35 Works

Data from: High fidelity: extra-pair fertilisations in eight Charadrius plover species are not associated with parental relatedness or social mating system

Kathryn H. Maher, Luke J. Eberhart-Phillips, András Kosztolányi, Natalie Dos Remedios, María Cristina Carmona-Isunza, Medardo Cruz-López, Sama Zefania, James J. H. St Clair, Monif AlRashidi, Michael A. Weston, Martín A. Serrano-Meneses, Oliver Krüger, Joseph I. Hoffmann, Tamás Székely, Terry Burke, Clemens Küpper & Joseph I. Hoffman
Extra-pair paternity is a common reproductive strategy in many bird species. However, it remains unclear why extra-pair paternity occurs and why it varies among species and populations. Plovers (Charadrius spp.) exhibit considerable variation in reproductive behaviour and ecology, making them excellent models to investigate the evolution of social and genetic mating systems. We investigated inter- and intra-specific patterns of extra-pair parentage and evaluated three major hypotheses explaining extra-pair paternity using a comparative approach based on...

Data from: Genome-wide SNP analysis unveils genetic structure and phylogeographic history of snow sheep (Ovis nivicola) populations inhabiting the Verkhoyansk Mountains and Momsky Ridge (northeastern Siberia)

Arsen V. Dotsev, Tatiana E. Deniskova, Innokentiy M. Okhlopkov, Gabor Mészáros, Johann Sölkner, Henry Reyer, Klaus Wimmers, Gottfried Brem & Natalia A. Zinovieva
Insights into the genetic characteristics of a species provide important information for wildlife conservation programs. Here, we used the OvineSNP50 BeadChip developed for domestic sheep to examine population structure and evaluate genetic diversity of snow sheep (Ovis nivicola) inhabiting Verkhoyansk Range and Momsky Ridge. A total of 1121 polymorphic SNPs were used to test 80 specimens representing five populations, including four populations of the Verkhoyansk Mountain chain: Kharaulakh Ridge–Tiksi Bay (TIK, n = 22), Orulgan...

Data from: Pathologic evaluation of type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection at the maternal-fetal interface of late gestation pregnant gilts

Predrag Novakovic, John C.S. Harding, Ahmad N. Al-Dissi, Andrea Ladinig, Susan E. Detmer & John C. S. Harding
The pathogenesis of fetal death caused by reproductive porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis by assessing potential relationships between specific histopathological lesions and PRRSV RNA concentration in the fetuses and the maternal-fetal interface. Pregnant gilts were inoculated with PRRSV (n=114) or sham inoculated (n=19) at 85±1 days of gestation. Dams and their litters were humanely euthanized and necropsied 21...

Data from: Maternal transfer of androgens in eggs is affected by food supplementation but not by predation risk

Chiara Morosinotto, Robert L. Thomson, Suvi Ruuskanen, Erkki Korpimäki, Esa Lehikoinen, Erich Möstl & Toni Laaksonen
Mothers may affect the future success of their offspring by varying allocation to eggs and embryos. Allocation may be adaptive based on the environmental conditions perceived during early breeding. We investigated the effects of food supplementation and predation risk on yolk hormone transfer in the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca. In a food supplementation experiment, females were food-supplemented prior to and during egg-laying and androgen concentrations were measured throughout the laying order. Predation risk was investigated...

Data from: Relatedness within and between leks of golden-collared manakin differ between sexes and age classes

Leonida Fusani, Julia Barske, Chiara Natali, Guido Chelazzi & Claudio Ciofi
Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the evolution of leks, a mating system in which males aggregate at display sites where females choose their mates. Only a small proportion of males obtain copulations, and why other males join the lek remains unexplained. One hypothesis has called kin selection into play: if juvenile males join leks where their relatives display and contribute to attract females to the lek, they can gain indirect fitness benefits. We...

Data from: Fecal cortisol metabolites to assess stress in wildlife: evaluation of a field method in free ranging chamois

Ulrike Hadinger, Agnes Haymerle, Felix Knauer, Franz Schwarzenberger & Chris Walzer
1. Non-invasive faecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) analysis is a well-established tool to quantify stress in captive and free-ranging species. While the method has great potential, its suitability in field studies might be limited when faecal samples from unknown individuals are used. Possible factors affecting final results and thus jeopardizing correct data interpretation are individual and sex-specific variation, storage conditions and uneven distribution of metabolites in the faeces. 2. We tested these factors on a population...

Data from: Ecological specialization, variability in activity patterns, and response to environmental change

Talisin T. Hammond, Rupert Palme & Eileen A. Lacey
Differences in temporal patterns of activity can modulate the ambient conditions to which organisms are exposed, providing an important mechanism for responding to environmental change. Such differences may be particularly relevant to ecological generalists, which are expected to encounter a wider range of environmental conditions. Here, we compare temporal patterns of activity for partially sympatric populations of a generalist (the lodgepole chipmunk, Tamias speciosus) and a more specialized congener (the alpine chipmunk, T. alpinus) that...

Data from: How differential management strategies affect Ips typographus L. dispersal

Valeria Montano, Bertheau Coralie, Dolezal Petr, Krumböck Susanne, Okrouhlik Jan, Stauffer Christian, Moodley Yoshan & Montano Valeria
Bark beetle outbreaks have a devastating effect on economically important forests worldwide, thus requiring extensive application of management control strategies. The presence of unmanaged protected areas in close proximity to managed forests can instigate concerns that bark beetle infestations may spread from unmanaged into managed stands. We studied the impact of differential management of forest stands on the dispersal dynamics of the European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, making use of inferential population genetics on...

Embryo survival in the oviduct not significantly influenced by major histocompatibility complex social signaling in the horse

Elise Jeannerat, Eliane Marti, Selina Thomas, Harald Sieme, Claus Wedekind, Dominik Burger & Carolina Herrera
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influences sexual selection in various vertebrates. Recently, MHC-linked social signaling was also shown to influence female fertility in horses (Equus caballus) diagnosed 17 days after fertilization. However, it remained unclear at which stage the pregnancy was terminated. Here we test if MHC-linked cryptic female choice in horses happens during the first days of pregnancy, i.e., until shortly after embryonic entrance into the uterus and before fixation in the endometrium. We...

Phenotypic senescence and multilevel variation in different body sizes in a natural insect population

Kata Pásztor, Ádám Kőrösi, Ádám Gór & János Kis
Senescence seems to be universal in living organisms and plays a major role in life-history strategies. Phenotypic senescence, decline of body condition and/or performance with age, is a largely understudied component of senescence in natural insect populations, although it would be important to understand how and why insects age under natural conditions. We aimed a) to investigate how body mass and thorax width change with age in a natural population of the univoltine Clouded Apollo...

Data from: Function and flexibility of object exploration in kea and New Caledonian crows

Megan L. Lambert, Martina Schiestl, Raoul Schwing, Alex H. Taylor, Gyula K. Gajdon, Katie E. Slocombe & Amanda M. Seed
A range of nonhuman animals frequently manipulate and explore objects in their environment, which may enable them to learn about physical properties and potentially form more abstract concepts of properties such as weight and rigidity. Whether animals can apply the information learned during their exploration to solve novel problems, however, and whether they actually change their exploratory behaviour to seek functional information about objects have not been fully explored. We allowed kea (Nestor notabilis) and...

Evaluation of immunochromatographic point-of-care tests for the detection of calf diarrhea pathogens in faecal samples

Katharina Lichtmannsperger, K. Freudenthaler, B. Hinney, A. Joachim, A. Auer, T. Rümenapf, J. Spergser, A. Tichy & T. Wittek
We have evaluated the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic point-of-care tests (POCT) for the detection of rotavirus, coronavirus, Escherichia (E.) coli F5, Cryptosporidium (C.) parvum, Clostridium (Cl.) perfringens and Giardia (G.) intestinalis in fresh and thawed faecal samples from calves aged up to six months with diarrhoea. We performed POCTs to detect rotavirus, coronavirus, E. coli F5, C. parvum, Cl. perfringens and G. intestinalis on fresh samples in a field study and reevaluated the performance for...

Determinants of heart rate in Svalbard reindeer reveal mechanisms of seasonal energy management

L. Monica Trondrud, Gabriel Pigeon, Steve Albon, Walter Arnold, Alina L. Evans, R. Justin Irvine, Elżbieta Król, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Vebjørn Veiberg, John R. Speakman & Leif Egil Loe
Seasonal energetic challenges may constrain an animal’s ability to respond to changing individual and environmental conditions. Here we investigated variation in heart rate, a well-established proxy for metabolic rate, in Svalbard reindeer, a species with strong seasonal changes in foraging and metabolic activity. In 19 adult females we recorded heart rate, subcutaneous temperature and activity using biologgers. Mean heart rate more than doubled from winter to summer. Typical drivers of energy expenditure, such as reproduction...

Isotope analysis combined with DNA barcoding provide new insights into the dietary niche of khulan in the Mongolian Gobi

Martina Burnik Šturm, Steve Smith, Oyunsaikhan Ganbaatar, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Boglarka Balint, John C. Payne, Christian C. Voigt & Petra Kaczensky
With increasing livestock numbers, competition and avoidance are increasingly shaping resource availability for wild ungulates. Shifts in the dietary niche of wild ungulates are likely and can be expected to negatively affect their fitness. The Mongolian Gobi constitutes the largest remaining refuge for several threatened ungulates, but unprecedentedly high livestock numbers are sparking growing concerns over rangeland health and impacts on threatened ungulates like the Asiatic wild ass (khulan). Previous stable isotope analysis of khulan...

Data from: Stress and the microbiome: linking glucocorticoids to bacterial community dynamics in wild red squirrels

Mason R. Stothart, Colleen B. Bobbie, Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde, Rudy Boonstra, Rupert Palme, Nadia C. S. Mykytczuk & Amy E. M. Newman
Bacterial diversity within animals is emerging as an essential component of health, but it is unknown how stress may influence the microbiome. We quantify a proximate link between the oral microbiome and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity using faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) in wild red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Not only was bacterial diversity lower at higher levels of FGM, but also between capture periods a change in bacterial relative abundance was related to an increase in...

Data from: Glucocorticoid-environment relationships align with responses to environmental change in two co-occurring congeners

Talisin T. Hammond, Rupert Palme & Eileen A. Lacey
As more species undergo range shifts in response to climate change, it is increasingly important to understand the factors that determine an organism’s realized niche. Physiological limits imposed by abiotic factors constrain the distributions of many species. Because glucocorticoids are essential to the maintenance of physiological homeostasis, identifying glucocorticoid-environment relationships may generate critical insights into both limits on species distributions and potential responses to environmental change. We explored relationships between variability in baseline glucocorticoids and...

Data from: Differences in greeting behaviour towards humans with varying levels of familiarity in hand-reared wolves (Canis lupus)

Dorottya Júlia Ujfalussy, Anita Kurys, Enikő Kubinyi, Márta Gácsi & Zsófia Virányi
Socialized wolves' relationship with humans is a much debated, but important question in light of dog domestication. Earlier findings reported no attachment to the caretaker at four months of age in a Strange Situation Test, while recently attachment to the caretaker was reported at a few weeks of age in a similar paradigm. To explore wolf–human relationship, we analysed behaviours of hand reared, extensively socialized wolves towards four visitor types: foster-parents, close acquaintances, persons met...

Data from: Size matters for lice on birds: coevolutionary allometry of host and parasite body size

Andrea Harnos, Zsolt Lang, Dóra Petrás, Sarah E. Bush, Krisztián Szabó & Lajos Rozsa
Body size is one of the most fundamental characteristics of all organisms. It influences physiology, morphology, behavior, and even interspecific interactions such as those between parasites and their hosts. Host body size influences the magnitude and variability of parasite size according to Harrison's Rule (HR: positive relationship between host and parasite body sizes) and Poulin’s Increasing Variance Hypothesis (PIVH: positive relationship between host body size and the variability of parasite body size). We analyzed parasite-host...

Data from: Contrasting evolutionary history, anthropogenic declines and genetic contact in the northern and southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)

Yoshan Moodley, Isa-Rita M. Russo, Jan Robovský, Desire Lee Dalton, Antoinette Kotze, Steve Smith, Jan Stejskal, Oliver A. Ryder, Robert Hermes, Chris Walzer & Michael W. Bruford
The white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) has a discontinuous African distribution, which is limited by the extent of sub-Saharan grasslands. The southern population (SWR) declined to its lowest number around the turn of the 19th century, but recovered to become the world’s most numerous rhinoceros. In contrast, the northern population (NWR) was common during much of the 20th century, declining rapidly since the 1970s, and now only two post-reproductive individuals remain. Despite this species’ conservation status,...

Data from: On the roles of landscape heterogeneity and environmental variation in determining population genomic structure in a dendritic system

Chris J. Brauer, Peter J. Unmack, Steve Smith, Louis Bernatchez & Luciano B. Beheregaray
Dispersal and natural selection are key evolutionary processes shaping the distribution of phenotypic and genetic diversity. For species inhabiting complex spatial environments however, it is unclear how the balance between gene flow and selection may be influenced by landscape heterogeneity and environmental variation. Here we evaluated the effects of dendritic landscape structure and the selective forces of hydroclimatic variation on population genomic parameters for the Murray River rainbowfish, Melanotaenia fluviatilis across the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia....

Data from: Health trajectories reveal the dynamic contributions of host genetic resistance and tolerance to infection outcome

Graham Lough, Ilias Kyriazakis, Andreas Lengeling, Silke Bergmann & Andrea B. Doeschl-Wilson
Resistance and tolerance are two alternative strategies hosts can adopt to survive infections. Both strategies may be genetically controlled. To date, the relative contribution of resistance and tolerance to infection outcome is poorly understood. A bioluminescent Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection challenge model on four genetically diverse mouse strains was used to study the genetic determination and dynamic contributions of host resistance and tolerance to listeriosis, a serious food-borne infectious disease in humans. Conventional statistical analyses...

Data from: Lifelong foraging and individual specialisation are influenced by temporal changes of resource availability

Viktor Szigeti, Ádám Kőrösi, Andrea Harnos & János Kis
Resource availability largely determines the distribution and behaviour of organisms. In plant‐pollinator communities, availability of floral resources may change so rapidly that pollinator individuals can benefit from switching between multiple resources, i.e. different flowering plant species. Insect pollinator individuals of a given generation often occur in different time windows during the reproductive season. This temporal variation in individual occurrences, together with the rapidly changing resource availability, may lead individuals of the same population to encounter...

Data from: Genes of the major histocompatibility complex highlight interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system

Barbara Lukasch, Helena Westerdahl, Maria Strandh, Hans Winkler, Yoshan Moodley, Felix Knauer & Herbert Hoi
Background: A well-functioning immune defence is crucial for fitness, but our knowledge about the immune system and its complex interactions is still limited. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are involved in T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses, but MHC is also highly upregulated during the initial innate immune response. The aim of our study was therefore to determine to what extent the highly polymorphic MHC is involved in interactions of the innate and adaptive immune defence...

Data from: Asymmetric evolutionary responses to sex-specific selection in a hermaphrodite

Nicolás Bonel, Elsa Noël, Tim Janicke, Kevin Sartori, Elodie Chapuis, Adeline Ségard, Stefania Meconcelli, Benjamin Pélissié, Violette Sarda & Patrice David
Sex allocation theory predicts that simultaneous hermaphrodites evolve to an evolutionary stable resource allocation, whereby any increase in investment to male reproduction leads to a disproportionate cost on female reproduction and vice-versa. However, empirical evidence for sexual trade-offs in hermaphroditic animals is still limited. Here, we tested how male and female reproductive traits evolved under conditions of reduced selection on either male or female reproduction for 40 generations in a hermaphroditic snail. This selection favors...

Data from: EDAPHOLOG monitoring system: automatic, real-time detection of soil microarthropods

Miklós Dombos, Oxána Bánszegi, Katalin Szlávecz & Andrés Kosztolányi
Soil microarthropods as organic matter decomposers play an important role in soil functioning thus providing ecosystem services. However, ecosystem scale investigations on their abundance and dynamics are scarce because their high spatio-temporal heterogeneity requires huge sample size. Processing and identifying large number of individuals are extremely labour-intensive. We prototyped a device called EDAPHOLOG monitoring system that consists of (1) a probe that catches and detects microarthropods and estimates their body size; (2) a data logger...

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