136 Works

Data from: Shells of the bivalve Astarte moerchi give new evidence of a strong pelagic-benthic coupling shift occurring since the late 1970s in the NOW Polynya

Frederic Olivier, Blandine Gaillard, Julien Thébault, Tarik Meziane, Réjean Tremblay, Dany Dumont, Simon Bélanger, Michel Gosselin, Aurélie Jolivet, Laurent Chauvaud, André L. Martel, Søren Rysgaard, Anne-Hélène Olivier, Julien Pettré, Jérôme Mars, Silvain Gerber & Philippe Archambault
Climate changes in the Arctic may weaken the currently tight pelagic-benthic coupling. In response to decreasing sea ice cover, arctic marine systems are expected to shift from a ‘sea-ice algae-benthos’ to a ‘phytoplankton-zooplankton’ dominance. We used mollusk shells as bioarchives and fatty acid trophic markers to estimate the effects of the reduction of sea ice cover on the exported food to the seafloor. Bathyal bivalve Astarte moerchi that lives at 600 m depth in northern...

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses support traditional relationships within Cnidaria

Felipe Zapata, Freya E. Goetz, Stephen A. Smith, Mark Howison, Stefan Siebert, Samuel H. Church, Steven M. Sanders, Cheryl Lewis Ames, Catherine S. McFadden, Scott C. France, Marymegan Daly, Allen G. Collins, Steven H. D. Haddock, Casey W. Dunn & Paulyn Cartwright
Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is the most diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses...

Shifts in sexual dimorphism across a mass extinction in ostracods: implications for sexual selection as a factor in extinction risk

Gene Hunt
Sexual selection often favors investment in expensive sexual traits that help individuals compete for mates. In a rapidly changing environment, however, allocation of resources to traits related to reproduction at the expense of those related to survival may elevate extinction risk. Empirical testing of this hypothesis in the fossil record, where extinction can be directly documented, is largely lacking. The rich fossil record of cytheroid ostracods offers a unique study system in this context: the...

Data from: Evolutionary and phylogenetic insights from a nuclear genome sequence of the extinct, giant subfossil koala lemur Megaladapis edwardsi

Stephanie Marciniak, Mehreen R. Mughal, Laurie R. Godfrey, Richard J. Bankoff, Heritiana Randrianatoandro, Brooke E. Crowley, Christina M. Bergey, Kathleen M. Muldoon, Jeannot Randrianasy, Brigitte M. Raharivololona, Stephan C. Schuster, Ripan S. Malhi, Anne D. Yoder, , Logan Kistler & George H. Perry
No endemic Madagascar animal with body mass >10 kg survived a relatively recent wave of extinction on the island. From morphological and isotopic analyses of skeletal ‘subfossil’ remains we can reconstruct some of the biology and behavioral ecology of giant lemurs (primates; up to ~160 kg), elephant birds (up to ~860 kg), and other extraordinary Malagasy megafauna that survived well into the past millennium. Yet much about the evolutionary biology of these now extinct species...

Data from: Recent biological invasion shapes species recognition and aggressive behavior in a native species: a behavioral experiment using robots in the field

Claire Dufour, David Clark, Jonathan Losos & Anthony Herrel
Invasive species are a worldwide threat to biodiversity. Yet, our understanding of biological invasions remains incomplete, partly due to the difficulty of tracking and studying behavioral interactions in recently created species interactions. We tested whether the interactions between the recently introduced invasive lizard Anolis cristatellus and the native Anolis oculatus in Dominica have led to changes in species recognition and aggressive behavior of the native species. The use of realistic robots allowed us to test...

Archaeological mitogenomes illuminate the historical ecology of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) and the viability of reintroduction

Hannah Wellman, Rita Austin, Nihan Dagtas, Madonna Moss, Torben Rick & Courtney Hofman
Genetic analyses are an important contribution to wildlife reintroductions, particularly in the modern context of extirpations and ecological destruction. To address the complex historical ecology of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) and its failed 1970s reintroduction to coastal Oregon, we compared mitochondrial genomes of pre-extirpation Oregon sea otters to extant and historical populations across the range. We sequenced the first complete ancient mitogenomes from archaeological Oregon sea otter dentine and historical sea otter dental calculus....

Towards a taxonomically unbiased EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030

Stefano Mammola, Nicoletta Riccardi, Vincent Prié, Ricardo Correia, Pedro Cardoso, Manuel Lopes-Lima & Ronaldo Sousa
Through the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and the LIFE projects financial investments, Europe has been the world’s experimental arena for biological conservation. With an estimated budget of €20 billion/year, the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 has set an ambitious goal of reaching 30% Protected Areas and ensure no deterioration in conservation trends and status of all protected species. We analyzed LIFE projects focused on animals from 1992 to 2018 and we found that investment towards vertebrates...

Community phylogeographic patterns reveal how a barrier filters and structures taxa in North American warm deserts

Kaiya Provost, Edward A. Myers & Brian Smith
Aim: The study of biogeographic barriers has been instrumental in understanding the evolution and distribution of taxa. With the increasing availability of empirical datasets, emergent patterns can be inferred from communities by synthesizing how barriers filter and structure populations across species. We assemble phylogeographic data across a barrier and perform spatially-explicit simulations to quantify spatiotemporal patterns of divergence, the influence of species traits on these patterns, and the statistical power needed to differentiate alternative diversification...

Supplementary 1: Underwater photogrammetry for close-range 3D imaging of dry-sensitive objects: The case study of cephalopod beaks

Marjorie Roscian, Anthony Herrel, Raphaël Cornette, Arnaud Delapré, Yves Cherel & Isabelle Rouget
Technical advances in 3D imaging have contributed to quantifying and understanding biological variability and complexity. However, small, dry-sensitive objects are not easy to reconstruct using common and easily available techniques such as photogrammetry, surface scanning, or micro-CT scanning. Here we use cephalopod beaks as an example as their size, thickness, transparency, and dry-sensitive nature make them particularly challenging. We developed a new, underwater, photogrammetry protocol in order to add these types of biological structures to...

Raw data for: Biomechanical demands of percussive techniques in the context of early stone toolmaking

Robin Macchi, Guillaume Daver, Michel Brenet, Sandrine Prat, Laurent Hugueville, Sonia Harmand, Jason Lewis & Mathieu Domalain
Recent discoveries in archaeology and palaeoanthropology highlight that stone stool knapping could have emerged first within the genera Australopithecus or Kenyanthropus rather than Homo. To explore the implications of this hypothesis determining the physical demands and motor control needed for performing the percussive movements during the oldest stone toolmaking technology (i.e. Lomekwian) would help. We analysed the joint-angle patterns and muscle activity of a knapping expert using three stone tool replication techniques: unipolar flaking on...

Data from: The Polycytellidae viewed as Gondwanan Glosselytrodea

Olivier Béthoux & John Anderson
The material of Glosselytrodea from the Molteno Formation (Triassic, South Africa), consisting of two specimens, is herein studied. A preliminary comparative analysis is conducted based on the new material and new data on Polycytella triassica Tillyard, 1922 (Triassic, Australia), highlighting the relevance of the width of the area anterior to RA (particularly, opposite the end of ScP), an area very broad in Polycytella Tillyard, 1922, Argentinoglosselytrina Martins-Neto and Gallego, 2001 (Triassic, Argentina) and in the...

Solving the coral species delimitation conundrum

Catalina Ramírez-Portilla, Andrew Baird, Peter Cowman, Andrea Quattrini, Saki Harii, Frederic Sinniger & Jean-François Flot
Distinguishing coral species is not only crucial for physiological, ecological and evolutionary studies, but also to enable effective management of threatened reef ecosystems. However, traditional hypotheses that delineate coral species based on morphological traits from the coral skeleton are frequently at odds with tree-based molecular approaches. Additionally, a dearth of species-level molecular markers has made species delimitation particularly challenging in species-rich coral genera, leading to the widespread assumption that inter-specific hybridization might be responsible for...

Substitution rate variation in a robust procellariiform seabird phylogeny is not solely explained by body mass, flight efficiency, population size or life history traits

Andrea Estandia, Terry Chesser, Helen James, Max Levy, Joan Ferrer-Obiol, Vincent Bretagnolle, Jacob González-Solís & Andreanna Welch
Molecular substitution rates vary among branches, which can lead to inaccurate reconstructions of evolutionary relationships and obscure the true phylogeny of affected clades. Body mass is often assumed to be a major driver of substitution rate, though other factors such as population size, life history traits, and flight demands are also thought to have an influence. Birds of the order Procellariiformes—which encompasses petrels, storm-petrels and albatrosses—show a striking 900-fold difference in body mass between the...

Punctuational ecological changes rather than global factors drive species diversification and the evolution of wing phenotypes in Morpho butterflies

Nicolas Chazot, Patrick Blandin, Vincent Debat, Marianne Elias & Fabien Condamine
Assessing the relative importance of geographical and ecological drivers of evolution is paramount to understand the diversification of species and traits at the macroevolutionary scale. Here, we use an integrative approach, combining phylogenetics, biogeography, ecology, and quantified phenotypes to investigate the drivers of both species and phenotypic diversification of the iconic Neotropical butterfly genus Morpho. We generated a time-calibrated phylogeny for all known species and inferred historical biogeography. We fitted models of time-dependent (accounting for...

Late Cretaceous domatia reveals the antiquity of plant–mite mutualisms in flowering plants

S. Augusta Maccracken, Ian Miller & Conrad Labandeira
Mite houses, or acarodomatia, are found on the leaves of over 2,000 living species of flowering plants today. These structures facilitate tri-trophic interactions between the host plant, its fungi or herbivore adversaries, and fungivorous or predaceous mites by providing shelter for the consumers. Previously, the oldest acarodomatia were described on a Cenozoic Era fossil leaf dating to 49 million years in age. Here, we report the first occurrence of Mesozoic Era acarodomatia in the fossil...

A new target capture phylogeny elucidates the systematics and evolution of wing coupling in sack‐bearer moths

Ryan St Laurent, Carlos G. C. Mielke, Daniel Herbin, Kelly M. Dexter & Akito Y. Kawahara
The frenulum is a wing coupling structure that is found on the wings of most families of Lepidoptera. It is a single bristle or set of bristles that originate from the base of the hindwing that often interlocks with the forewing during flight. This wing coupling mechanism is thought to have been a major evolutionary innovation that allowed for enhanced flight in Lepidoptera. The sack-bearer moths (Mimallonidae) are unusual among Lepidoptera in that not all...

Data from: A mobile laboratory for ancient DNA analysis

Jose Utge, Jean-Marc Elalouf, Noémi Sévêque, Anne-Sophie Lartigot-Campin, Agnès Testu, Anne-Marie Moigne, Régis Vézian, Frédéric Maksud, Robert Begouën, Sylvain Soriano & Chistine Verna
Mobile devices for on-field DNA analysis have been used for medical diagnostics at the point-of-care, forensic investigation and environmental survey, but still have to be validated for ancient DNA studies. We report here on a mobile laboratory that we setup using commercially available devices, including a compact real-time PCR machine, and describe procedures to perform DNA extraction and analysis from a variety of archeological samples within 4 hours. The process is carried out on 50...

Global Diversification Dynamics Since the Jurassic: Low Dispersal and Habitat-Dependent Evolution Explain Hotspots of Diversity and Shell Disparity in River Snails (Viviparidae)

Björn Stelbrink, Romy Richter, Frank Köhler, Frank Riedel, Ellen Strong, Bert Van Bocxlaer, Christian Albrecht, Torsten Hauffe, Timothy Page, David Aldridge, Arthur Bogan, Li-Na Du, Marivene Manuel-Santos, Ristiyanti Marwoto, Alena Shirokaya & Thomas Von Rintelen
The Viviparidae, commonly known as River Snails, is a dominant group of freshwater snails with a nearly worldwide distribution that reaches its highest taxonomic and morphological diversity in Southeast Asia. The rich fossil record is indicative of a probable Middle Jurassic origin on the Laurasian supercontinent where the group started to diversify during the Cretaceous. However, it remains uncertain when and how the biodiversity hotspot in Southeast Asia was formed. Here, we used a comprehensive...

Data from: The evolutionary history of polycotylid plesiosaurians

Valentin Fischer, Roger B J Benson, Patrick S Druckenmiller, Hilary F Ketchum & Nathalie Bardet
Polycotylidae is a clade of plesiosaurians that appeared during the Early Cretaceous and became speciose and abundant early in the Late Cretaceous. However, this radiation is poorly understood. Thililua longicollis from the Middle Turonian of Morocco is an enigmatic taxon possessing an atypically long-neck and, as originally reported, a series of unusual cranial features that cause unstable phylogenetic relationships for polycotylids. We reinterpret the holotype specimen of Thililua longicollis and clarify its cranial anatomy. Thililua...

Data from: Dry habitats were crucibles of domestication in the evolution of agriculture in ants

Michael G. Branstetter, Ana Ješovnik, Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo, Michael W. Lloyd, Brant C. Faircloth, Seán G. Brady & Ted R. Schultz
The evolution of ant agriculture, as practiced by the fungus-farming “attine” ants, is thought to have arisen in the wet rainforests of South America about 55-65 Ma. Most subsequent attine agricultural evolution, including the domestication event that produced the ancestor of higher attine cultivars, is likewise hypothesized to have occurred in South American rainforests. The “out-of-the-rainforest” hypothesis, while generally accepted, has never been tested in a phylogenetic context. It also presents a problem for explaining...

Data from: Fungal endophytes of Vanilla planifolia across Réunion Island: isolation, distribution and biotransformation.

Shahnoo Khoyratty, Joëlle Dupont, Sandrine Lacoste, Tony L. Palama, Young H. Choi, Hye K. Kim, Bertrand Payet, Michel Grisoni, Mireille Fouillaud, Robert Verpoorte & Hippolyte Kodja
Background The objective of the work was to characterize fungal endophytes from aerial parts of Vanilla planifolia. Also, to establish their biotransformation abilities of flavor-related metabolites. This was done in order to find a potential role of endophytes on vanilla flavors. Results Twenty three MOTUs were obtained, representing 6 fungal classes. Fungi from green pods were cultured on mature green pod based media for 30 days followed by 1H NMR and HPLC-DAD analysis. All fungi...

Data from: Modelling landscape connectivity for greater horseshoe bat using an empirical quantification of resistance

David Pinaud, Fabien Claireau, Maxime Leuchtmann & Christian Kerbiriou
1. Habitat fragmentation and isolation as a result of human activities have been recognized as great threats to population viability. Evaluating landscape connectivity in order to identify and protect linkages has therefore become a key challenge in applied ecology and conservation. 2. One useful approach to evaluate connectivity is Least-Cost Path (LCP) analysis. However, several studies have highlighted importance of parameterization with empirical, biologically-relevant proxies of factors affecting movements, as well as the need to...

Data from: Nest fidelity is driven by multi-scale information in a long-lived seabird

Alexandre Robert, Vítor H. Paiva, Mark Bolton, Frédéric Jiguet & Joël Bried
Although the reproductive success of most organisms depends on factors acting at several spatial scales, little is known about how organisms are able to synthesize multi-scale information to optimize reproduction. Using longitudinal data from a long-lived seabird, Monteiro's storm-petrel, we show that average breeding success is strongly related to oceanic conditions at the population level, and we postulate that (i) individuals use proximal information (their own reproduction outcome in year t) to assess the qualities...

Data from: Higher iridescent-to-pigment optical effect in flowers facilitates learning, memory and generalization in foraging bumblebees

Géraud De Premorel, Martin Giurfa, Christine Andraud & Doris Gomez
Iridescence—change of colour with changes in the angle of viewor of illumination— is widespread in the living world but its functions remain poorly understood. The presence of iridescence has been suggested in flowers where diffraction gratings generate iridescent colours. Such colours have been suggested to serve plant–pollinator communication. Here we tested whether a higher iridescence relative to corolla pigmentation would facilitate discrimination, learning and retention of iridescent visual targets. We conditioned bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) to...

Moorea Biocode

Neil Davies
The core goal of the Moorea Biocode Project (MBP) is to genetically barcode every non-microbial species on Moorea. We will thus create a professionally produced, verifiable (vouchered) All Taxa Biotic Inventory (ATBI) of Moorea (Output 1), together with the informatics services needed for ATBI and biocode-enabled research in Model Ecosystems (Outcome 2). We will also design a long-term plan (business model) to ensure the financial self-sustainability of biocode services, and carry out proof of concept...

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