59 Works

CMS-Flux NBE 2020

Junjie Liu, Lartha Baskarran, Kevin Bowman, David Schimel, A. Anthony Bloom, Nick Parazoo, Tomohiro Oda, Dustin Carrol, Dimitris Menemenlis, Joanna Joiner, Roisin Commane, Bruce Daube, Lucianna V. Gatti, Kathryn McKain, John Miller, Britton B. Stephens, Colm Sweeney & Steven Wofsy
Top-down Net biosphere exchange estimates between Jan 2010 and Dec 2018 constrained by column CO2 observations from Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite and Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2. This dataset is openly shared in accordance with NASA Data and Information Policy (https://earthdata.nasa.gov/collaborate/open-data-services-and-software/data-information-policy).

Allometric escape from acoustic constraints in frog calls is rare

Joao Filipe Tonini, Diogo Provete, Natan Maciel, Alessandro Morais, Sandra Goutte, Felipe Toledo & R. Alexander Pyron
Allometric constraint is a product of natural selection, particularly with respect to body size and traits constrained by physical properties thereof, such as metabolism, longevity, and vocal frequency. Parameters describing allometric relationships are conserved across most lineages, indicating that physical constraints dictate scaling patterns in deep time, despite substantial genetic and ecological divergence among organisms. Acoustic allometry (sound frequency ~ body size) is conserved across frogs, in defiance of massive variation in both body size...

Risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in patients with Alzheimer disease: A synthesis of the literature

Reem Waziry, Lori B Chibnik, Daniel Bos, M Kamran Ikram & Hofman Albert
Objective To assess the risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) compared to non-AD subjects with similar risk profiles. Methods A search was conducted on Embase and Medline for reports published up to September 26, 2018. Studies were included if they: 1) assessed incidence of stroke in patients diagnosed with AD; 2) included patients with no history of stroke; and 3) reported outcomes by stroke subtype. The main outcome was...

No state change in pelagic fish production and biodiversity during the Eocene-Oligocene Transition

Elizabeth Sibert, Michelle Zill, Ella Frigyik & Richard Norris
The Eocene-Oligocene (E/O) boundary ~33.9 million years ago, has been described as a state change in the Earth system marked by the permanent glaciation of Antarctica and a proposed increase in oceanic productivity. Here we quantified the response of fish production and biodiversity to this event using microfossil fish teeth (ichthyoliths) in seven deep-sea sediment cores from around the world. Ichthyolith accumulation rate (a proxy for fish biomass production) shows no synchronous trends across the...

Data from: Evolutionary trade-offs in the chemical defense of floral and fruit tissues across genus Cornus

Chase M. Mason, Danielle R. De La Pascua, Corrinne Smith-Winterscheidt, Jordan A. Dowell & Eric W. Goolsby
Premise of the study Defense investment in plant reproductive structures is relatively understudied compared to the defense of vegetative organs. Here the evolution of chemical defenses in reproductive structures is examined in light of the optimal defense, apparency, and resource availability hypotheses within the genus Cornus using a phylogenetic comparative approach in relation to phenology and native habitat environmental data. Methods Individuals representing 25 Cornus species were tracked for reproductive phenology over a full growing...

Variation in mouse pelvic morphology maps to locations enriched in Sox9 Class II and Pitx1 regulatory features

Charles Roseman, Terrence Capellini, Evelyn Jagoda, Scott Williams, Mark Grabowski, Christine O'Connor, John Polk & James Cheverud
Variation in pelvic morphology has a complex genetic basis and its patterning and specification is governed by conserved developmental pathways. Whether the mechanisms underlying the differentiation and specification of the pelvis also produce the morphological covariation on which natural selection may act is still an open question in evolutionary developmental biology. We use high-resolution Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping in the F34 generation of an advanced intercross experiment (LG,SM-G34) to characterize the genetic architecture of...

Phylogeographic and phenotypic outcomes of brown anole colonization across the Caribbean provide insight into the beginning stages of an adaptive radiation

Jason J. Kolbe, Richard E. Glor, Marta López‐Darias, C. Verónica Gómez Pourroy, Alexis S. Harrison, Kevin De Queiroz, Liam J. Revell, Jonathan B. Losos & Robert Graham Reynolds
Some of the most important insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes of diversification and speciation have come from studies of island adaptive radiations, yet relatively little research has examined how these radiations initiate. We suggest that Anolis sagrei is a candidate for understanding the origins of the Caribbean Anolis adaptive radiation and how a colonizing anole species begins to undergo allopatric diversification, phenotypic divergence and, potentially, speciation. We undertook a genomic and morphological analysis...

Census and Property Survey for Florentine Domains and the City of Verona in Fifteenth Century Italy - Catasto Study

David Herlihy & Christiane Klapishe-Zuber

Data from: The multispecies coalescent model outperforms concatenation across diverse phylogenomic

Xiaodong Jiang, Scott Edwards & Liang Liu
A statistical framework of model comparison and model validation is essential to resolving the debates over concatenation and coalescent models in phylogenomic data analysis. A set of statistical tests are here applied and developed to evaluate and compare the adequacy of substitution, concatenation, and multispecies coalescent (MSC) models across 47 phylogenomic data sets collected across tree of life. Tests for substitution models and the concatenation assumption of topologically concordant gene trees suggest that a poor...

Sitticine jumping spiders: phylogeny, classification and chromosomes (Araneae: Salticidae: Sitticini)

Wayne Maddison, David Maddison, Shahan Derkarabetian & Marshal Hedin
We review the systematics of sitticine jumping spiders, with a focus on the Palearctic and Nearctic regions, in order to revise their generic classification, clarify the species of one region (Canada), and study their chromosomes. A genome-wide molecular phylogeny of 23 sitticine species, using more than 700 loci from the arachnid Ultra-Conserved Element (UCE) probeset, confirms the Neotropical origins of sitticines, whose basal divergence separates the new subtribe Aillutticina (a group of 5 Neotropical genera)...

Data from: Longer development provides first‐feeding fish time to escape hydrodynamic constraints

Terry R. Dial & George V. Lauder
What is the functional effect of prolonged development? By controlling for size, we quantify first‐feeding performance and hydrodynamics of zebrafish and guppy offspring (5 ± 0.5 mm in length), which differ fivefold in developmental time and twofold in ontogenetic state. By manipulating water viscosity, we control the hydrodynamic regime, measured as Reynolds number. We predicted that if feeding performance were strictly the result of hydrodynamics, and not development, feeding performance would scale with Reynolds number....

Mechanics of walking and running up and downhill: A joint-level perspective to guide design of lower-limb exoskeletons

Richard Nuckols, Kota Takahashi, Dominic Farris, Sarai Mizrachi, Raziel Riemer & Gregory Sawicki
Lower-limb wearable robotic devices can improve clinical gait and reduce energetic demand in healthy populations. To help enable real-world use, we sought to examine how assistance should be applied in variable gait conditions and suggest an approach derived from knowledge of human locomotion mechanics to establish a ‘roadmap’ for wearable robot design. We characterized the changes in joint mechanics during walking and running across a range of incline/decline grades and then provide an analysis that...

Pleistocene persistence and expansion in tarantulas on the Colorado Plateau and the effects of missing data on phylogeographical inferences from RADseq

Matthew Graham, Carlos Santibanez-Lopez, Shahan Derkarabetian, Brent Hendrixson & Carlos Santibáñez-López
Few phylogeographical studies exist for taxa inhabiting the Colorado Plateau province. We combined mitochondrial and genomic data with species distribution modeling to test Pleistocene hypotheses for Aphonopelma marxi, a large tarantula endemic to the plateau region. Mitochondrial and genomic analyses revealed that the species comprises at least three main clades that diverged in the Pleistocene. A clade distributed along the Mogollon Rim appears to have persisted in place during the last glacial maximum, whereas the...

Public health and economic benefits of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in a peri-urban system

Chinmay Sonawane, Gidey Yirga & Neil Carter
Species that depend on anthropogenic waste for food can remove pathogens that pose health risks to humans and livestock, thereby saving lives and money. Quantifying these benefits is rare, yet can lead to innovative conservation solutions. To assess these benefits, we examined the feeding ecology and population size of peri-urban spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Mekelle, Ethiopia. We integrated these field data into a disease transmission model to predict: a) the number of anthrax and...

Supplementary material for: the phylogeny and evolution of the flashiest of the armored harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones)

Ligia Rosario Benavides, Ricardo Pinto Da Rocha & Gonzalo Giribet
Gonyleptoidea, largely restricted to the Neotropics, constitutes the most diverse superfamily of Opiliones and includes the largest and flashiest representatives of this arachnid order. However, the relationships among its main lineages (families and superfamilies) and the timing of their origin are not sufficiently understood to explain how this tropical clade has been able to colonize the temperate zone. Here we used transcriptomics and divergence time dating to investigate the phylogeny of Gonyleptoidea. Our results support...

The extensibility of the plantar fascia influences the windlass mechanism during human running

Lauren Welte, Luke Kelly, Sarah Kessler, Daniel Lieberman, Susan D'Andrea, Glen Lichtwark & Michael Rainbow
The arch of the human foot is unique among hominins as it is compliant at ground-contact but sufficiently stiff to enable push-off. These behaviours are partly facilitated by the ligamentous plantar fascia whose role is central to two mechanisms. The ideal windlass mechanism assumes that the plantar fascia has a nearly constant length to directly couple toe dorsiflexion with a change in arch shape. However, the plantar fascia also stretches and then shortens throughout gait...

Data from: Social selectivity in aging wild chimpanzees

Alexandra Rosati, Lindsey Hagberg, Drew Enigk, Emily Otali, Melissa Emery Thompson, Martin Muller, Richard Wrangham & Zarin Machanda
Humans prioritize close, positive relationships during aging, and socioemotional selectivity theory proposes that this shift causally depend on capacities for thinking about personal future time horizons. To examine this theory, we tested for key elements of human social aging in longitudinal data on wild chimpanzees. Aging male chimpanzees have more mutual friendships characterized by high, equitable investment, whereas younger males have more one-sided relationships. Older males are more likely to be alone, but they also...

Census and Property Survey of the Diocese of Florence, Italy, 1427

David Herlihy & Christiane Klapishe-Zuber

Data for: Evaluating the impact of physical frailty during ageing in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

Melissa Emery Thompson, Stephanie Fox, Kris Sabbi, Emily Otali, Nicole Thompson Gonzalez, Martin Muller, Richard Wrangham & Zarin Machanda
While declining physical performance is an expected consequence of aging, human clinical research has placed increasing emphasis on physical frailty as a predictor of death and disability in the elderly. We examined non-invasive measures approximating frailty in a richly-sampled longitudinal dataset on wild chimpanzees. Using urinary creatinine to assess lean body mass, we demonstrated moderate but significant declines in physical condition with age in both sexes. While older chimpanzees spent less of their day in...

Data from: Tuning of feedforward control enables stable muscle force-length dynamics after loss of autogenic proprioceptive feedback

Monica A Daley, Joanne C Gordon, Andrew A Biewener & Natalie C Holt
Animals must integrate feedforward, feedback and intrinsic mechanical control mechanisms to maintain stable locomotion. Recent studies of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) revealed that the distal leg muscles rapidly modulate force and work output to minimize perturbations in uneven terrain. Here we probe the role of reflexes in the rapid perturbation responses of muscle by studying the effects of proprioceptive loss. We induced bilateral loss of autogenic proprioception in the lateral gastrocnemius muscle (LG) using self-reinnervation....

A catastrophic tropical drought kills hydraulically vulnerable tree species

Jennifer Powers, German Vargas-G, Timothy Brodribb, Naomi Schwartz, Daniel Perez-Aviles, Chris Smith-Martin, Justin Becknell, Filippo Aureli, Roger Blanco, Erick Calderón-Morales, Julio César Calvo-Alvarado, Ana Julieta Calvo-Obando, María Marta Chavarría, Dorian Carvajal-Vanegas, César Dionisio Jiménez-Rodríguez, Evin Murillo Chacon, Colleen Schaffner, Leland Werden, Xiangtao Xu & David Medvigy
Drought-related tree mortality is now a widespread phenomenon predicted to increase in magnitude with climate change. However, the patterns of which species and trees are most vulnerable to drought, and the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive, in part due to the lack of relevant data and difficulty of predicting the location of catastrophic drought years in advance. We used long‐term demographic records and extensive databases of functional traits and distribution patterns to understand the responses...

Data from: The role of nocturnal omnivorous lemurs as seed dispersers in Malagasy rain forests

Veronarindra Ramananjato, Zafimahery Rakotomalala, Daniel S. Park, Camille M. M. DeSisto, Nancia N. Raoelinjanakolona, Nicola K. Guthrie, Zo E. S. Fenosoa, Steig E. Johnson & Onja H. Razafindratsima
Fruit-eating animals play important roles as seed dispersal agents in terrestrial systems. Yet, the extent to which seed dispersal by nocturnal omnivores may facilitate germination and the recruitment of plant communities has rarely been investigated. Characterizing their roles in seed dispersal is necessary to provide a more complete picture of how seed dispersal processes affect ecosystem functioning. We investigated the roles and impacts of two species of nocturnal omnivorous lemur species, Microcebus jollyae and M....

Land use impacts poison frog chemical defenses through changes in leaf litter ant communities

Nora Moskowitz, Lauren O'Connell, David Donoso, Luis Coloma, Sunia Trauger, Eva Fischer, , , Charles Vidoudez, Olivia Nieves, Tammy Fay & Barbara Dorritie
Much of the world’s biodiversity is held within tropical rainforests, which are increasingly fragmented by agricultural practices. In these threatened landscapes, there are many organisms that acquire chemical defenses from their diet and are therefore intimately connected with their local food webs. Poison frogs (Family Dendrobatidae) are one such example, as they acquire alkaloid-based chemical defenses from their diet of leaf litter ants and mites. It is currently unknown how habitat fragmentation impacts chemical defense...

A survey of small-scale waves and wave-like phenomena in Jupiter's atmosphere detected by JunoCam

Glenn Orton, Fachreddin Tabataba-Vakili, Gerald Eichstaedt, John Rogers, Candice Hansen, Thomas Momary, Andrew Ingersoll, Shawn Brueshaber, Michael H. Wong, Amy Simon, Leigh Fletcher, Michael Ravine, Michael Caplinger, Dakota Smith, Scott Bolton, Stephen Levin, James Sinclair, Chloe Thepenier, Hamish Nicholson & Abigail Anthony
In the first 20 orbits of the Juno spacecraft around Jupiter, we have identified a variety of wave-like features in images made by its public-outreach camera, JunoCam. Because of Juno’s unprecedented and repeated proximity to Jupiter’s cloud tops during its close approaches, JunoCam has detected more wave structures than any previous surveys. Most of the waves appear in long wave packets, oriented east-west and populated by narrow wave crests. Spacing between crests were measured as...

Wild chimpanzees exhibit human-like aging of glucocorticoid regulation

Melissa Emery Thompson, Stephanie Fox, Andreas Berghaenel, Kris Sabbi, Sarah Phillips-Garcia, Drew Enigk, Emily Otali, Zarin Machanda, Richard Wrangham & Martin Muller
Cortisol, a key product of the stress response, has critical influences on degenerative aging in humans. In turn, cortisol production is affected by senescence of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to progressive dysregulation and increased cortisol exposure. These processes have been studied extensively in industrialized settings, but few comparative data are available from humans and closely-related species living in natural environments, where stressors are very different. Here, we examine age-related changes in urinary cortisol in...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    59

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    59

Affiliations

  • Harvard University
    59
  • Stanford University
    4
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • University of British Columbia
    3
  • University of New Mexico
    3
  • Tufts University
    3
  • University of Kansas
    2
  • Massachusetts General Hospital
    2
  • Utah State University
    2
  • Duke University
    2