483 Works

Stepwise-edited, human melanoma models reveal mutations’ effect on tumor and microenvironment

Eran Hodis & Elena Torlai Triglia
Establishing causal relationships between genetic alterations of human cancers and the specific phenotypes of malignancy remains a challenge. We sequentially introduced mutations into healthy human melanocytes in up to five genes spanning six commonly disrupted melanoma pathways forming nine genetically distinct cellular models of melanoma. We connected mutant melanocyte genotypes to malignant cell expression programs in vitro and in vivo, replicative immortality, malignancy, rapid tumor growth, pigmentation, metastasis, and histopathology. Mutations in malignant cells also...

Data from: The International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) revisited: data availability and global ecological representativity

Shoudong Zhao, Neil Pederson, Loïc D'Orangeville, Janneke HilleRisLambers, Emery Boose, Caterina Penone, Bruce Bauer, Yuan Jiang & Rubén D. Manzanedo
Aim: The International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) is the most comprehensive database of tree growth. To evaluate its usefulness and improve its accessibility to the broad scientific community, we aimed to: i) quantify its biases, ii) assess how well it represents global forests, iii) develop tools to identify priority areas to improve its representativity, and iv) make available the corrected database. Location: Worldwide. Time period: Contributed datasets between 1974 and 2017. Major taxa studied: Trees....

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: Examining the full effects of landscape heterogeneity on spatial genetic variation: a multiple matrix regression approach for quantifying geographic and ecological isolation

Ian J. Wang
Understanding the effects of landscape heterogeneity on spatial genetic variation is a primary goal of landscape genetics. Ecological and geographic variables can contribute to genetic structure through geographic isolation, in which geographic barriers and distances restrict gene flow, and ecological isolation, in which gene flow among populations inhabiting different environments is limited by selection against dispersers moving between them. Although methods have been developed to study geographic isolation in detail, ecological isolation has received much...

Data from: Temporal specificity of the initial adaptive response in motor adaptation

Wilsaan M. Joiner, Gary C. Sing & Maurice A. Smith
Repeated exposure to a novel physical environment eventually leads to a mature adaptive response whereby feedforward changes in motor output mirror both the amplitude and temporal structure of the environmental perturbations. However, adaptive responses at the earliest stages of learning have been found to be not only smaller, but systematically less specific in their temporal structure compared to later stages of learning. This observation has spawned a lively debate as to whether the temporal structure...

Data from: Why close relatives make bad neighbors: phylogenetic conservatism in niche preferences and dispersal disproves Darwin’s Naturalization Hypothesis in the thistle tribe

Daniel S. Park & Daniel Potter
The number of exotic plant species that have been introduced into the United States far exceeds that of other groups of organisms, and many of these have become invasive. As in many regions of the globe, invasive members of the thistle tribe, Cardueae, are highly problematic in the California Floristic Province, an established biodiversity hotspot. While Darwin's naturalization hypothesis posits that plant invaders closely related to native species would be at a disadvantage, evidence has...

Data from: Ant and mite diversity drives toxin variation in the Little Devil poison frog

Jenna R. McGugan, Gary D. Bryd, Alexandre B. Roland, Stephanie N. Caty, Nisha Kabir, Elicio E. Tapia, Sunia A. Trauger, Luis A. Coloma, Lauren A. O'Connell & Gary D. Byrd
Poison frogs sequester chemical defenses from arthropod prey, although the details of how arthropod diversity contributes to variation in poison frog toxins remains unclear. We characterized skin alkaloid profiles in the Little Devil poison frog, Oophaga sylvatica (Dendrobatidae), across three populations in northwestern Ecuador. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified histrionicotoxins, 3,5- and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines, decahydroquinolines, and lehmizidines as the primary alkaloid toxins in these O. sylvatica populations. Frog skin alkaloid composition varied along a...

Data from: Ancient mitochondrial DNA provides high-resolution time scale of the peopling of the Americas

Bastien Llamas, Lars Fehren-Schmitz, Guido Valverde, Julien Soubrier, Swapan Mallick, Nadin Rohland, Susanne Nordenfelt, Cristina Valdiosera, Stephen M. Richards, Adam Rohrlach, Maria Inés Barreto Romero, Isabel Flores Espinoza, Elsa Tomasto Cagigao, Lucía Watson Jiménez, Krzysztof Makowski, Ilán Santiago Leboreiro Reyna, Josefina Mansilla Lory, Julio Alejandro Ballivián Torrez, Mario A. Rivera, Richard L. Burger, Maria Constanza Ceruti, Johan Reinhard, R. Spencer Wells, Gustavo Politis, Calogero M. Santoro … & Wolfgang Haak
The exact timing, route, and process of the initial peopling of the Americas remains uncertain despite much research. Archaeological evidence indicates the presence of humans as far as southern Chile by 14.6 thousand years ago (ka), shortly after the Pleistocene ice sheets blocking access from eastern Beringia began to retreat. Genetic estimates of the timing and route of entry have been constrained by the lack of suitable calibration points and low genetic diversity of Native...

Data from: Repeated losses of PRDM9-directed recombination despite the conservation of PRDM9 across vertebrates

Zachary Baker, Molly Schumer, Yuki Haba, Lisa Bashkirova, Chris Holland, Gil G Rosenthal & Molly Przeworski
Studies of highly diverged species have revealed two mechanisms by which meiotic recombination is directed to the genome—through PRDM9 binding or by targeting promoter-like features—that lead to dramatically different evolutionary dynamics of hotspots. Here, we identify PRDM9 orthologs from genome and transcriptome data in 225 species. We find the complete PRDM9 ortholog across distantly related vertebrates but, despite this broad conservation, infer a minimum of six partial and three complete losses. Strikingly, taxa carrying the...

Data from: The spectre of too many species

Adam D. Leache, Tianqi Zhu, Bruce Rannala & Ziheng Yang
Recent simulation studies examining the performance of Bayesian species delimitation as implemented in the BPP program have suggested that BPP may detect population splits but not species divergences and that it tends to over-split when data of many loci are analyzed. Here we confirm these results and provide the mathematical justifications. We point out that the distinction between population and species splits made in the protracted speciation model has no influence on the generation of...

Data from: The role of isoforms in the evolution of cryptic coloration in Peromyscus mice

Ricardo Mallarino, Tess A. Linden, Catherine R. Linnen & Hopi E. Hoekstra
A central goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic adaptation. While the contribution of protein-coding and cis-regulatory mutations to adaptive traits has been well documented, additional sources of variation – such as the production of alternative RNA transcripts from a single gene, or isoforms – have been understudied. Here, we focus on the pigmentation gene Agouti, known to express multiple alternative transcripts, to investigate the role of isoform usage in...

Data from: Does ecological specialization transcend scale? Habitat partitioning among individuals and species of Anolis lizards

Ambika Kamath & Jonathan B. Losos
Ecological specialization is common across all levels of biological organization, raising the question of whether the evolution of specialization at one scale in a taxon is linked to specialization at other scales. Anolis lizards have diversified repeatedly along axes of habitat use, but it remains unknown if this diversification into habitat use specialists is underlain by individual specialization. From repeated observations of individuals in a population of Anolis sagrei in Florida, we show that the...

Data from: Tetraconatan phylogeny with special focus on Malacostraca and Branchiopoda—Highlighting the strength of taxon-specific matrices in phylogenomics

Martin Schwentner, Stefan Richter, D. Christopher Rogers & Gonzalo Giribet
Understanding the evolution of Tetraconata or Pancrustacea —the clade that includes crustaceans and insects—requires a well-resolved hypothesis regarding the relationships within and among its constituent taxa. Herein, we assembled a taxon-rich phylogenomic data set focusing on crustacean lineages based solely on genomes and new-generation Illumina-generated transcriptomes, including 89 representatives of Tetraconata. This constitutes the first phylogenomic study specifically addressing internal relationships of Malacostraca (with 26 species included) and Branchiopoda (36 species). Seven matrices comprising 81...

Data from: Pathogen burden, co-infection and major histocompatibility complex variability in the European badger (Meles meles)

Yung Wa Sin, Geetha Annavi, Hannah L. Dugdale, Chris Newman, Terry Burke & David W. Macdonald
Pathogen-mediated selection is thought to maintain the extreme diversity in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, operating through the heterozygote advantage, rare-allele advantage and fluctuating selection mechanisms. Heterozygote advantage (i.e., recognizing and binding a wider range of antigens than homozygotes) is expected to be more detectable when multiple pathogens are considered simultaneously. Here, we test if MHC diversity in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles) is driven by pathogen-mediated selection. We examined individual...

Data from: Context-dependent effects of large wildlife declines on small mammal communities in central Kenya

Hillary S. Young, Douglas J. McCauley, Rodolfo Dirzo, Jacob R. Goheen, Bernard Agwanda, Cara Brook, Erik O. Castillo, Adam W. Ferguson, Stephen N. Kinyua, Molly M. McDonough, Todd M. Palmer, Robert M. Pringle, Truman P. Young & Kristofer M. Helgen
Many species of large wildlife have declined drastically worldwide. These reductions often lead to profound shifts in the ecology of entire communities and ecosystems. However, the effects of these large wildlife declines on other taxa likely hinge upon both underlying abiotic properties of these systems and on the types of secondary anthropogenic changes associated with wildlife loss, making impacts difficult to predict. To better understand how these important contextual factors determine the consequences of large-wildlife...

Data from: MADA: Malagasy Animal trait Data Archive

Onja H. Razafindratsima, Yasmin Yacoby & Daniel S. Park
Species are characterized by their behavioral, physiological and ecological attributes, which determine their role in ecosystems. In turn, ecosystems and their functions are defined by the species that inhabit them. Thus, evaluating the functional diversity and distributions of species is of utmost importance to studies of biogeography, community ecology, macroevolution, and conservation. The functional diversity of species are determined by traits such as diet, foraging strata, trophic level, activity cycle, litter size, generation length, habitat...

Data from: DOG1 expression is predicted by the seed-maturation environment and contributes to geographic variation in germination in Arabidopsis thaliana.

George C K Chiang, Melanie Bartsch, Deepak Barua, Kazumi Nakabayashi, Marilyne Debieu, Ilkka Kronholm, Maarten Koornneef, Wim J J Soppe, Kathleen Donohue & Juliette De Meaux
Seasonal germination timing of Arabidopsis thaliana strongly influences overall life history expression and is the target of intense natural selection. This seasonal germination timing depends strongly on the interaction between genetics and seasonal environments both before and after seed dispersal. DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1) is the first gene that has been identified to be associated with natural variation in primary dormancy in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we report inter-accession variation in DOG1 expression and document...

Data from: Step matrices and the interpretation of homoplasy

Richard H. Ree & Michael J. Donoghue
Assumptions about the costs of character change, coded in the form of a step matrix, determine most-parsimonious inferences of character evolution on phylogenies. We present a graphical approach to exploring the relationship between cost assumptions and evolutionary inferences from character data. The number of gains and losses of a binary trait on a phylogeny can be plotted over a range of cost assumptions, to reveal the inflection point at which there is a switch from...

Data from: Metabolic erosion primarily through mutation accumulation, and not tradeoffs, drives limited evolution of substrate specificity in Escherichia coli

Nicholas Leiby & Christopher J. Marx
Evolutionary adaptation to a constant environment is often accompanied by specialization and a reduction of fitness in other environments. We assayed the ability of the Lenski Escherichia coli populations to grow on a range of carbon sources after 50,000 generations of adaptation on glucose. Using direct measurements of growth rates, we demonstrated that declines in performance were much less widespread than suggested by previous results from Biolog assays of cellular respiration. Surprisingly, there were many...

Data from: The relationship between post-mating reproductive isolation and reinforcement in Phlox

Sevan S. Suni & Robin Hopkins
The process of speciation involves the accumulation of reproductive isolation (RI) between diverging lineages. Selection can favor increased RI via the process of reinforcement, whereby costs to hybridization impose selection for increased prezygotic RI. Reinforcement results in phenotypic divergence within at least one taxon, as a result of costly hybridization between sympatric taxa. The strength of selection driving reinforcement is determined by the cost of hybridization and the frequency of hybridization. We investigated the cost...

Data from: Locality or habitat? Exploring predictors of biodiversity in Amazonia

Camila D. Ritter, Alexander Zizka, Christopher Barnes, R. Henrik Nilsson, Fabian Roger & Alexandre Antonelli
Amazonia is an environmentally heterogeneous and biologically megadiverse region, and its biodiversity varies considerably over space. However, existing knowledge on Amazonian biodiversity and its environmental determinants stems almost exclusively from studies of macroscopic above‐ground organisms, notably vertebrates and trees. In contrast, diversity patterns of most other organisms remain elusive, although some of them, for instance microorganisms, constitute the overwhelming majority of taxa in any given location, both in terms of diversity and abundance. Here, we...

Data from: Social behavior in bees influences the abundance of Sodalis (Enterobacteriaceae) symbionts

Benjamin E. R. Rubin, Jon G. Sanders, Kyle M. Turner, Naomi E. Pierce & Sarah D. Kocher
Social interactions can facilitate transmission of microbes between individuals, reducing variation in gut communities within social groups. Thus, the evolution of social behaviors and symbiont community composition have the potential to be tightly linked. We explored this connection by characterizing the diversity of bacteria associated with both eusocial and solitary bee species within the behaviorally variable family Halictidae using 16S amplicon sequencing. Contrary to expectations, we found few differences in bacterial abundance or variation between...

Data from: Hybridization promotes color polymorphism in the aposematic harlequin poison frog, Oophaga histrionica

Iliana Medina, Ian J. Wang, Camilo Salazar & Adolfo Amezquita
Whether hybridization can be a mechanism that drives phenotypic diversity is a widely debated topic in evolutionary biology. In poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), assortative mating has been invoked to explain how new color morphs persist despite the expected homogenizing effects of natural selection. Here, we tested the complementary hypothesis that new morphs arise through hybridization between different color morphs. Specifically, we (1) reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among the studied populations of a dart-poison frog to provide...

Data from: How obstacles perturb population fronts and alter their genetic structure

Wolfram Möbius, Andrew W. Murray & David R. Nelson
As populations spread into new territory, environmental heterogeneities can shape the population front and genetic composition. We focus here on the effects of an important building block of heterogeneous environments, isolated obstacles. With a combination of experiments, theory, and simulation, we show how isolated obstacles both create long-lived distortions of the front shape and amplify the effect of genetic drift. A system of bacteriophage T7 spreading on a spatially heterogeneous Escherichia coli lawn serves as...

Data from: Edge effects on components of diversity and above-ground biomass in a tropical rainforest

Onja H. Razafindratsima, Kerry A. Brown, Fabio Carvalho, Steig E. Johnson, Patricia C. Wright & Amy E. Dunham
1. Edge effects are among the most significant consequences of forest fragmentation. Therefore, understanding the impacts of edge creation on biodiversity is crucial for forest management and biological conservation. 2. In this study, we used trait-based and phylogenetic approaches to examine the effects of fragmentation on components of diversity and above-ground biomass of rainforest tree communities in Madagascar in forest edge vs. interior habitats. 3. Tree communities in forest edges showed lower phylogenetic diversity relative...

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