Farmland biodiversity benefits pollination, biological control and other key ecosystem services. Food safety has been seen as an exception to this broader pattern, as diverse farmlands attract wildlife that vector foodborne human pathogens. Resulting mitigation efforts thus often seek to deter wildlife by removing natural habitats, while also excluding vertebrate livestock. However, surprising recent evidence suggests that farm simplification actually increases the likelihood that produce will be contaminated with human pathogens. Here, we consider the...
1. Natural and anthropogenic disturbances commonly alter patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. However, how networks of interacting species respond to these changes remains poorly understood. We described aquatic food webs using invertebrate and fish community composition, functional traits, and stable isotopes from twelve agricultural streams along a landscape disturbance gradient. 2. We predicted that excessive deposition of fine inorganic sediment (sedimentation) associated with agricultural activities would negatively influence aquatic trophic diversity (e.g., reduced vertical...
Data from: Landscape structure mediates zoochorous-dispersed seed rain under isolated pasture trees across distinct tropical regionsLachlan S. Charles, John D. Dwyer, Hazel M. Chapman, Biplang G. Yadok & Margaret M. Mayfield
Context: Isolated pasture trees play an important role in forest recovery within fragmented tropical landscapes by attracting seed dispersers and facilitating seedling growth. However, studies with conflicting results have led to confusion about what drives variation in zoochorous-dispersed seed rain patterns under isolated tree canopies. Objectives: To assess the role of landscape and biological factors impacting zoochorous-dispersed seed rain under isolated pasture trees across three tropical regions of the world. Methods: We measured seed dispersal...
Stochastic birth--death models provide the foundation for studying and simulating evolutionary trees in phylodynamics. A curious feature of such models is that they exhibit fundamental symmetries when the birth and death rates are interchanged. In this paper, we first provide intuitive reasons for these known transformational symmetries. We then show that these transformational symmetries (encoded in algebraic identities) are preserved even when individuals at the present are sampled with some probability. However, these extended symmetries...
The 14 November 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikōura Earthquake was one of the largest and most complex on-land earthquakes ever observed globally and ruptured at least 14 faults with displacements of >1.5 m. The earthquake ruptured faults progressively from near the epicentre in the southwest on The Humps Fault in the North Canterbury (NCD) domain, northeast into the Marlborough Fault System (MFS) and on to Cape Campbell, including rupture of submarine faults and extensive uplift of...
Data from: Risk assessment and the use of novel shortcuts in spatial detouring tasks in jumping spidersSamuel Aguilar-Argüello, Daniel Gerhard & Ximena Nelson
Selection on individuals that incorporate risk to quickly and accurately make a priori navigational assessments may lead to increased spatial ability. Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) are characterized by their highly acute vision, which mediates many behaviors, including prey capture and navigation. When moving to a specific goal (prey, nest, a potential mate, etc.), salticids rely on visual cues and spatial memory to orient in three-dimensional space. Salticid spatial ability has been studied in homing and...
A core question in evolutionary biology is whether convergent phenotypic evolution is driven by convergent molecular changes in proteins or regulatory regions. We combined phylogenomic, developmental, and epigenomic analysis of 11 new genomes of paleognathous birds, including an extinct moa, to show that convergent evolution of regulatory regions, more so than protein-coding genes, is prevalent among developmental pathways associated with independent losses of flight. A Bayesian analysis of 284,001 conserved noncoding elements, 60,665 of which...
Data from: Projecting consequences of global warming for the functional diversity of fleshy-fruited plants and frugivorous birds along a tropical elevational gradientLarissa Nowak, W. Daniel Kissling, Irene M. A. Bender, D. Matthias Dehling, Till Töpfer, Katrin Böhning-Gaese & Matthias Schleuning
Aim: Species in ecological communities are linked by biotic interactions. It is therefore important to simultaneously study the impacts of global warming on interdependent taxa from different trophic levels. Here, we quantify current and potential future associations of functional diversity (based on multiple traits) and functional identity (based on individual traits) between interacting taxa using projection models under climate change. Location: A tropical elevational gradient (500–3500 m a.s.l.) in the Manú biosphere reserve, southeast Peru...
Auckland is the largest city in New Zealand with 1.6 million residents. This major metropolitan region is situated upon the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), posing a considerable risk to the city’s population and essential services. On 17 December 2018, a workshop jointly run by DEVORA (Determining Volcanic Risk in Auckland) and Auckland Emergency Management (AEM) was held to discuss evacuation decision-support options in the event of a volcanic crisis in Auckland. The workshop brought together...
University of Canterbury9
The University of Texas at Austin1
University of Queensland1
Royal Ontario Museum1
Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig1
Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre1
University of Otago1
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences1
University of Auckland1