51 Works

Data from: An inverse latitudinal gradient in speciation rate for marine fishes

Daniel L. Rabosky, Jonathan Chang, Pascal O. Title, Peter F. Cowman, Lauren Sallan, Matt Friedman, Kristin Kaschner, Cristina Garilao, Thomas J. Near, Marta Coll & Michael E. Alfaro
Far more species of organisms are found in the tropics than in temperate and polar regions, but the evolutionary and ecological causes of this pattern remain controversial1,2. Tropical marine fish communities are much more diverse than cold-water fish communities found at higher latitudes3,4, and several explanations for this latitudinal diversity gradient propose that warm reef environments serve as evolutionary ‘hotspots’ for species formation5,6,7,8. Here we test the relationship between latitude, species richness and speciation rate...

Data from: Global geographic patterns in the colours and sizes of animal‐dispersed fruits

Miranda A. Sinnott-Armstrong, Alexander E. Downie, Sarah Federman, Alfredo Valido, Pedro Jordano & Michael J. Donoghue
Aim. Fruit colours attract animal seed dispersers, yet the causes of fruit colour diversity remain controversial. The lack of knowledge of large-scale spatial patterns in fruit colours has limited our ability to formulate and test alternative hypotheses to explain fruit colour, fruit size, and fruit colour diversity. We describe spatial (especially latitudinal) variation in fruit colour, colour diversity, and length, and test for correlations between fruit colour, length, and plant habit. Location. Global. Time period....

Data from: Tracing the diversification history of a Neogene rodent invasion into South America

Renan Maestri, Nathan S. Upham & Bruce D. Patterson
We investigated spatial patterns of evolutionary relatedness and diversification rates to test hypotheses about the historical biogeographic processes underlying the radiation of Neotropical rats and mice (Sigmodontinae, ~400 species). A negative correlation between mean phylogenetic distance and diversification rates of rodent assemblages reveals a pattern of species co-occurrence in which assemblages of closely related species are also the fastest diversifying ones. Subregions of the Neotropics occupied by distantly related species that are on average more...

Data from: Genetic effects of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation on remnant animal and plant populations: a meta-analysis

Daniel R. Schlaepfer, Brigitte Braschler, Hans-Peter Rusterholz & Bruno Baur
Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the biggest threats to biodiversity. Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation leads to small and isolated remnant plant and animal populations. The combination of increased random genetic drift, inbreeding, and reduced gene flow may substantially reduce genetic variation of remnant populations. However, the magnitude of these responses may depend on several poorly understood factors including organism group, habitat type of both the fragment and the surrounding matrix, life‐history traits, and time since...

Data from: The function of the ophiuroid nerve ring: how a decentralized nervous system controls coordinated locomotion

Elizabeth G. Clark, Daichi Kanauchi, Takeshi Kano, Hitoshi Aonuma, Derek E. G. Briggs & Akio Ishiguro
Echinoderms lack a centralized nervous control system yet each extant echinoderm class has evolved unique and effective strategies for locomotion. Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea) stride swiftly over the seafloor by coordinating motions of their five muscular arms. Their arms consist of many repeating segments, requiring them to use a complex control system to coordinate motions among segments and between arms. We conducted in vivo experiments with brittle stars to analyze the functional role of the nerve...

Data from: The influence of a semi-arid sub-catchment on suspended sediments in the Mara River, Kenya

Christopher L. Dutton, Amanda L. Subalusky, Shimon C. Anisfeld, Laban Njoroge, Emma J. Rosi & David M. Post
The Mara River Basin in East Africa is a trans-boundary basin of international significance experiencing excessive levels of sediment loads. Sediment levels in this river are extremely high (turbidities as high as 6,000 NTU) and appear to be increasing over time. Large wildlife populations, unregulated livestock grazing, and agricultural land conversion are all potential factors increasing sediment loads in the semi-arid portion of the basin. The basin is well-known for its annual wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus)...

Data from: Population genomics through time provides insights into the consequences of decline and rapid demographic recovery through head-starting in a Galapagos giant tortoise

Evelyn L. Jensen, Danielle L. Edwards, Ryan C. Garrick, Joshua M. Miller, James P. Gibbs, Linda J. Cayot, Washington Tapia, Aldalgisa Caccone, Michael A. Russello & Adalgisa Caccone
Population genetic theory related to the consequences of rapid population decline is well-developed, but there are very few empirical studies where sampling was conducted before and after a known bottleneck event. Such knowledge is of particular importance for species restoration, given links between genetic diversity and the probability of long-term persistence. To directly evaluate the relationship between current genetic diversity and past demographic events, we collected genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from pre-bottleneck historical (c.1906)...

Data from: The diversity of population responses to environmental change

Fernando Colchero, Owen R. Jones, Dalia A. Conde, Dave Hodgson, Felix Zajitschek, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Aurelio F. Malo, Susan C. Alberts, Peter H. Becker, Sandra Bouwhuis, Anne M. Bronikowski, Kristel M. De Vleeschouwer, Richard J. Delahay, Stefan Dummermuth, Eduardo Fernández-Duque, John Frisenvænge, Martin Hesselsøe, Sam Larson, Jean-Francois Lemaitre, Jennifer McDonald, David A.W. Miller, Colin O'Donnell, Craig Packer, Becky E. Raboy, Christopher J. Reading … & Chris J. Reading
The current extinction and climate change crises pressure us to predict population dynamics with ever-greater accuracy. Although predictions rest on the well-advanced theory of age-structured populations, two key issues remain poorly-explored. Specifically, how the age-dependency in demographic rates and the year-to-year interactions between survival and fecundity affect stochastic population growth rates. We use inference, simulations, and mathematical derivations to explore how environmental perturbations determine population growth rates for populations with different age-specific demographic rates and...

Data from: A phylogenomic resolution of the sea urchin tree of life

Nicolás Mongiardino Koch, Simon E. Coppard, Harilaos A. Lessios, Derek E.G. Briggs, Rich Mooi & Greg W. Rouse
Background: Echinoidea is a clade of marine animals including sea urchins, heart urchins, sand dollars and sea biscuits. Found in benthic habitats across all latitudes, echinoids are key components of marine communities such as coral reefs and kelp forests. A little over 1,000 species inhabit the oceans today, a diversity that traces its roots back at least to the Permian. Although much effort has been devoted to elucidating the echinoid tree of life using a...

Data from: Retracing the Hawaiian silversword radiation despite phylogenetic, biogeographic, and paleogeographic uncertainty

Michael J. Landis, William A. Freyman & Bruce G. Baldwin
The Hawaiian silversword alliance (Asteraceae) is an iconic adaptive radiation. However, like many island plant lineages, no fossils have been assigned to the clade. As a result, the clade's age and diversification rate are not known precisely, making it difficult to test biogeographic hypotheses about the radiation. Without fossils, paleogeographically structured biogeographic processes may inform species divergence times; for example, an island must first exist for a clade to radiate upon it. We date the...

Data from: The global geography of human subsistence

Michael C. Gavin, Patrick H. Kavanagh, Hannah J. Haynie, Claire Bowern, Carol R. Ember, Russell D. Gray, Fiona M. Jordan, Kathryn R. Kirby, Geoff Kushnick, Bobbi S. Low, Bruno Vilela & Carlos A. Botero
How humans obtain food has dramatically reshaped ecosystems and altered both the trajectory of human history and the characteristics of human societies. Our species’ subsistence varies widely, from predominantly foraging strategies, to plant-based agriculture and animal husbandry. The extent to which environmental, social, and historical factors have driven such variation is currently unclear. Prior attempts to resolve long-standing debates on this topic have been hampered by an over-reliance on narrative arguments, small and geographically-narrow samples,...

Data from: A three-dimensionally preserved lobopodian from the Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte, UK

Derek J. Siveter, Derek E.G. Briggs, David J. Siveter, Mark D. Sutton, David Legg & Derek E. G. Briggs
The Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte (c. 430 MYr BP) has yielded, amongst many exceptionally preserved invertebrates, a wide range of new genera belonging to crown-group Panarthropoda. Here we increase this panarthropod diversity with the lobopodian Thanahita distos, a new total-group panarthropod genus and species. This new lobopodian preserves at least nine paired, long, slender appendages, the anterior two in the head region and the posterior seven representing trunk lobopods. The body ends in a short post-appendicular...

Data from: Organic matter loading by hippopotami causes subsidy overload resulting in downstream hypoxia and fish kills

Christopher L. Dutton, Amanda L. Subalusky, Stephen K. Hamilton, Emma J. Rosi & David M. Post
Organic matter and nutrient loading into aquatic ecosystems affects ecosystem structure and function and can result in eutrophication and hypoxia. Hypoxia is usually attributed to anthropogenic pollution and is rarely documented in unpolluted systems, particularly in rivers. Here we show that organic matter loading from hippopotami causes the repeated occurrence of hypoxia in the Mara River, East Africa. We documented 49 high flow events over three years that caused dissolved oxygen decreases, including 13 events...

Data from: The grass was greener: repeated evolution of specialized morphologies and habitat shifts in ghost spiders following grassland expansion in South America

Fadia Sara Ceccarelli, Nicolas Mongiardino Koch, Eduardo M. Soto, Mariana L. Barone, Miquel A. Arnedo & Martin J. Ramirez
While grasslands, one of Earth’s major biomes, are known for their close evolutionary ties with ungulate grazers, these habitats are also paramount to the origins and diversification of other animals. Within the primarily South American spider subfamily Amaurobioidinae (Anyphaenidae), several species are found living in the continent’s grasslands, with some displaying putative morphological adaptations to dwelling unnoticed in the grass blades. Here, a dated molecular phylogeny provides the backbone for analyses revealing the ecological and...

Data from: Uncertainty in geographic estimates of performance and fitness

H. Arthur Woods, Joel G. Kingsolver, Samuel B. Fey & David A. Vasseur
1. Thermal performance curves (TPCs) have become key tools for predicting geographic distributions of performance by ectotherms. Such TPC-based predictions, however, may be sensitive to errors arising from diverse sources. 2. We analyzed potential errors that arise from common choices faced by biologists integrating TPCs with climate data by constructing case studies focusing on experimental sets of TPCs and simulating geographic patterns of mean performance. We first analyzed differences in geographic patterns of performance derived...

Data from: Explosive diversification of marine fishes at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary

Michael E. Alfaro, Brant C. Faircloth, Richard C. Harrington, Laurie Sorenson, Matt Friedman, Christine E. Thacker, Carl H. Oliveros, David Černý & Thomas J. Near
The Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K–Pg) mass extinction is linked to the rapid emergence of ecologically divergent higher taxa (for example, families and orders) across terrestrial vertebrates, but its impact on the diversification of marine vertebrates is less clear. Spiny-rayed fishes (Acanthomorpha) provide an ideal system for exploring the effects of the K–Pg on fish diversification, yet despite decades of morphological and molecular phylogenetic efforts, resolution of both early diverging lineages and enormously diverse subclades remains problematic. Recent...

Data from: A comprehensive and dated phylogenomic analysis of butterflies

Marianne Espeland, Jesse W. Breinholt, Keith R. Willmott, Andrew D. Warren, Roger Vila, Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint, Sarah C. Maunsell, Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Gerard Talavera, Rodney Eastwood, Marta A. Jarzyna, Robert Guralnick, David J. Lohman, Naomi E. Pierce, Akito Y. Kawahara, Jesse Breinholt & Emmanuel F.A. Toussaint
Butterflies (Papilionoidea), with over 18,000 described species [1], have captivated naturalists and scientists for centuries. They play a central role in the study of speciation, community ecology, biogeography, climate change, and plant-insect interactions and include many model organisms and pest species [2, 3]. However, a robust higher-level phylogenetic framework is lacking. To fill this gap, we inferred a dated phylogeny by analyzing the first phylogenomic dataset, including 352 loci (> 150,000 bp) from 207 species...

Data from: Functional group, biomass, and climate change effects on ecological drought in semiarid grasslands

Scott D. Wilson, Daniel R. Schlaepfer, John B. Bradford, William K. Lauenroth, Michael C. Duniway, Sonia A. Hall, Khishigbayar Jamiyansharav, G. Jia, Ariuntsetseg Lkhagva, Seth M. Munson, David A. Pyke & Britta Tietjen
Water relations in plant communities are influenced both by contrasting functional groups (grasses, shrubs) and by climate change via complex effects on interception, uptake and transpiration. We modelled the effects of functional group replacement and biomass increase, both of which can be outcomes of invasion and vegetation management, and climate change on ecological drought (soil water potential below which photosynthesis stops) in 340 semiarid grassland sites over 30-year periods. Relative to control vegetation (climate and...

Data from: Evaluating the potential for pre-zygotic isolation and hybridization between landlocked and anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) following secondary contact

Katherine A. Littrell, David Ellis, Stephen R. Gephard, Andrew D. MacDonald, Eric P. Palkovacs, Katherine Scranton & David M. Post
The recent increase of river restoration projects is altering habitat connectivity for many aquatic species, increasing the chance that previously isolated populations will come into secondary contact. Anadromous and landlocked alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) are currently undergoing secondary contact as a result of a fishway installation at Rogers Lake in Old Lyme, Connecticut. To determine the degree of pre-zygotic isolation and potential for hybridization between alewife life history forms, we constructed spawning time distributions for two...

Data from: Filter-dispersal assembly of lowland Neotropical rainforests across the Andes

Jordan B. Bemmels, S. Joseph Wright, Nancy C. Garwood, Simon A. Queenborough, Renato Valencia & Christopher W. Dick
Numerous Neotropical rainforest species are distributed in both Amazonia and Central America, reflecting a rich history of biotic interchange between regions. However, some plant lineages are endemic to one region, due in part to the dispersal barrier posed by the northern Andean cordilleras and adjacent savannas. To investigate the role of biogeographic filtering across the northern Andes in regional community assembly, we examined environmental tolerances, functional traits, and biogeographic distributions of >1000 woody plant species...

Data from: Are there general laws for digit evolution in squamates? The loss and re-evolution of digits in a clade of fossorial lizards (Brachymeles, Scincinae)

Günter P. Wagner, Oliver W. Griffith, Philip J. Bergmann, Gaelle Bello-Hellegouarch, Tiana Kohlsdorf, Anjan Bhullar & Cameron D. Siler
Evolutionary simplification of autopodial structures is a major theme in studies of body‐form evolution. Previous studies on amniotes have supported Morse's law, that is, that the first digit reduced is Digit I, followed by Digit V. Furthermore, the question of reversibility for evolutionary digit loss and its implications for “Dollo's law” remains controversial. Here, we provide an analysis of limb and digit evolution for the skink genus Brachymeles. Employing phylogenetic, morphological, osteological, and myological data,...

Data from: A spatial genetics approach to inform vector control of tsetse flies (Glossina fuscipes fuscipes) in Northern Uganda

Norah Saarman, Mary Burak, Robert Opiro, Chaz Hyseni, Richard Echodu, Kirstin Dion, Elizabeth A. Opiyo, Augustine W. Dunn, Giuseppe Amatulli, Serap Aksoy & Adalgisa Caccone
Tsetse flies (genus Glossina) are the only vector for the parasitic trypanosomes responsible for sleeping sickness and nagana across sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is responsible for transmission of the parasite in 90% of sleeping sickness cases, and co-occurrence of both forms of human-infective trypanosomes makes vector control a priority. We use population genetic data from 38 samples from northern Uganda in a novel methodological pipeline that integrates genetic data,...

Data from: Two pulses of morphological diversification in Pacific pelagic fishes following the Cretaceous–Palaeogene mass extinction

Elizabeth Sibert, Matthew Friedman, Pincelli Hull, Gene Hunt, Richard Norris & Matt Friedman
Molecular phylogenies suggest some major radiations of open-ocean fish clades occurred roughly coincident with the K/Pg boundary, however the timing and nature of this diversification is poorly constrained. Here we investigate evolutionary patterns in ray-finned fishes across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K/Pg) Mass Extinction 66 million years ago (Ma), using microfossils (isolated teeth) preserved in a South Pacific sediment core spanning 72-43 Ma. Our record does not show significant turnover of fish tooth morphotypes at the K/Pg...

Data from: Interspecific variation in conspecific negative density dependence can make species less likely to coexist

Simon Maccracken Stump & Liza S. Comita
Conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD) is thought to promote plant species diversity. Theoretical studies showing the importance of CNDD often assumed that all species are equally susceptible to CNDD; however, recent empirical studies have shown species can differ greatly in their susceptibility to CNDD. Using a theoretical model, we show that interspecific variation in CNDD can dramatically alter its impact on diversity. First, if the most common species are the least regulated by CNDD, then...

Data from: A well-preserved respiratory system in a Silurian ostracod

David J. Siveter, Derek E.G. Briggs, Derek J. Siveter, Mark D. Sutton & Derek E. G. Briggs
Ostracod crustaceans are diverse and ubiquitous in aqueous environments today but relatively few known species have gills. Ostracods are the most abundant fossil arthropods but examples of soft-part preservation, especially of gills, are exceptionally rare. A new ostracod, Spiricopia aurita (Myodocopa), from the marine Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte (430 Mya), UK, preserves appendages, lateral eyes and gills. The respiratory system includes five pairs of gill lamellae with hypobranchial and epibranchial canals that conveyed hemolymph. A heart...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Yale University
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • University of California, San Diego
  • University of Minnesota
  • Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
  • University of Basel
  • Gulu University
  • University of California Los Angeles
  • National Museums of Kenya