40 Works

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

Data from: Genomic architecture and introgression shape a butterfly radiation

Nathaniel B. Edelman, Paul F. Frandsen, Michael Miyagi, Bernardo Clavijo, John Davey, Rebecca B Dikow, Steven M. Van Belleghem, Nick Patterson, Daniel E. Neafsey, Richard Challis, Sujai Kumar, Gilson R. P. Moreira, Camilo Salazar, Mathieu Chouteau, Brian Counterman, Riccardo Papa, Mark Blaxter, Robert D. Reed, Kanchon K. Dasmahapatra, Marcus Kronforst, Mathieu Joron, Chris D. Jiggins, W. Owen McMillan, Federica Di Palma, Andrew J. Blumberg … & James Mallet
We probe the history of rapidly radiating Heliconius butterflies by means of 20 new genome assemblies and employ them to investigate the genomic architecture of gene flow among lineages. By developing a test to distinguish incomplete lineage sorting from introgression, we demonstrate that histories of loci that differ from the species tree arose mostly through introgression. Moreover, these loci are underrepresented in low recombination and gene-rich regions, consistent with the purging of introgressed alleles tightly...

Experimental evidence that physical activity affects the multivariate associations among muscle attachments (entheses)

Fotios Alexandros Karakostis, Ian J. Wallace, Nicolai Konow & Katerina Harvati
The morphology of entheses (muscle/tendon attachment sites) on bones is routinely used in paleontological and bioarcheological studies to infer the physical activity patterns of ancient vertebrate species including hominins. However, such inferences have often been disputed due to limitations of the quantitative methods commonly employed and a lack of experimental evidence demonstrating direct effects of physical activity on entheseal morphology. Recently, we introduced a new and improved method of quantifying and analyzing entheseal morphology that...

A possible Cambrian stem-group gnathiferan-chaetognath from the Weeks Formation (Miaolingian) of Utah

Simon Conway Morris, Ru Smith, Jennifer Hoyal Cuthill, Enrico Bonino & Rudy Lerosey-Aubril
In recent years the plethora of “weird wonders”, the vernacular for the apparently extinct major bodyplans documented in many of the Cambrian Lagerstätten, has been dramatically trimmed. This is because various taxa have either been assigned to known phyla or at least accommodated in larger monophyletic assemblages. Nevertheless, a number of Cambrian taxa retain their enigmatic status. To this intriguing roster we add Dakorhachis thambus n. gen. n. sp., from the Miaolingian (Guzhangian) Weeks Formation...

Data from: A bidirectional network for appetite control in larval zebrafish

Caroline Lei Wee, Erin Song, Robert Johnson, Deepak Ailani, Owen Randlett, Jiyoon Kim, Maxim Nikitchenko, Armin Bahl, Chao-Tsung Yang, Misha Ahrens, Koichi Kawakami, Florian Engert & Sam Kunes
Medial and lateral hypothalamic loci are known to suppress and enhance appetite, respectively, but the dynamics and functional significance of their interaction have yet to be explored. Here we report that, in larval zebrafish, primarily serotonergic neurons of the ventromedial caudal hypothalamus (cH) become increasingly active during food deprivation, whereas activity in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is reduced. Exposure to food sensory and consummatory cues reverses the activity patterns of these two nuclei, consistent with...

Data from: Mortality and morphology in egg masses of unisexual and Jefferson Salamanders

Noah Charney, Jacob Kubel, Craig Woodard, Blanca Carbajal-González, Samantha Avis, Julia Blyth, Charles Eiseman, John Castorino & John Malone
Unisexual Ambystoma salamander egg masses have often been observed to exhibit very high rates of embryo mortality. The ecological consequences and underlying mechanisms are of great concern to researchers and managers studying these and other members of the species complex, all of which are listed as rare species throughout much of their range. Substantial embryo mortality is commonly used by field ecologists as an indicator that unisexual salamanders are present in a pond; egg masses...

Data from: Inner ear morphology of diadectomorphs and seymouriamorphs (Tetrapoda) uncovered by high‐resolution x‐ray microcomputed tomography, and the origin of the amniote crown group

Jozef Klembara, Miroslav Hain, Marcello Ruta, David S. Berman, Stephanie E. Pierce & Amy C. Henrici
The origin of amniotes was a key event in vertebrate evolution, enabling tetrapods to break their ties with water and invade terrestrial environments. Two pivotal clades of early tetrapods, the diadectomorphs and the seymouriamorphs, have played an unsurpassed role in debates about the ancestry of amniotes for over a century, but their skeletal morphology has provided conflicting evidence for their affinities. Using high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography, we reveal the three-dimensional architecture of the well preserved...

Data from: Whole-genome analyses resolve the phylogeny of flightless birds (Palaeognathae) in the presence of an empirical anomaly zone

Alison Cloutier, Timothy B. Sackton, Phil Grayson, Michele Clamp, Allan J. Baker & Scott V. Edwards
Palaeognathae represent one of the two basal lineages in modern birds, and comprise the volant (flighted) tinamous and the flightless ratites. Resolving palaeognath phylogenetic relationships has historically proved difficult, and short internal branches separating major palaeognath lineages in previous molecular phylogenies suggest that extensive incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) might have accompanied a rapid ancient divergence. Here, we investigate palaeognath relationships using genome-wide data sets of three types of noncoding nuclear markers, together totalling 20,850 loci...

L’d Up: Examining the Effects of a New York City Metro Shutdown on Public Discourse Using Twitter Data

Andreas Petutschnig, Bernd Resch, Jen Nelles & Laxmi Ramasubramanian

Thoracic adaptations for ventilation during locomotion in humans and other mammals

William Callison, Daniel Lieberman & Nicholas Holowka
Bipedal humans, like canids and some other cursorial mammals, are thought to have been selected for endurance running, which requires the ability to sustain aerobic metabolism over long distances by inspiring large volumes of air for prolonged periods of time. Here we test the general hypothesis that humans and other mammals selected for vigorous endurance activities evolved derived thoracic features to increase ventilatory capacity. To do so, we investigate whether humans and dogs rely on...

Revisiting the origin of octoploid strawberry

Aaron Liston, Na Wei, Jacob Tennessen, Jumin Li, Ming Dong & Ashman Tia-Lynn
The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) is an octoploid, and the identity of its four subgenomes has long been a mystery. In their recent strawberry genome publication, Edger et al. present a novel hypothesis: each subgenome originated from a different extant diploid progenitor, and the hexaploid species Fragaria moschata was a direct ancestor. We reanalyzed the four octoploid subgenomes in a phylogenomic context and our results support only two extant diploids progenitors; we also found no...

Context dependence of local adaptation to abiotic and biotic environments: a quantitative and qualitative synthesis

Ryan Briscoe Runquist, Amanda Gorton, Jeremy Yoder, Nicholas Deacon, Jake Grossman, Shan Kothari, Marta Lyons, Seema Sheth, Peter Tiffin & David Moeller
Understanding how spatially-variable selection shapes adaptation is an area of longstanding interest in evolutionary ecology. Recent meta-analyses have quantified the extent of local adaptation, but the relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors in driving population divergence remains poorly understood. To address this gap, we combined a quantitative meta-analysis and a qualitative meta-synthesis to (1) quantify the magnitude of local adaptation to abiotic and biotic factors and (2) characterize major themes that influence the motivation...

Data from: Historical contingency in the evolution of antibiotic resistance after decades of relaxed selection

Kyle J. Card, Thomas LaBar, Jasper B. Gomez & Richard E. Lenski
Populations often encounter changed environments that remove selection for the maintenance of particular phenotypic traits. The resulting genetic decay of those traits under relaxed selection reduces an organism’s fitness in its prior environment. However, whether and how such decay alters the subsequent evolvability of a population upon restoration of selection for a previously diminished trait is not well understood. We addressed this question using Escherichia coli strains from the long-term evolution experiment (LTEE) that independently...

Data from: Biodiversity and thermal ecological function: the influence of freshwater algal diversity on local thermal environments

Anouch Missirian, Eyal G. Frank, Jess T. Gersony, Jason C.Y. Wong & Shahid Naeem
The influence of temperature on diversity and ecosystem functioning is well studied; the converse however, i.e. how biodiversity influences temperature, much less so. We manipulated freshwater algal species diversity in microbial microcosms to uncover how diversity influenced primary production, which is well documented in biodiversity research. We then also explored how visible-spectrum absorbance and the local thermal environment responded to biodiversity change. Variations in the local thermal environment, that is, in the temperature of the...

Data from: Immune genes are hotspots of shared positive selection across birds and mammals

Allison J Shultz, Timothy Sackton & Timothy B Sackton
Consistent patterns of positive selection in functionally similar genes can suggest a common selective pressure across a group of species. We use alignments of orthologous protein-coding genes from 39 species of birds to estimate parameters related to positive selection for 11,000 genes conserved across birds. We show that functional pathways related to the immune system, recombination, lipid metabolism, and phototransduction are enriched for positively selected genes. By comparing our results with mammalian data, we find...

Registration Year

  • 2019

Resource Types

  • Dataset
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  • Harvard University
  • University of Minnesota
  • Stanford University
  • Utah State University
  • The University of Texas at Austin
  • Columbia University
  • Royal Ontario Museum
  • University of Cambridge
  • Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios
  • University of Chicago