83 Works

Plant Respiration Modelling with JULES for a changing climate (1860-2100)

C. Huntingford, O.K. Atkin, A. Martinez-De La Torre, L.M. Mercado, M.A. Heskel, A.B. Harper, K.J. Bloomfield, O.S. O'Sullivan, P.B. Reich, K.R. Wythers, E.E. Butler, M. Chen, K.L. Griffin, P. Meir, M.G. Tjoelker, M.H. Turnbull, S. Sitch, A. Wiltshire & Y. Malhi
The dataset contains annual global plant respiration (and related diagnostics, such as Net Primary Productivity, Gross Primary Productivity and soil respiration), applicable for pre-industrial times (taken as year 1860) through to the end of the 21st Century (year 2100). The spatial resolution of the data is 2.5 degrees latitude x 3.75 degrees longitude. These diagnostics are outputs from the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES land surface model) under four different approaches to calcluate leaf...

Data from: Priority effects are interactively regulated by top-down and bottom-up forces: evidence from wood decomposer communities

Devin R. Leopold, J. Paula Wilkie, Ian A. Dickie, Robert B. Allen, Peter K. Buchanan & Tadashi Fukami
Both top-down (grazing) and bottom-up (resource availability) forces can determine the strength of priority effects, or the effects of species arrival history on the structure and function of ecological communities, but their combined influences remain unresolved. To test for such influences, we assembled experimental communities of wood-decomposing fungi using a factorial manipulation of fungivore (Folsomia candida) presence, nitrogen availability, and fungal assembly history. We found interactive effects of all three factors on fungal species composition...

Data from: Inferring predator-prey interactions in food webs

Justin Page Pomeranz, Ross M. Thompson, Timothée Poisot, Jon S. Harding & Justin P. F. Pomeranz
1. Food webs are a powerful way to represent the diversity, structure, and function of ecological systems. However, the accurate description of food webs requires significant effort in time and resources, limiting their widespread use in ecological studies. Newly published methods allow for the inference of feeding interactions using proxy variables. Here, we compare the accuracy of two recently described methods, as well as describe a composite model of the two, for the inference of...

Data from: Mechanisms of trophic niche compression: evidence from landscape disturbance

Francis J. Burdon, Angus R. McIntosh & Jon S. Harding
1. Natural and anthropogenic disturbances commonly alter patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. However, how networks of interacting species respond to these changes remains poorly understood. We described aquatic food webs using invertebrate and fish community composition, functional traits, and stable isotopes from twelve agricultural streams along a landscape disturbance gradient. 2. We predicted that excessive deposition of fine inorganic sediment (sedimentation) associated with agricultural activities would negatively influence aquatic trophic diversity (e.g., reduced vertical...

The population genomics of repeated freshwater colonizations by Gulf Pipefish

Sarah Flanagan, Emily Rose & Adam Jones
How organisms adapt to the novel challenges imposed by the colonization of a new habitat has long been a central question in evolutionary biology. When multiple populations of the same species independently adapt to similar environmental challenges, the question becomes whether the populations have arrived at their adaptations through the same genetic mechanisms. In recent years, genetic techniques have been used to tackle these questions by investigating the genome‐level changes underlying local adaptation. Here, we...

Data from: Spending limited resources on de-extinction could lead to net biodiversity loss

Joseph R. Bennett, Richard F. Maloney, Tammy E. Steeves, James Brazill-Boast, Hugh P. Possingham & Phillip J. Seddon
There is contentious debate surrounding the merits of de-extinction as a biodiversity conservation tool. Here, we use extant analogues to predict conservation actions for potential de-extinction candidate species from New Zealand and the Australian state of New South Wales, and use a prioritization protocol to predict the impacts of reintroducing and maintaining populations of these species on conservation of extant threatened species. Even using the optimistic assumptions that resurrection of species is externally sponsored, and...

Data from: Organic farming promotes biotic resistance to food-borne human pathogens

Matthew S. Jones, Zhen Fu, John P. Reganold, Daniel S. Karp, Thomas E. Besser, Jason M. Tylianakis & William E. Snyder
Farmland biodiversity benefits pollination, biological control and other key ecosystem services. Food safety has been seen as an exception to this broader pattern, as diverse farmlands attract wildlife that vector foodborne human pathogens. Resulting mitigation efforts thus often seek to deter wildlife by removing natural habitats, while also excluding vertebrate livestock. However, surprising recent evidence suggests that farm simplification actually increases the likelihood that produce will be contaminated with human pathogens. Here, we consider the...

Data from: Genotype matching in a parasitoid-host genotypic food web: an approach for measuring effects of environmental change

Blas Lavandero & Jason M. Tylianakis
Food webs typically quantify interactions between species, whereas evolution operates through the success of alleles within populations of a single species. To bridge this gap, we quantify genotypic interaction networks among individuals of a single specialized parasitoid species and its obligately to cyclically parthenogenetic aphid host along a climatic gradient. As a case study for the kinds of questions genotype food webs could be used to answer, we show that genetically-similar parasitoids became more likely...

Data from: Effects of gene flow on phenotype matching between two varieties of Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia; Agavaceae) and their pollinators

Jeremy B. Yoder, Christopher I. Smith, Daniel J. Rowley, Ramona Flatz, William Godsoe, Christopher Drummond & Olle Pellmyr
In animal-pollinated plants, local adaptation to pollinator behaviour or morphology can restrict gene flow among plant populations; but gene flow may also prevent divergent adaptation. Here, we examine possible effects of gene flow on plant-pollinator trait matching in two varieties of Joshua tree (Agavaceae: Yucca brevifolia). The two varieties differ in strikingly in floral morphology, which matches differences in the morphology of their pollinators. However, this co-divergence is not present at a smaller scale: within...

Data from: Effects of beneficial mutations in pykF gene vary over time and across replicate populations in a long-term experiment with bacteria

Fen Peng, Scott Widmann, Andrea Wunsche, Kristina Duan, Katherine A Donovan, Renwick C. J. Dobson, Richard E. Lenski & Tim F. Cooper
The fitness effects of mutations can depend on the genetic backgrounds in which they occur and thereby influence future opportunities for evolving populations. In particular, mutations that fix in a population might change the selective benefit of subsequent mutations, giving rise to historical contingency. We examine these effects by focusing on mutations in a key metabolic gene, pykF, that arose independently early in the history of 12 Escherichia coli populations during a long-term evolution experiment....

Cascading impacts of earthquakes and extreme heatwaves have destroyed populations of an iconic marine foundation species

Mads Thomsen
Aim: Ecologists traditionally study how contemporary local processes, such as biological interactions and physical stressors, affect the distribution and abundance of organisms. By comparison, biogeographers study the distribution of the same organisms, but focus on historic, larger-scale processes that can cause mass mortalities, such as earthquakes. Here we document cascading effects of rare biogeographical (seismic) and more common ecological (temperature-related) processes on the distribution and abundances of coastal foundation species. Location: Intertidal wave-exposed rocky reefs...

Data for: Density dependence and spatial heterogeneity limit the population growth rate of invasive pines at the landscape scale

Rowan Sprague, Philip Hulme, Elena Moltchanova & William Godsoe
Determining population growth across large scales is difficult because it is often impractical to collect data at large scales and over long timespans. Instead, the growth of a population is often only measured at a small, plot-level scale and then extrapolated to derive a mean field estimate. However, this approach is prone to error since it simplifies spatial processes such as the neighbourhood effects of density and dispersal. We present a novel approach that estimates...

Pieces in a global puzzle: Population genetics at two whale shark aggregations in the western Indian Ocean

Royale Hardenstine, Song He, Jesse Cochran, Camrin Braun, E. Fernando Cagua, Simon Pierce, Clare Prebble, Christoph Rohner, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Tane Sinclair-Taylor, Gregory Skomal, Simon Thorrold, Alexandra Watts, Casey Zakroff & Michael Berumen
The whale shark Rhincodon typus is found throughout the world’s tropical and warm-temperate ocean basins. Despite their broad physical distribution, research on the species has been concentrated at a few aggregation sites. Comparing DNA sequences from sharks at different sites can provide a demographically neutral understanding of the whale shark’s global ecology. Here, we created genetic profiles for 84 whale sharks from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea and 72 individuals from the coast of Tanzania...

Data from: Blood-red colour as a prey-choice cue for mosquito specialist predators

Lisa Taylor, Fiona Cross & Robert Jackson
Specialist predators are innately and distinctively proficient at targeting specific prey types. This is enabled by behavioural, perceptual, and cognitive mechanisms that can only be understood using carefully-designed experiments. Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider that feeds on vertebrate blood acquired indirectly by actively targeting blood-carrying female mosquitoes as preferred prey. Here we asked whether these spiders use the colour red to locate this prey. In Objective 1, we used spectrophotometry to document...

New Zealand Community Fault Model - version 1.0

Hannu Seebeck, Russ J. Van Dissen, Nicola J. Litchfield, P. M. Barnes, Andy Nicol, Rob M. Langridge, David J. A. Barrell, Pilar Villamor, Susan M. Ellis & Mark S. Rattenbury
Fault models developed by the scientific community aim to provide a consistent and broadly agreed-upon representation of faults in a region for such societally important endeavours as seismic hazard assessment (e.g. national seismic hazard models), strong ground-motion predictions and physics-based fault systems modelling. The New Zealand Community Fault Model (NZ CFM) is a two- and three-dimensional representation of fault zones associated with the New Zealand plate boundary for which Quaternary activity has been established (or...

A handbook for transnational Samoan Matai (Chiefs) = Tusifaitau o Matai fafo o Samoa

Melani Anae & Ingrid Peterson
Pacific Dynamics: Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (ISSN: 2463-641X ), Special Issue, August 2020.

Pre-historic ruptures on 2016 Kaikōura earthquake faults and implications for seismic hazard

Robert L. Langridge, Andy Nicol, David J A Barrell, P Almond, Kate J Clark & Mark W Stirling
The 14 November 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikōura Earthquake was one of the largest and most complex on-land earthquakes ever observed globally and ruptured at least 14 faults with displacements of >1.5 m. The earthquake ruptured faults progressively from near the epicentre in the southwest on The Humps Fault in the North Canterbury (NCD) domain, northeast into the Marlborough Fault System (MFS) and on to Cape Campbell, including rupture of submarine faults and extensive uplift of...

Suitability of quantitative volcanic hazard and risk assessment methods and tools for crisis management in Auckland, New Zealand

A. J. Wild, Jan M. Lindsay, M. S. Bebbington, M.A. Clive & T. M. Wilson
In the lead up to the next Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) eruption, it is likely decision-makers will need to determine when and where to call an evacuation. Over the past two decades there has been a growing body of research aimed at exploring the use of quantitative hazard and risk models to support decision-makers. There is a wide range of existing quantitative approaches for assessing risk and its components: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. A detailed...

Patterns of plant naturalization show that facultative mycorrhizal plants are more likely to succeed outside their native Eurasian ranges

Jaime Moyano, Ian Dickie, Mariano Rodriguez Cabal & Martin Nuñez
The naturalization of an introduced species is a key stage during the invasion process. Therefore, identifying the traits that favor the naturalization of non-native species can help understand why some species are more successful when introduced to new regions. The ability and the requirement of a plant species to form a mutualism with mycorrhizal fungi, together with the types of associations formed may play a central role in the naturalization success of different plant species....

Data from: Cophylogenetic signal is detectable in pollination interactions across ecological scales

Matthew C. Hutchinson, Edgar Fernando Cagua & Daniel B. Stouffer
That evolutionary history can influence the way that species interact is a basic tenet of evolutionary ecology. However, when the role of evolution in determining ecological interactions is investigated, focus typically centers on just one side of the interaction. A cophylogenetic signal, the congruence of evolutionary history across both sides of an ecological interaction, extends these previous explorations and provides a more complete picture of how evolutionary patterns influence the way species interact. To date,...

Data from: Anomalous unrooted gene trees

James H. Degnan
The coalescent and multispecies coalescent model rooted genealogies backward through time. Often, the direction of time is unknown in trees estimated from molecular sequences due to reversible mutation models, absence of an appropriate outgroup, and the absence of the molecular clock. In this paper, probabilities of unrooted gene-tree topologies under the multispecies coalescent are considered. The main result is that for any species-tree topology with 7 or more taxa, there exist branch lengths such that...

Data from: Contemporary ecological interactions improve models of past trait evolution

Matthew C. Hutchinson, Marilia P. Gaiarsa & Daniel B. Stouffer
Despite the fact that natural selection underlies both traits and interactions, evolutionary models often neglect that ecological interactions may, and in many cases do, influence the evolution of traits. Here, we explore the interdependence of ecological interactions and functional traits in the pollination associations of hawkmoths and flowering plants. Specifically, we develop an adaptation of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of trait evolution that allows us to study the influence of plant corolla depth and observed hawkmoth-plant...

Data from: Genomic diversity of a nectar yeast clusters into metabolically, but not geographically, distinct lineages

Manpreet K. Dhami, Thomas Hartwig, Andrew D. Letten, Michael Banf & Tadashi Fukami
Both dispersal limitation and environmental sorting can affect genetic variation in populations, but their contribution remains unclear, particularly in microbes. We sought to determine the contribution of geographic distance (as a proxy for dispersal limitation) and phenotypic traits (as a proxy for environmental sorting), including morphology, metabolic ability, and interspecific competitiveness, to the genotypic diversity in a nectar yeast species, Metschnikowia reukaufii. To measure genotypic diversity, we sequenced the genomes of 102 strains of M....

Data from: Higher-order interactions capture unexplained complexity in diverse communities

Margaret Mayfield & Daniel Stouffer
Natural communities are well known to be maintained by many complex processes. Despite this, the practical aspects of studying them often require some simplification, such as the widespread assumption that direct, additive competition captures the important details about how interactions between species impact community diversity. On the other hand, more complex non-additive ‘higher-order’ interactions, are assumed to be negligible or absent. Notably, these assumptions are poorly supported and have major consequences for the accuracy with...

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