snake-like to quadrupedal to address how a quadrupedal form could re-evolve. We show that large, quadrupedal species are faster...

Data from: The function of the ophiuroid nerve ring: how a decentralized nervous system controls coordinated locomotion

Elizabeth G. Clark, Daichi Kanauchi, Takeshi Kano, Hitoshi Aonuma, Derek E. G. Briggs & Akio Ishiguro
Echinoderms lack a centralized nervous control system yet each extant echinoderm class has evolved unique and effective strategies for locomotion. Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea) stride swiftly over the seafloor by coordinating motions of their five muscular arms. Their arms consist of many repeating segments, requiring them to use a complex control system to coordinate motions among segments and between arms. We conducted in vivo experiments with brittle stars to analyze the functional role of the nerve...

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