38 Works

Data from: Deep phylogenomics of a tandem-repeat galectin regulating appendicular skeletal pattern formation

Ramray Bhat, Mahul Chakraborty, Tilmann Glimm, Thomas A. Stewart & Stuart A. Newman
Background: A multiscale network of two galectins Galectin-1 (Gal-1) and Galectin-8 (Gal-8) patterns the avian limb skeleton. Among vertebrates with paired appendages, chondrichthyan fins typically have one or more cartilage plates and many repeating parallel endoskeletal elements, actinopterygian fins have more varied patterns of nodules, bars and plates, while tetrapod limbs exhibit tandem arrays of few, proximodistally increasing numbers of elements. We applied a comparative genomic and protein evolution approach to understand the origin of...

Data from: Interpreting and predicting the spread of invasive wild pigs

Nathan P. Snow, Marta A. Jarzyna & Kurt C. VerCauteren
The eruption of invasive wild pigs (IWPs) Sus scrofa throughout the world exemplifies the need to understand the influences of exotic and non-native species expansions. In particular, the continental USA is precariously threatened by a rapid expansion of IWPs, and a better understanding of the rate and process of spread can inform strategies that will limit the expansion. We developed a spatially and temporally dynamic model to examine three decades (1982–2012) of IWP expansion, and...

Data from: The ecology of a continental evolutionary radiation: Is the radiation of sigmodontine rodents adaptive?

Renan Maestri, Leandro Rabello Monteiro, Rodrigo Fornel, Nathan S. Upham, Bruce D. Patterson & Thales Renato Ochotorena De Freitas
Evolutionary radiations on continents are less well-understood and appreciated than those occurring on islands. The extent of ecological influence on species divergence can be evaluated to determine whether a radiation was ultimately the outcome of divergent natural selection or else arose mainly by nonecological divergence. Here, we used phylogenetic comparative methods to test distinct hypotheses corresponding to adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary scenarios for the morphological evolution of sigmodontine rodents. Results showed that ecological variables (diet...

Data from: State dependence, personality, and plants: light-foraging decisions in Mimosa pudica (L.)

Franz W. Simon, Christina N. Hodson & Bernard R. Roitberg
Plants make foraging decisions that are dependent on ecological conditions, such as resource availability and distribution. Despite the field of plant behavioral ecology gaining momentum, ecologists still know little about what factors impact plant behavior, especially light-foraging behavior. We made use of the behavioral reaction norm approach to investigate light foraging in a plant species that exhibits rapid movement: Mimosa pudica. We explored how herbivore avoidance behavior in M. pudica (which closes its leaflets temporarily...

Data from: C4 photosynthesis boosts growth by altering physiology, allocation and size

Rebecca R. L. Atkinson, Emily J. Mockford, Christopher Bennett, Pascal-Antoine Christin, Elizabeth L. Spriggs, Robert P. Freckleton, Ken Thompson, Mark Rees & Colin P. Osborne
C4 photosynthesis is a complex set of leaf anatomical and biochemical adaptations that have evolved more than 60 times to boost carbon uptake compared with the ancestral C3 photosynthetic type1,​2,​3. Although C4 photosynthesis has the potential to drive faster growth rates4,5, experiments directly comparing C3 and C4 plants have not shown consistent effects1,6,7. This is problematic because differential growth is a crucial element of ecological theory8,9 explaining C4 savannah responses to global change10,11, and research...

Data from: Misconceptions on missing data in RAD-seq phylogenetics with a deep-scale example from flowering plants

Deren A.R. Eaton, Elizabeth L. Spriggs, Brian Park & Michael J. Donoghue
Restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing and related methods rely on the conservation of enzyme recognition sites to isolate homologous DNA fragments for sequencing, with the consequence that mutations disrupting these sites lead to missing information. There is thus a clear expectation for how missing data should be distributed, with fewer loci recovered between more distantly related samples. This observation has led to a related expectation: that RAD-seq data are insufficiently informative for resolving deeper scale...

Data from: Fire prevents woody encroachment only at higher-than-historical frequencies in a South African savanna

Madelon F. Case & Ann Carla Staver
Woody encroachment is a pervasive challenge facing savanna and grassland managers worldwide. Proposed drivers of the phenomenon range from local changes in fire, herbivory, and direct human impacts, to global changes in climate or atmospheric [CO2] that may be accelerating woody growth. The relative influences of local vs. global drivers and their interactions are largely unknown, but will determine the extent to which management can limit woody encroachment locally. We examined recent woody encroachment in...

Data from: Spontaneous metacognition in rhesus monkeys

Alexandra G. Rosati & Laurie R. Santos
Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The...

Data from: Implied weighting and its utility in palaeontological datasets: a study using modelled phylogenetic matrices

Curtis R. Congreve & James C. Lamsdell
Implied weighting, a method for phylogenetic inference that actively seeks to downweight supposed homoplasy, has in recent years begun to be widely utilized in palaeontological datasets. Given the method's purported ability at handling widespread homoplasy/convergence, we investigate the effects of implied weighting on modelled phylogenetic data. We generated 100 character matrices consisting of 55 characters each using a Markov Chain morphology model of evolution based on a known phylogenetic tree. Rates of character evolution in...

Data from: Alloparenting is associated with reduced maternal lactation effort and faster weaning in wild chimpanzees

Iulia Badescu, David P. Watts, M. Anne Katzenberg & Daniel W. Sellen
Alloparenting, when individuals other than the mother assist with infant care, can vary between and within populations and has potential fitness costs and benefits for individuals involved. We investigated the effects of alloparenting on the speed with which infants were weaned, a potential component of maternal fitness because of how it can affect inter-birth intervals, in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Uganda. We also provide, to our knowledge, the first description of alloparenting...

Data from: Global population divergence and admixture of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus)

Emily E. Puckett, Jane Park, Matthew Combs, Michael J. Blum, Juliet E. Bryant, Adalgisa Caccone, Federico Costa, Eva E. Deinum, Alexandra Esther, Chelsea G. Himsworth, Peter D. Keightley, Albert Ko, Ake Lundkvist, Lorraine M. McElhinney, Serge Morand, Judith Robins, James Russell, Tanja M. Strand, Olga Suarez, Lisa Yon & Jason Munshi-South
Native to China and Mongolia, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) now enjoys a worldwide distribution. While black rats and the house mouse tracked the regional development of human agricultural settlements, brown rats did not appear in Europe until the 1500s, suggesting their range expansion was a response to relatively recent increases in global trade. We inferred the global phylogeography of brown rats using 32 k SNPs, and detected 13 evolutionary clusters within five expansion routes....

Data from: Multiple pairwise analysis of non-homologous centromere coupling reveals preferential chromosome size-dependent interactions and a role for bouquet formation in establishing the interaction pattern

Philippe Lefrançois, Beth Rockmill, Pingxing Xie, G. Shirleen Roeder & Michael Snyder
During meiosis, chromosomes undergo a homology search in order to locate their homolog to form stable pairs and exchange genetic material. Early in prophase, chromosomes associate in mostly non-homologous pairs, tethered only at their centromeres. This phenomenon, conserved through higher eukaryotes, is termed centromere coupling in budding yeast. Both initiation of recombination and the presence of homologs are dispensable for centromere coupling (occurring in spo11 mutants and haploids induced to undergo meiosis) but the presence...

Data from: Temperature dependence of predation stress and the nutritional ecology of a generalist herbivore

Oswald J. Schmitz, Adam E. Ronseblatt, Meredith Smylie & Adam E. Rosenblatt
Prey at risk of predation may experience stress and respond physiologically by altering their metabolic rates. Theory predicts that such physiological changes should alter prey nutrient demands from N-rich to C-rich macronutrients and shift the balance between maintenance and growth/reproduction. Theory further suggests that for ectotherms, temperature stands to exacerbate this stress. Yet, the interactive effects of predation stress and temperature stress on diet, metabolism, and survival of ectotherms are not well known. This knowledge...

Data from: Ovarian fluid allows directional cryptic female choice despite external fertilization

Susan E. Marsh-Rollo, Suzanne H. Alonzo & Kelly A. Stiver
In species with internal fertilization, females can favour certain males over others, not only before mating but also within the female’s reproductive tract after mating. Here, we ask whether such directional post-mating (that is, cryptic) female mate choice can also occur in species with external fertilization. Using an in vitro sperm competition experiment, we demonstrate that female ovarian fluid (ovarian fluid) changes the outcome of sperm competition by decreasing the importance of sperm number thereby...

Data from: Membrane potential dynamics of spontaneous and visually evoked gamma activity in V1 of awake mice

Quentin Perrenoud, Cyriel M. A. Pennartz & Luc J. Gentet
Cortical gamma activity (30–80 Hz) is believed to play important functions in neural computation and arises from the interplay of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV) and pyramidal cells (PYRs). However, the subthreshold dynamics underlying its emergence in the cortex of awake animals remain unclear. Here, we characterized the intracellular dynamics of PVs and PYRs during spontaneous and visually evoked gamma activity in layers 2/3 of V1 of awake mice using targeted patch-clamp recordings and synchronous local field...

Data from: Incomplete loss of a conserved trait: function, latitudinal cline, and genetic constraints

Anne M. Royer, Colin Kremer, Kola George, Samuel G. Pérez, Douglas W. Schemske & Jeffrey K. Conner
Retention of nonfunctional traits over evolutionary time is puzzling, because the cost of trait production should drive loss. Indeed, several studies have found nonfunctional traits are rapidly eliminated by selection. However, theory suggests that complex genetic interactions and a lack of genetic variance can constrain evolution, including trait loss. In the mustard family Brassicaceae the conserved floral condition includes four long and two short stamens, but we show that short stamens in the highly self-pollinating...

Data from: Rhesus monkeys show human-like changes in gaze following across the lifespan

Alexandra G. Rosati, Alyssa M. Arre, Michael L. Platt & Laurie R. Santos
Gaze following, or co-orienting with others, is a foundational skill for human social behavior. The emergence of this capacity scaffolds critical human-specific abilities such as theory of mind and language. Nonhuman primates also follow others’ gaze, but less is known about how the cognitive mechanisms supporting this behavior develop over the lifespan. Here we experimentally tested gaze following in 481 semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) ranging from infancy to old age. We found that monkeys...

Data from: A hyperspectral image can predict tropical tree growth rates in single-species stands

T. Trevor Caughlin, Sarah J. Graves, Gregory P. Asner, Michiel Van Breugel, Jefferson S. Hall, Roberta E. Martin, Mark S. Ashton & Stephanie A. Bohlman
Remote sensing is increasingly needed to meet the critical demand for estimates of forest structure and composition at landscape to continental scales. Hyperspectral images can detect tree canopy properties, including species identity, leaf chemistry and disease. Tree growth rates are related to these measurable canopy properties but whether growth can be directly predicted from hyperspectral data remains unknown. We used a single hyperspectral image and LiDAR-derived elevation to predict growth rates for twenty tropical tree...

Data from: Puma predation subsidizes an obligate scavenger in the high Andes

Paula L. Perrig, Emiliano Donadio, Arthur D. Middleton & Jonathan N. Pauli
The ungulate–carnivore–vulture complex is a key trophic module of many terrestrial ecosystems, but one that is globally under threat. Few have explored cross-species dependencies in this module, and the degree to which vultures rely on trophic facilitation by apex carnivores is rarely known and almost never quantified. We investigated the importance of puma Puma concolor predation on its native camelid prey, vicuñas Vicugna vicugna and guanacos Lama guanicoe, in food provisioning for Andean condors Vultur...

Data from: Long-term climate and competition explain forest mortality patterns under extreme drought

Derek J. N. Young, Jens T. Stevens, J. Mason Earles, Jeffrey Moore, Adam Ellis, Amy L. Jirka & Andrew M. Latimer
Rising temperatures are amplifying drought-induced stress and mortality in forests globally. It remains uncertain, however, whether tree mortality across drought-stricken landscapes will be concentrated in particular climatic and competitive environments. We investigated the effects of long-term average climate [i.e. 35-year mean annual climatic water deficit (CWD)] and competition (i.e. tree basal area) on tree mortality patterns, using extensive aerial mortality surveys conducted throughout the forests of California during a 4-year statewide extreme drought lasting from...

Data from: Nutrient supply alters goldenrod’s induced response to herbivory

Karin T. Burghardt
Recent interest in using trait-based approaches to understand and predict ecosystem processes and evolutionary responses to environmental change (both biotic and abiotic), highlights the need to understand the relative importance of genetic and environmental sources of intraspecific trait variation within local populations of dominant species. Here, I combine plant defense theory with functional approaches to quantify genetic trait variation and phenotypic trait plasticity of nine goldenrod (Solidago altissima) genotypes derived from a local field population...

Data from: A shift from exploitation to interference competition with increasing density affects population and community dynamics

Erica M. Holdridge, Catalina Cuellar-Gempeler & Casey P. TerHorst
Intraspecific competition influences population and community dynamics and occurs via two mechanisms. Exploitative competition is an indirect effect that occurs through use of a shared resource and depends on resource availability. Interference competition occurs by obstructing access to a resource and may not depend on resource availability. Our study tested whether the strength of interference competition changes with protozoa population density. We grew experimental microcosms of protozoa and bacteria under different combinations of protozoan density...

Data from: Systematics and taxonomy of the Snubnose Darter, Etheostoma simoterum (Cope)

Thomas J. Near, Ethan D. France, Benjamin P. Keck & Richard C. Harrington
A taxonomic revision of Etheostoma simoterum (Cope) published in 2007 resulted in the recognition of six species, with two species distributed in the Tennessee River system. A newly defined Etheostoma simoterum was restricted to populations in the Holston River above the confluence of the North and South Forks, and the Russell Fork system of the Ohio River drainage. A newly described species, Etheostoma tennesseense Powers & Mayden, included all other populations historically considered Etheostoma simoterum...

Data from: Assessing polar bear (Ursus maritimus) population structure in the Hudson Bay region using SNPs

Michelle Viengkone, Andrew Edward Derocher, Evan Shaun Richardson, René Michael Malenfant, Joshua Moses Miller, Martyn E. Obbard, Markus G. Dyck, Nick J. Lunn, Vicki Sahanatien & Corey S. Davis
Defining subpopulations using genetics has traditionally used data from microsatellite markers to investigate population structure; however, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have emerged as a tool for detection of fine-scale structure. In Hudson Bay, Canada, three polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations (Foxe Basin (FB), Southern Hudson Bay (SH), and Western Hudson Bay (WH)) have been delineated based on mark–recapture studies, radiotelemetry and satellite telemetry, return of marked animals in the subsistence harvest, and population genetics using microsatellites....

Data from: Invasion of two tick-borne diseases across New England: harnessing human surveillance data to capture underlying ecological invasion processes

Katharine S. Walter, Kim M. Pepin, Colleen T. Webb, Holly D. Gaff, Peter J. Krause, Virginia E. Pitzer & Maria A. Diuk-Wasser
Modelling the spatial spread of vector-borne zoonotic pathogens maintained in enzootic transmission cycles remains a major challenge. The best available spatio-temporal data on pathogen spread often take the form of human disease surveillance data. By applying a classic ecological approach—occupancy modelling—to an epidemiological question of disease spread, we used surveillance data to examine the latent ecological invasion of tick-borne pathogens. Over the last half-century, previously undescribed tick-borne pathogens including the agents of Lyme disease and...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Yale University
  • University of Oxford
  • The University of Texas at Austin
  • Texas A&M University
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • Harvard University
  • University of Kansas
  • Cleveland State University
  • College of Charleston