42 Works

Data from: A new crustacean from the Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte, UK, and its significance in malacostracan evolution

David J. Siveter, Derek E. G. Briggs, Derek J. Siveter, Mark D. Sutton & David Legg
Cascolus ravitis gen. et sp. nov. is a three-dimensionally preserved fossil crustacean with soft parts from the Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte, UK. It is characterized by a head with a head shield and five limb pairs, and a thorax (pereon) with nine appendage-bearing segments followed by an apodous abdomen (pleon). All the appendages except the first are biramous and have a gnathobase. The post-mandibular appendages are similar one to another, and bear petal-shaped epipods that probably...

Data from: Environmental constraints on the compositional and phylogenetic beta-diversity of tropical forest snake assemblages

Mario R. Moura, Henrique C. Costa, Antonio J. S. Argôlo & Walter Jetz
The ongoing biodiversity crisis increases the importance and urgency of studies addressing the role of environmental variation on the composition and evolutionary history of species assemblages, but especially the tropics and ectotherms remain understudied. In regions with rainy summers, coexistence of ectothermic species may be determined by the partitioning of the climatic niche, since ectotherms can rely on water availability and thermoregulatory behaviour to buffer constraints along their climatic niche. Conversely, ectotherms facing dry summers...

Data from: Fungal interactions reduce carbon use efficiency

Daniel S. Maynard, Thomas W. Crowther & Mark A. Bradford
The efficiency by which fungi decompose organic matter contributes to the amount of carbon that is retained in biomass vs. lost to the atmosphere as respiration. This carbon use efficiency (CUE) is affected by various abiotic conditions, including temperature and nutrient availability. Theoretically, the physiological costs of interspecific interactions should likewise alter CUE, yet the magnitude of these costs is untested. Here we conduct a microcosm experiment to quantify how interactions among wood-decay basidiomycete fungi...

Data from: An edrioasteroid from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte of England reveals the nature of the water vascular system in an extinct echinoderm

Derek E. G. Briggs, Derek J. Siveter, David J. Siveter, Mark D. Sutton & Imran A. Rahman
Echinoderms are unique in having a water vascular system with tube feet, which perform a variety of functions in living forms. Here, we report the first example of preserved tube feet in an extinct group of echinoderms. The material, from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte, UK, is assigned to a new genus and species of rhenopyrgid edrioasteroid, Heropyrgus disterminus. The tube feet attach to the inner surface of compound interradial plates and form two sets, an...

Data from: Forest extent and deforestation in tropical Africa since 1900

Julie C. Aleman, Marta A. Jarzyna & A. Carla Staver
Accurate estimates of historical forest extent and associated deforestation rates are crucial for quantifying tropical carbon cycles and formulating conservation policy. In Africa, data-driven estimates of historical closed-canopy forest extent and deforestation at the continental scale are lacking, and existing modelled estimates diverge substantially. Here, we synthesize available palaeo-proxies and historical maps to reconstruct forest extent in tropical Africa around 1900, when European colonization accelerated markedly, and compare these historical estimates with modern forest extent...

Data from: Targeted enrichment of large gene families for phylogenetic inference: phylogeny and molecular evolution of photosynthesis genes in the Portullugo clade (Caryophyllales)

Abigail J. Moore, Jurriaan M. De Vos, Lillian P. Hancock, Eric Goolsby & Erika J. Edwards
Hybrid enrichment is an increasingly popular approach for obtaining hundreds of loci for phylogenetic analysis across many taxa quickly and cheaply. The genes targeted for sequencing are typically single-copy loci, which facilitate a more straightforward sequence assembly and homology assignment process. However, this approach limits the inclusion of most genes of functional interest, which often belong to multi-gene families. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of including large gene families in hybrid enrichment protocols for phylogeny...

Data from: Temporal genetic differentiation in Glossina pallidipes tsetse fly populations in Kenya

Winnie A. Okeyo, Norah P. Saarman, Michael Mengual, Kirstin Dion, Rosemary Betata, Paul O. Mireji, Sylvance Okoth, Johnson O. Ouma, Collins Ouma, Joel Ochieng, Grace Murilla, Serap Aksoy & Adalgisa Caccone
Background: Glossina pallidipes is a major vector of both Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis (HAT and AAT) in Kenya. The disease imposes economic burden on endemic regions in Kenya, including south-western Kenya, which has undergone intense but unsuccessful tsetse fly control measures. We genotyped 387 G. pallidipes flies at 13 microsatellite markers to evaluate levels of temporal genetic variation in two regions that have been subjected to intensive eradication campaigns from the 1960s to the...

Data from: Phylogenetically informed spatial planning is required to conserve the mammalian tree of life

Dan F. Rosauer, Laura J. Pollock, Simon Linke & Walter Jetz
In the face of the current extinction crisis and severely limited conservation resources, safeguarding the tree of life is increasingly recognized as a high priority. We conducted a first systematic global assessment of the conservation of phylogenetic diversity (PD) that uses realistic area targets and highlights the key areas for conservation of the mammalian tree of life. Our approach offers a substantially more effective conservation solution than one focused on species. In many locations, priorities...

Data from: Curvature-induced stiffening of a fish fin

Khoi Nguyen, Ning Yu, Mahesh M. Bandi, Madhusudhan Venkadesan & Shreyas Mandre
How fish modulate their fin stiffness during locomotive manoeuvres remains unknown. We show that changing the fin's curvature modulates its stiffness. Modelling the fin as bendable bony rays held together by a membrane, we deduce that fin curvature is manifested as a misalignment of the principal bending axes between neighbouring rays. An external force causes neighbouring rays to bend and splay apart, and thus stretches the membrane. This coupling between bending the rays and stretching...

Data from: Effective population sizes of a major vector of human diseases, Aedes aegypti

Norah P. Saarman, Andrea Gloria-Soria, Eric C. Anderson, Benjamin R. Evans, Evlyn Pless, Luciano V. Cosme, Cassandra Gonzalez-Acosta, Basile Kamgang, Dawn M. Wesson & Jeffrey R. Powell
The effective population size (Ne) is a fundamental parameter in population genetics that determines the relative strength of selection and random genetic drift, the effect of migration, levels of inbreeding, and linkage disequilibrium. In many cases where it has been estimated in animals, Ne is on the order of 10-20% of the census size. In this study, we use 12 microsatellite markers and 14,888 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to empirically estimate Ne in Aedes aegypti,...

Data from: The K=2 conundrum

Jasmine K. Janes, Joshua M. Miller, Julian R. Dupuis, Rene M. Malenfant, Jamieson C. Gorrell, Catherine I. Cullingham & Rose L. Andrew
Assessments of population genetic structure have become an increasing focus as they can provide valuable insight into patterns of migration and gene flow. STRUCTURE, the most highly cited of several clustering-based methods, was developed to provide robust estimates without the need for populations to be determined a priori. STRUCTURE introduces the problem of selecting the optimal number of clusters and as a result the ΔK method was proposed to assist in the identification of the...

Data from: Evidence of phenotypic plasticity of penis morphology and delayed reproductive maturation in response to male competition in waterfowl

Patricia L. R. Brennan, Richard O. Prum & Derek Feng
Ducks are an excellent group to study avian genital evolution. Penis morphology of ducks is diverse, and penis length and elaboration are positively correlated with levels of male competition resulting from forced extra-pair copulations, and with female genital elaboration resulting from sexual conflict. Here we examined whether penis morphology is affected by social environment. We found experimental evidence that in a male-biased social environment, consisting of several males and fewer females, the penis in Lesser...

Data from: A bird-like skull in a Triassic diapsid reptile increases heterogeneity of the morphological and phylogenetic radiation of Diapsida

Adam C. Pritchard & Sterling J. Nesbitt
The Triassic Period saw the first appearance of numerous amniote lineages (e.g. Lepidosauria, Archosauria, Mammalia) that defined Mesozoic ecosystems following the end Permian Mass Extinction, as well as the first major morphological diversification of crown-group reptiles. Unfortunately, much of our understanding of this event comes from the record of large-bodied reptiles (total body length > 1 m). Here we present a new species of drepanosaurid (small-bodied, chameleon-like diapsids) from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of...

Data from: Phylogenetic and morphological diversity of the Etheostoma zonistium species complex with the description of a new species endemic to the Cumberland Plateau of Alabama

Logan C. Kozal, Jeffrey W. Simmons, Jon Michael Mollish, Daniel J. MacGuigan, Edgar Benavides, Benjamin P. Keck & Thomas J. Near
We provide a description of the Blueface Darter, Etheostoma cyanoprosopum, which is distributed in the upper Sipsey Fork of the Mobile Basin and the upper portion of the Bear Creek system in the Tennessee River Drainage. The distinctiveness of Etheostoma cyanoprosopum is assessed through analysis of morphological variation and molecular phylogenetic diversity within the Etheostoma zonistium species complex. In addition to analyzing disparity of morphometric and meristic traits, we present phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial...

Data from: Distance-dependent seedling mortality and long-term spacing dynamics in a neotropical forest community

Stephen J. Murphy, Thorsten Wiegand & Liza S. Comita
Negative distance dependence (NDisD), or reduced recruitment near adult conspecifics, is thought to explain the astounding diversity of tropical forests. While many studies show greater mortality at near vs. far distances from adults, these studies do not seek to track changes in the peak seedling curve over time, thus limiting our ability to link NDisD to coexistence. Using census data collected over 12 years from central Panama in conjunction with spatial mark-connection functions, we show...

Data from: Genomic Signature of an Avian Lilliput Effect across the K-PG Extinction

Jacob S. Berv & Daniel J. Field
Survivorship following major mass extinctions may be associated with a decrease in body size—a phenomenon called the Lilliput Effect. Body size is a strong predictor of many life history traits (LHTs), and is known to influence demography and intrinsic biological processes. Pronounced changes in organismal size throughout Earth history are therefore likely to be associated with concomitant genome-wide changes in evolutionary rates. Here, we report pronounced heterogeneity in rates of molecular evolution (varying up to...

Data from: Light sensing by opsins and fungal ecology: NOP-1 modulates entry into sexual reproduction in response to environmental cues

Zheng Wang, Junrui Wang, Ning Li, Jigang Li, Frances Trail, Jay C. Dunlap & Jeffrey P. Townsend
Understanding the genetic basis of the switch from asexual to sexual lifestyles in response to sometimes rapid environmental changes is one of the major challenges in fungal ecology. Light appears to play a critical role in the asexual–sexual switch—but fungal genomes harbour diverse light sensors. Fungal opsins are homologous to bacterial green-light-sensory rhodopsins, and their organismal functions in fungi have not been well understood. Three of these opsin-like proteins were widely distributed across fungal genomes,...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    42

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    42

Affiliations

  • Yale University
    42
  • University of Tennessee at Knoxville
    3
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
    3
  • University of Oxford
    3
  • Brown University
    3
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    2
  • The Ohio State University
    2
  • University of California, San Diego
    2
  • Australian National University
    2
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2