42 Works

Data from: Inferring pathobiology from structural MRI in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: modeling head motion and neuroanatomical specificity

Nailin Yao, Anderson M. Winkler, Jennifer Barrett, Gregory A. Book, Tamara Beetham, Rachel Horseman, Olivia Leach, Karen Hodgson, Emma E. Knowles, Samuel Mathias, Michael C. Stevens, Michal Assaf, Theo G. M. Van Erp, Godfrey D. Pearlson & David C. Glahn
Despite over 400 peer-reviewed structural MRI publications documenting neuroanatomic abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, the confounding effects of head motion and the regional specificity of these defects are unclear. Using a large cohort of individuals scanned on the same research dedicated MRI with broadly similar protocols, we observe reduced cortical thickness indices in both illnesses, though less pronounced in bipolar disorder. While schizophrenia (n = 226) was associated with wide-spread surface area reductions, bipolar...

Data from: Group augmentation, collective action, and territorial boundary patrols by male chimpanzees

Kevin E. Langergraber, David P. Watts, Linda Vigilant & John C. Mitani
How can collective action evolve when individuals benefit from cooperation regardless of whether they pay its participation costs? According to one influential perspective, collective action problems are common, especially when groups are large, but may be solved when individuals who have more to gain from the collective good or can produce it at low costs provide it to others as a byproduct. Several results from a 20-y study of one of the most striking examples...

Data from: Linking functional diversity and ecosystem processes: a framework for using functional diversity metrics to predict the ecosystem impact of functionally unique species

Sara E. Kuebbing, Daniel S. Maynard & Mark A. Bradford
1.Functional diversity (FD) metrics are widely used to assess invasion ecosystem impacts, but we have limited theory to predict how FD should respond to invasion. A key challenge to effectively using FD metrics is the complexity of conceptualizing alterations to multi-dimensional trait space, making it difficult to select a priori the most appropriate metric for specific ecological questions. 2.Here, we provide expectations on how invasion should change four commonly used FD metrics—functional richness (FRic), evenness...

Data from: Gradual loading ameliorates maladaptation in computational simulations of vein graft growth and remodelling

Abhay Bangalore Ramachandra, Jay D. Humphrey & Alison L. Marsden
Vein graft failure is a prevalent problem in vascular surgeries, including bypass grafting and arteriovenous fistula procedures in which veins are subjected to severe changes in pressure and flow. Animal and clinical studies provide significant insight, but understanding the complex underlying coupled mechanisms can be advanced using computational models. Towards this end, we propose a new model of venous growth and remodelling (G&R) based on a constrained mixture theory. First, we identify constitutive relations and...

Data from: Different clades and traits yield similar grassland functional responses

Elisabeth J. Forrestel, Michael J. Donoghue, Erika J. Edwards, Walter Jetz, Justin C. O. Du Toit & Melinda D. Smith
Plant functional traits are viewed as key to predicting important ecosystem and community properties across resource gradients within and among biogeographic regions. Vegetation dynamics and ecosystem processes, such as aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), are increasingly being modeled as a function of the quantitative traits of species, which are used as proxies for photosynthetic rates, and nutrient and water-use efficiency. These approaches rely on an assumption that a certain trait value consistently confers a specific...

Data from: Tree-growth is more sensitive than species distributions to recent changes in climate and acidic deposition in the northeastern United States

Jay W. Wason, Martin Dovciak, Colin M. Beier & John J. Battles
Tree-growth responses to environmental change could provide early detection of shifts in forest composition and help facilitate ecosystem management and conservation. We studied forest tree responses to recent trends in climate and acidic deposition using analyses of tree rings and long-term climate, deposition and forest plot data along an elevational climatic gradient in the northeastern United States. We analyzed how (a) individual growth of dominant species (Picea rubens, Abies balsamea), and (b) spatial distributions of...

Data from: A new species of logperch endemic to Tennessee (Percidae: Etheostomatinae: Percina)

Thomas J. Near, Jeffrey W. Simmons, Jon Michael Mollish, Maria A. Correa, Edgar Benavides, Richard C. Harrington & Benjamin P. Keck
Percina apina, the Tennessee Logperch, is described as a new species endemic to Tennessee and distributed in the Duck River system and Whiteoak Creek. The earliest collection records for Percina apina date to 1971 and the species was identified as Percina burtoni, the Blotchside Logperch. A phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) published in 2006 showed that populations identified as Percina burtoni in the Duck River system and Whiteoak Creek were a new and undescribed...

Data from: Theory, practice, and conservation in the age of genomics: the Galápagos giant tortoise as a case study

Stephen J. Gaughran, Maud C. Quinzin, Joshua M. Miller, Ryan C. Garrick, Danielle L. Edwards, Michael A. Russello, Nikos Poulakakis, Claudio Ciofi, Luciano B. Beheregaray, Aldalgisa Caccone & Adalgisa Caccone
Hgh-throughput DNA sequencing allows efficient discovery of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in non-model species. Population genetic theory predicts that this large number of independent markers should provide detailed insights into population structure, even when only a few individuals are sampled. Still, sampling design can have a strong impact on such inferences. Here, we use simulations and empirical SNP data to investigate the impacts of sampling design on estimating genetic differentiation among populations that...

Data from: The ecological importance of intraspecific variation

Simone Des Roches, David M. Post, Nash E. Turley, Joseph K. Bailey, Andrew P. Hendry, Michael T. Kinnison, Jennifer A. Schweitzer & Eric P. Palkovacs
Human activity is causing wild populations to experience rapid trait change and local extirpation. The resulting effects on intraspecific variation could have substantial consequences for ecological processes and ecosystem services. Although researchers have long acknowledged that variation among species influences the surrounding environment, only recently has evidence accumulated for the ecological importance of variation within species. We conducted a meta-analysis comparing the ecological effects of variation within a species (intraspecific effects) with the effects of...

Data from: Evolutionary history of Daphnia drives divergence in grazing selectivity and alters temporal community dynamics of producers

John S. Park & David M. Post
Consumers with different seasonal life histories encounter different communities of producers during specific seasonal phases. If consumers evolve to prefer the producers that they encounter, then consumers may reciprocally influence the temporal composition of producer communities. Here we study the keystone consumer Daphnia ambigua, whose seasonal life history has diverged due to intraspecific predator divergence across lakes of New England. We ask whether grazing preferences of Daphnia have diverged also, and test whether any grazing...

Data from: Complex coevolution of wing, tail, and vocal sounds of courting male bee hummingbirds

Christopher J. Clark, Jimmy A. McGuire, Elisa Bonaccorso, Jacob S. Berv & Richard O. Prum
Phenotypic characters with a complex physical basis may have a correspondingly complex evolutionary history. Males in the ‘bee’ hummingbird clade court females with sound from tail-feathers, which flutter during display dives. On a phylogeny of 35 species, flutter sound frequency evolves as a gradual, continuous character on most branches. But on at least six internal branches fall two types of major, saltational changes: mode of flutter changes, or the feather that is the sound source...

Data from: Contrasting patterns of insect herbivory and predation pressure across a tropical rainfall gradient

Anita Weissflog, Lars Markesteijn, Owen T. Lewis, Liza S. Comita, Bettina M. J. Engelbrecht. & Bettina M.J. Engelbrecht
One explanation for the extraordinarily high tree diversity of tropical lowland forests is that it is maintained by specialized natural enemies such as insect herbivores, which cause distance and density dependent mortality. Insect herbivory could also explain the positive correlation between tree species richness and rainfall if herbivory increases with rainfall, is higher on locally abundant versus rare species, and is not limited by predation pressure at wet sites. To test these predictions, insect herbivory...

Data from: A test of the hierarchical model of litter decomposition

Mark A. Bradford, G. F. Veen, Anne Bonis, Ella M. Bradford, Aimee T. Classen, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, Thomas W. Crowther, Jonathan R. De Long, Gregoire T. Freschet, Paul Kardol, Marta Manrubia-Freixa, Daniel S. Maynard, Gregory S. Newman, Richard S. P. Van Logtestijn, Maria Viketoft, David A. Wardle, William R. Wieder, Stephen A. Wood & Wim H. Van Der Putten
Our basic understanding of plant litter decomposition informs the assumptions underlying widely applied soil biogeochemical models, including those embedded in Earth system models. Confidence in projected carbon cycle-climate feedbacks therefore depends on accurate knowledge about the controls regulating the rate at which plant biomass is decomposed into products such as CO2. Here, we test underlying assumptions of the dominant conceptual model of litter decomposition. The model posits that a primary control on the rate of...

Data from: Isolation by distance and isolation by environment contribute to population differentiation in Protea repens (Proteaceae L.), a widespread South African species

Rachel Prunier, Melis Akman, Colin T. Kremer, Nicola C. Aitken, Aaron Chuah, Justin Borevitz, Kent E. Holsinger & Nicola Aitken
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa is renowned for its botanical diversity, but the evolutionary origins of this diversity remain controversial. Both neutral and adaptive processes have been implicated in driving diversification, but population-level studies of plants in the CFR are rare. Here, we investigate the limits to gene flow and potential environmental drivers of selection in Protea repens L. (Proteaceae L.), a widespread CFR species. METHODS: We sampled...

Data from: Anthropogenic extinction dominates Holocene declines of West Indian mammals

Siobhán B. Cooke, Liliana M. Dávalos, Alexis M. Mychajliw, Samuel T. Turvey & Nathan S. Upham
The extensive postglacial mammal losses in the West Indies provide an opportunity to evaluate extinction dynamics, but limited data have hindered our ability to test hypotheses. Here, we analyze the tempo and dynamics of extinction using a novel data set of faunal last-appearance dates and human first-appearance dates, demonstrating widespread overlap between humans and now-extinct native mammals. Humans arrived in four waves (Lithic, Archaic, Ceramic, and European), each associated with increased environmental impact. Large-bodied mammals...

Data from: Advancing Precambrian palaeomagnetism with the PALEOMAGIA and PINT(QPI) databases

Toni H. Veikkolainen, Andrew J. Biggin, Lauri J. Pesonen, David A. Evans & Nicholas A. Jarboe
State-of-the-art measurements of the direction and intensity of Earth’s ancient magnetic field have made important contributions to our understanding of the geology and palaeogeography of Precambrian Earth. The PALEOMAGIA and PINT(QPI) databases provide thorough public collections of important palaeomagnetic data of this kind. They comprise more than 4,100 observations in total and have been essential in supporting our international collaborative efforts to understand Earth's magnetic history on a timescale far longer than that of the...

Data from: Incorporating evolutionary insights to improve ecotoxicology for freshwater species

Steven P. Brady, Jonathan L. Richardson & Bethany K. Kunz
Ecotoxicological studies have provided extensive insights into the lethal and sublethal effects of environmental contaminants. These insights are critical for environmental regulatory frameworks, which rely on knowledge of toxicity for developing policies to manage contaminants. While varied approaches have been applied to ecotoxicological questions, perspectives related to the evolutionary history of focal species or populations have received little consideration. Here, we evaluate chloride toxicity from the perspectives of both macroevolution and contemporary evolution. First, by...

Data from: Dynamics of molecular evolution in RNA virus populations depend on sudden versus gradual environmental change

Valerie J. Morley & Paul E. Turner
Understanding the dynamics of molecular adaptation is a fundamental goal of evolutionary biology. While adaptation to constant environments has been well characterized, the effects of environmental complexity remain seldom studied. One simple but understudied factor is the rate of environmental change. Here we used experimental evolution with RNA viruses to investigate whether evolutionary dynamics varied based on the rate of environmental turnover. We used whole-genome next-generation sequencing to characterize evolutionary dynamics in virus populations adapting...

Data from: Aboveground biomass is driven by mass-ratio effects and stand structural attributes in a temperate deciduous forest

Alexander T. Fotis, Stephen J. Murphy, Raleigh D. Ricart, Meghna Krishnadas, James Whitacre, John W. Wenzel, Simon A. Queenborough & Liza S. Comita
1.Forest ecosystems are critical for the global regulation of carbon (C), a substantial portion of which is stored in aboveground biomass (AGB). While it is well understood that taxonomic and functional composition, stand structure, and environmental gradients influence spatial variation in AGB, the relative strengths of these drivers at landscape-scales has not been investigated in temperate forests. Furthermore, when biodiversity enhances C storage, it is unclear whether it is through mass-ratio effects (i.e., the dominant...

Data from: Life history traits and functional processes generate multiple pathways to ecological stability

John P. DeLong, Torrance C. Hanley, Jean P. Gibert, Linda M. Puth & David M. Post
Stability contributes to the persistence of ecological communities, yet the interactions among different stabilizing forces are poorly understood. We assembled mesocosms with an algal resource and 1-8 different clones of the consumer Daphnia ambigua and tracked algal and Daphnia abundances through time. We then fitted coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to the consumer-resource time series. We show that variation in different components of stability (local stability and the magnitude of population fluctuations) across mesocosms arises...

Data from: Water vascular system architecture in an Ordovician ophiuroid

Elizabeth G. Clark, Bhart-Anjan S. Bhullar, Simon A. F. Darroch & Derek E. G. Briggs
Understanding the water vascular system (WVS) in early fossil echinoderms is critical to elucidating the evolution of this system in extant forms. Here we present the first report of the internal morphology of the water vascular system of a stem ophiuroid. The radial canals are internal to the arm, but protected dorsally by a plate separate to the ambulacrals. The canals zig-zag with no evidence of constrictions, corresponding to sphincters, which control pairs of tube...

Data from: Multiple evolutionary origins of Trypanosoma evansi in Kenya

Christine M. Kamidi, Norah P. Saarman, Kirstin B. Dion, Paul O. Mireji, Collins Ouma, Grace Murilla, Serap Aksoy, Achim Schnaufer, Adalgisa Caccone & Kirstin Dion
Trypanosoma evansi is the parasite causing surra, a form of trypanosomiasis in camels and other livestock, and a serious economic burden in Kenya and many other parts of the world. Trypanosoma evansi transmission can be sustained mechanically by tabanid and Stomoxys biting flies, whereas the closely related African trypanosomes T. brucei brucei and T. b. rhodesiense require cyclical development in tsetse flies (genus Glossina) for transmission. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary origins of...

Data from: Curvature-induced stiffening of a fish fin

Khoi Nguyen, Ning Yu, Mahesh M. Bandi, Madhusudhan Venkadesan & Shreyas Mandre
How fish modulate their fin stiffness during locomotive manoeuvres remains unknown. We show that changing the fin's curvature modulates its stiffness. Modelling the fin as bendable bony rays held together by a membrane, we deduce that fin curvature is manifested as a misalignment of the principal bending axes between neighbouring rays. An external force causes neighbouring rays to bend and splay apart, and thus stretches the membrane. This coupling between bending the rays and stretching...

Data from: Genomic Signature of an Avian Lilliput Effect across the K-PG Extinction

Jacob S. Berv & Daniel J. Field
Survivorship following major mass extinctions may be associated with a decrease in body size—a phenomenon called the Lilliput Effect. Body size is a strong predictor of many life history traits (LHTs), and is known to influence demography and intrinsic biological processes. Pronounced changes in organismal size throughout Earth history are therefore likely to be associated with concomitant genome-wide changes in evolutionary rates. Here, we report pronounced heterogeneity in rates of molecular evolution (varying up to...

Data from: A bird-like skull in a Triassic diapsid reptile increases heterogeneity of the morphological and phylogenetic radiation of Diapsida

Adam C. Pritchard & Sterling J. Nesbitt
The Triassic Period saw the first appearance of numerous amniote lineages (e.g. Lepidosauria, Archosauria, Mammalia) that defined Mesozoic ecosystems following the end Permian Mass Extinction, as well as the first major morphological diversification of crown-group reptiles. Unfortunately, much of our understanding of this event comes from the record of large-bodied reptiles (total body length > 1 m). Here we present a new species of drepanosaurid (small-bodied, chameleon-like diapsids) from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    42

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    42

Affiliations

  • Yale University
    42
  • University of Tennessee at Knoxville
    3
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
    3
  • University of Oxford
    3
  • Brown University
    3
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    2
  • The Ohio State University
    2
  • University of California, San Diego
    2
  • Australian National University
    2
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2