27 Works

Risk perceptions of extreme heat events at the state, county, and census tract level in the U.S.

Peter Howe, Jennifer R. Marlon, Xinran Wang & Anthony Leiserowitz
Project summary, description or abstract: This dataset contains model estimates of how Americans perceive the health risks of extreme heat events at the state, county, and census tract level in the U.S. Estimates are produced using a statistical model based on national survey data. These data are associated with the following publication: Howe, Peter D., Jennifer R. Marlon, Xinran Wang, and Anthony Leiserowitz. “Public perceptions of the health risks of extreme heat across U.S. states,...

Data from: Optogenetically induced low-frequency correlations impair perception

Anirvan S. Nandy, Jonathan J. Nassi, Monika P. Jadi & John H. Reynolds
Deployment of covert attention to a spatial location can cause large decreases in low-frequency correlated variability among neurons in macaque area V4 whose receptive-fields lie at the attended location. It has been estimated that this reduction accounts for a substantial fraction of the attention-mediated improvement in sensory processing. These estimates depend on assumptions about how population signals are decoded and the conclusion that correlated variability impairs perception, is purely hypothetical. Here we test this proposal...

Inferring the mammal tree: Species-level sets of phylogenies for questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation

Nathan S. Upham, Jacob A. Esselstyn & Walter Jetz
Big, time-scaled phylogenies are fundamental to connecting evolutionary processes to modern biodiversity patterns. Yet inferring reliable phylogenetic trees for thousands of species involves numerous trade-offs that have limited their utility to comparative biologists. To establish a robust evolutionary timescale for all ~6000 living species of mammals, we developed credible sets of trees that capture root-to-tip uncertainty in topology and divergence times. Our ‘backbone-and-patch’ approach to tree-building applies a newly assembled 31-gene supermatrix to two levels...

Data from: Long-term dynamics of liana seedlings suggest decelerating increases in liana relative abundance over time

Maria Natalia Umaña, Eric Manzané-Pinzón & Liza Comita
Over the past decades, tropical forests have experienced both compositional and structural changes. In the Neotropics, researchers at multiple sites have observed significant increases in the abundance and biomass of lianas (i.e. woody vines) relative to trees. However, the role of dynamics at early life stages in contributing to increasing liana abundance remains unclear. We took advantage of a unique dataset on seedling dynamics over 16 years in ~20,000 1-m2plots in a tropical forest in...

Data from: Determinants of tree cover in tropical floodplains

Joshua H. Daskin, Filipe Aires & A. Carla Staver
In uplands, water availability and fire limit tree cover, differentiating between tropical forest, savanna, and grassland biomes. In contrast, we know less about tropical floodplain tree cover determinants, although these habitats similarly include near-treeless grasslands, moderately treed savannas, and forests. Using GIS and remotely sensed data from 13 large tropical and sub-tropical floodplain ecosystems on five continents, we show that floodplain tree cover increases with climatic water balance (= rainfall - potential evapotranspiration) and decreases...

Trophic rewilding revives biotic resistance to shrub invasion

Jennifer Guyton, Johan Pansu, Tyler Kartzinel, Tyler Coverdale, Arjun Potter, Joshua Daskin, Matthew Hutchinson, Ana Gledis Da Conceição, Mike Peel, Marc Stalmans & Robert Pringle
Trophic rewilding seeks to rehabilitate degraded ecosystems by repopulating them with large animals, thereby reestablishing strong top-down interactions. Yet there are vanishingly few tests of whether such initiatives can restore ecosystem structure and functions, and on what timescales. Here we show that war-induced collapse of large-mammal populations in Mozambique’s Gorongosa National Park exacerbated woody encroachment by the invasive shrub Mimosa pigra—one of the world’s ‘100 worst’ invasive species—and that one decade of concerted trophic rewilding...

Exceptional preservation of comma shrimp from a mid-Cretaceous Lagerstätte of Colombia, and the origins of crown Cumacea

Javier Luque & Sarah Gerken
Mesozoic rocks with exceptional preservation of marine arthropods are known worldwide but largely restricted to high latitudes. The scarcity of assemblages with exceptional preservation in low latitudes greatly limits our understanding of the origins of several modern groups and the evolution of tropical biotas through time. Here we report the oldest Cumacea, or “comma” shrimp (Arthropoda: Eumalacostraca: Peracarida) with modern affinities, from a new mid-Cretaceous (95–90 Mya) Lagerstätte in tropical South America. Cumaceans have one...

Data from: Endocranial anatomy and life habits of the Early Triassic archosauriform Proterosuchus fergusi

Emily Brown, Richard Butler, Martin Ezcurra, Bhart-Anjan Bhullar & Stephan Lautenschlager
Proterosuchids are an important group of carnivorous basal archosauriforms characterised by a bizarre and enigmatic downturned premaxilla that overhangs the lower jaw. They are particularly significant because they radiated in the immediate aftermath of the Permian–Triassic mass extinction, and represent one of the best known ‘disaster taxa’ following that event. While traditionally considered semi-aquatic, recent histological studies and geological data have suggested that they more likely inhabited terrestrial environments. By utilising computed tomographic (CT) data,...

Fruit syndromes in Viburnum: correlated evolution of color, nutritional content, and morphology in bird-dispersed fleshy fruits

Miranda Sinnott-Armstrong, Chong Lee, Wendy Clement & Michael Donoghue
Premise A key question in plant dispersal via animal vectors is where and why fruit colors vary between species and how color relates to other fruit traits. To better understand the factors shaping the evolution of fruit color diversity, we tested for the existence of syndromes of traits (color, morphology, and nutrition) in the fruits of Viburnum. We placed these results in a larger phylogenetic context and reconstructed ancestral states to assess how Viburnum fruit...

Data from: A new ophiocistioid with soft-tissue preservation from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte, and the evolution of the holothurian body plan

Imran Rahman, Jeffrey Thompson, Derek Briggs, David Siveter, Derek Siveter & Mark Sutton
Reconstructing the evolutionary assembly of animal body plans is challenging when there are large morphological gaps between extant sister taxa, as in the case of echinozoans (echinoids and holothurians). However, the inclusion of extinct taxa can help bridge these gaps. Here we describe a new species of echinozoan, Sollasina cthulhu, from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte, UK. S. cthulhu belongs to the ophiocistioids, an extinct group that shares characters with both echinoids and holothurians. Using physical-optical...

Data from: Asymmetric ON-OFF processing of visual motion cancels variability induced by the structure of natural scenes

Juyue Chen, Holly B. Mandel, James E. Fitzgerald & Damon A. Clark
Animals detect motion using a variety of visual cues that reflect regularities in the natural world. Experiments in animals across phyla have shown that motion percepts incorporate both pairwise and triplet spatiotemporal correlations that could theoretically benefit motion computation. However, it remains unclear how visual systems assemble these cues to build accurate motion estimates. Here we use comprehensive measurements of fruit fly motion perception to show how flies combine local pairwise and triplet correlations to...

Data from: Fine-scale genetic structure and flowering output of the seagrass Enhalus acoroides undergoing disturbance

Shuo Yu, Yunchao Wu, Ester A. Serrao, Jingping Zhang, Zhijian Jiang, Chi Huang, Lijun Cui, Anitra Thorhaug & Xiaoping Huang
Seagrass are under great stress in the tropical coast of Asia, where Enhalus acoroides is frequently the dominant species with a large food web. Here, we investigate the question of the fine‐scale genetic structure of this ecologically important foundation species, subject to severe anthropogenic disturbance in China. The genetic structure will illuminate potential mechanisms for population dynamics and sustainability, which are critical for preservation of biodiversity and for decision‐making in management and restoration. We evaluated...

Data from: Empirical and Bayesian approaches to fossil-only divergence times: a study across three reptile clades

Alan H. Turner, Adam C. Pritchard & Nicholas J. Matzke
Estimating divergence times on phylogenies is critical in paleontological and neontological studies. Chronostratigraphically-constrained fossils are the only direct evidence of absolute timing of species divergence. Strict temporal calibration of fossil-only phylogenies provides minimum divergence estimates, and various methods have been proposed to estimate divergences beyond these minimum values. We explore the utility of simultaneous estimation of tree topology and divergence times using BEAST tip-dating on datasets consisting only of fossils by using relaxed morphological clocks...

Data from: Resource acquisition strategies facilitate Gilbertiodendron dewevrei monodominance in African lowland forests

Jefferson Hall, David Harris, Kristin Saltonsall, Vincent Medjibe, Mark Ashton & Benjamin Turner
1. Tropical forests are hyperdiverse, yet extensive areas of monodominant forest occur in the tropics worldwide. Most long-lived and persistent monodominant tree species form ectomycorrhizal fungi symbioses, allowing them to obtain nutrients directly from soil organic matter. This might promote monodominance by reducing nutrient availability to co-occurring species, the majority of which form associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. 2. Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest is the most widespread monodominant forest in tropical Africa. Its distribution appears determined...

Data from: The potential for mass ratio and trait divergence effects to explain idiosyncratic impacts of nonnative invasive plants on carbon mineralization of decomposing leaf litter

Sara E. Kuebbing & Mark A. Bradford
1. Invasive plant effects on litter decomposition tend to be idiosyncratic among species and ecosystems, which may arise from variation in the invader’s relative abundance (mass ratio effect), its relative functional difference to other species (trait divergence effect), and/or from species’ litter mixing that causes non-additive decomposition rates relative to single-species decomposition. 2. We use experimental microcosms to quantify the potential for mass ratio and trait divergence to explain effects of invasive litters on carbon...

Data from: Temperature-dependence of minimum resource requirements alters competitive hierarchies in phytoplankton

Leah Lewington-Pearce, Anita Narwani, Mridul K. Thomas, Colin Kremer, Helena Vogler & Pavel Kratina
1. Resource competition theory is a conceptual framework that provides mechanistic insights into competition and community assembly of species with different resource requirements. However, there has been little exploration of how resource requirements depend on other environmental factors, including temperature. Changes in resource requirements as influenced by environmental temperature would imply that climate warming can alter the outcomes of competition and community assembly. 2. We experimentally demonstrate that environmental temperature alters the minimum light and...

Data from: Structurally assisted super black in colorful peacock spiders

Dakota E. McCoy, Victoria E. McCoy, Nikolaj K. Mandsberg, Anna V. Shneidman, Joanna Aizenberg, Richard O. Prum & David Haig
Male peacock spiders (Maratus, Salticidae) compete to attract female mates using elaborate, sexually-selected displays. They evolved both brilliant color and velvety black. Here we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hyperspectral imaging, and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) optical modeling to investigate the deep black surfaces of peacock spiders. We found that super black regions reflect <0.5% of light (for a 30° collection angle) in Maratus speciosus (0.44%) and Maratus karrie (0.35%) due to microscale structures. Both species...

Data from: Differences in flowering time maintain species boundaries in a continental radiation of Viburnum

Elizabeth L. Spriggs, Caroline Schlutius, Deren A. Eaton, Brian Park, Patrick W. Sweeney, Erika J. Edwards & Michael J. Donoghue
Premise of the study: We take an integrative approach in assessing how introgression and Pleistocene climate fluctuations have shaped the diversification of the Viburnum lentago clade, a group of five inter-fertile species with broad areas of sympatry. We specifically tested whether flowering time plays a role in maintaining species isolation. Methods: RAD-seq data for 103 individuals were used to infer the species relationships and the genetic structure within each species. Flowering times were compared among...

Data from: Nitrogen addition pulse has minimal effect in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities on the Pinedale Anticline, Wyoming (USA)

Christopher W. Beltz, Megan L. Mobley & Ingrid C. Burke
Nitrogen additions are known to elicit variable responses in semi-arid ecosystems, with responses increasing with precipitation. The response of semi-arid ecosystems to nitrogen are important to understand due to their large spatial extent worldwide and the global trend of increasingly available nitrogen. In this study, we evaluated the impact of a single nitrogen addition pulse on a semi-arid big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) ecosystem in western Wyoming. This is important given that sagebrush ecosystems are poorly...

Legacy forest structure increases bird diversity and abundance in aging young forests

Marlyse Duguid, Mark Ashton & Juliana Hanle
Many studies have demonstrated the importance of early successional forest habitat for breeding bird abundance, composition, and diversity. However, very few studies directly link measures of bird diversity, composition and abundance to measures of forest composition and structure and their dynamic change over early succession. This study examines the relationships between breeding bird community composition and forest structure in regenerating broadleaf forests of southern New England, USA, separating the influences of ecological succession from retained...

Data from: A phylogenomic framework for pelagiarian fishes (Acanthomorpha: Percomorpha) highlights mosaic radiation in the open ocean

Matthew Friedman, Kara Feilich, Hermione Beckett, Michael Alfaro, Brant Faircloth, David Černý, Masaki Miya, Thomas Near & Richard Harrington
The fish clade Pelagiaria, which includes tunas as its most famous members, evolved remarkable morphological and ecological variety in a setting not generally considered conducive to diversification: the open ocean. Relationships within Pelagiaria have proven elusive due to short internodes subtending major lineages suggestive of rapid early divergences. Using a novel sequence dataset of over 1000 ultraconserved DNA elements (UCEs) for 94 of the 286 species of Pelagiaria (more than 70% of genera), we provide...

Restoration mediated secondary contact leads to introgression of alewife ecotypes separated by a colonial-era dam

Kerry Reid, John Carlos Garza, Eric Palkovacs, Steven Gephard, Adalgisa Caccone & David Post
Secondary contact may have important implications for ecological and evolutionary processes; however, few studies have tracked the outcomes of secondary contact from its onset in natural ecosystems. We evaluated an anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) reintroduction project in Rogers Lake (Connecticut, USA), which contains a landlocked alewife population that was isolated as a result of colonial era damming. After access to the ocean was restored, adult anadromous alewife were stocked into the lake. We assessed anadromous...

Data from: Will like replace like? linking thermal performance to ecological function across predator and herbivore populations

Adam E. Rosenblatt, Katherine S. Wyatt & Oswald J. Schmitz
The inability of species to adapt to changing climate may cause ecological communities to disassemble and lose ecological functioning. However, theory suggests that communities may be resilient whenever populations within species exhibit variation in thermal plasticity or adaptation whereby thermally tolerant populations replace thermally sensitive ones. But will they maintain the functional roles of the populations being replaced? This study evaluated whether “like replaces like” functionally by measuring how four populations of a grasshopper herbivore...

Data from: Ectomycorrhizas and tree seedling establishment are strongly influenced by forest edge proximity but not soil inoculum

Sara Grove, Norah P. Saarman, Gregory S. Gilbert, Brant Faircloth, Karen A. Haubensak & Ingrid M. Parker
Reforestation is challenging when timber harvested areas have been degraded, invaded by non-native species, or are of marginal suitability to begin with. Conifers form mutualistic partnerships with ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) to obtain greater access to soil resources, and these partnerships may be especially important in degraded areas. However, timber harvest can impact mycorrhizal fungi by removing or compacting topsoil, removing host plants, and warming and drying the soil. We used a field experiment to evaluate...

Concerns of surrogate decision makers for acute brain injury patients: a US population survey

David Hwang
Objective: To determine whether groups of surrogates for severe acute brain injury (SABI) patients with poor prognosis can be identified based on their prioritization of goals-of-care (GOC) decisional concerns, an online survey of 1588 adults recruited via a probability-based panel representative of the US population was conducted. Methods: Participants acted as a surrogate for a GOC decision for a hypothetical SABI patient and were randomized to one of two prognostic scenarios: the patient likely being...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    27

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    27

Affiliations

  • Yale University
    27
  • Princeton University
    3
  • Louisiana State University
    3
  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor
    2
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
    2
  • University of California, Santa Cruz
    2
  • Technical University of Denmark
    2
  • Research Institute "Vector"
    1
  • Bernardino Rivadavia Natural Sciences Museum
    1
  • Utah State University
    1