601 Works

Plant physiological measurements in North Wales and Northwest England (2013, 2014 and 2016)

M.C. Blanes, S. Reinsch, L. Mercado, H. Harmens, S. Smart, B.J. Cosby, H.C. Glanville, D.L. Jones, M.R. Marshall & B.A. Emmett
The data consists of plant physiological measurements from 15 sites located in the Conwy catchment (North Wales) and from 2 sites in North West England. Plant photosynthetic parameters for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) and the maximum light saturated photosynthesis (Asat) were measured on the dominant plant species as were foliar nitrogen (Foliar N) and phosphorus (Foliar P). Leaf mass area (LMA) and specific leaf area (SLA)...

Gross Primary Productivity simulations of Great Britain for emulation, 2001-2010 from JULES land surface model

E. Baker, A. Harper, D. Williamson & P. Challenor
This data is an ensemble of Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) simulations, ran for a select set of 1kmx1km grid cells in Great Britain, each with a different set of parameter values, from 2001 to 2010. The data includes simulated Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) for 5 different plant functional types on an 8-day average. (Broadleaf trees, Needleleaf trees, C3 grasses, Shrubs, and Cropland) as well as the weighted combined sum. These simulations were obtained...

Natural enemies of crop pests in oilseed rape fields in relation to local plant diversity and landscape characteristics

R.F. Shaw, J.K. Pell, J.W. Redhead, J.M. Bullock & J.L. Osborne
The number and type of natural enemies of crop pests found in winter-sown oilseed rape fields (Brassica napus L.) in relation to local plant diversity (in crop and field margin) and landscape characteristics. Natural enemies and pests were collected using two methods (suction sampling and pitfall traps). Local plant diversity was assessed using quadrats in field margins and in cropped area. The presence of hedges was also recorded. Landscape characteristics include the amount of mass...

Land-use and climate change for 1.5 and 2.0 degrees centigrade warming scenarios (JULES land surface model)

A. Harper, T. Powell, P. Cox, E. Comyn-Platt & C. Huntingford
This dataset includes six sets of model output from JULES/IMOGEN simulations. Each set includes output from JULES (the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) run with 34 climate change patterns from 2000-2099. The outputs provide carbon stocks and variables related to the surface energy budget to understand the implications of land-based climate mitigation.

Traits data from trees exposed to a 50% reduction in canopy throughfall for 14 years in Caxiuanã, Brazil, September to October 2016

L. Rowland, R.S. Oliveira, P.R.L. Bittencourt, A.L. Giles, I. Coughlin, P. De Britto Costa, T. Domingues, L.V. Ferreira, S.S. Vasconcelos, J.A.S. Junior, A.A.R. Oliveira, A.C.L. Da Costa, P. Meir & M. Mencuccini
Data comprise tree trait data collected during September and October 2016 (the peak dry season), in the Caxiuanã National Forest Reserve, eastern Amazon, Brazil. 17 traits (including plot type, tree species name, diameter at breast height, tree light score, carboxylation capacity, electron transport capacity, leaf respiration in the dark, stomatal conductance, stem CO2 efflux, leaf mass per area, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus content, branch wood density, leaf water potential, xylem pressure, lumen conductance, percentage loss...

Soil thaw depth from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This datasets contains measures of soil thaw depth from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Soil thaw depth was measured in 2013 and 2014 in sites from Yukon and Northwest Territories.

Soil temperature profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset consists of soil temperature profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Soil temperature profiles were monitored during summer in 2013 and 2014 in Yukon and Northwest Territories. Monitored sites included peatland plateaus, thawing features of peatland plateaus, unburnt and burnt black spruce forests, and additional sites.

Allometric modelling of plant biomass from drone-acquired photographs: drone images, ground control marker coordinates and biomass data from 36 sites, 2016-2020

A. Cunliffe, K. Anderson, F. Boschetti, H. Graham, R. Brazier, I. Myers-Smith, T. Astor, M. Boer, L. Calvo, P. Clark, M. Cramer, M. Encinas-Lara, S. Escarzaga, J. Fernández-Guisuraga, A. Fisher, K. Gdulová, B. Gillespie, A. Griebel, N. Hanan, M. Hanggito, S. Haselberger, C. Havrilla, W. Ji, J. Karl, M. Kirchhoff … & R. Wojcikiewicz
This dataset contains RGB photographs acquired from drone surveys. There are 741 harvest plots from 38 surveys at 36 sites around the world. Each site was approximately 1 ha in area. Included with the photographic images are the coordinates of ground control markers, biomass, taxonomic and location data for harvest plots and ancillary metadata. The observations can be used to obtain allometric size-biomass models. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award...

Seedlings leaf loss by herbivory in a fertilized forest in Central Amazonia (2019 - 2020)

F.A. Antonieto, R.L. Assis, I.P. Hartley, R. Di Ponzio & C.A. Quesada
Data are presented showing for individual seedling, herbivory damage at the leaf level; galls, pathogens, trail herbivory presence/absence qualitative data; and leaf mortality. Data were collected in each leaf from a plot based fertilisation experiment. The experiment was carried out at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP) approximately 100 km north of Manaus. Data were collected bimonthly from February 2019 to January 2020, by the dataset first author. Leaf loss in percentage was...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) eddy covariance flux data for Abbotts Hall, Essex

T. Hill & M. Chocholek
The eddy covariance data describes the fluxes of CO2, latent energy, and sensible heat. It also includes ancillary data: air and soil temperatures, net radiation balance, down-welling photosynthetically active radiation, wind speed, wind direction, vapour pressure deficit, friction velocity, Monin-Obukhov stability and modelled respiration. Data collection was carried out at Abbotts Hall marsh from the 15 December 2012 till the 27 January 2015. The Abbotts Hall site is in Essex, South East England, and the...

Digital Surface Models for the South Saskatchewan River, Canada

P. Ashworth, A. Nicholas, D. Parsons & G. Sambrook Smith
Data were collected in 2015, 2016 and 2017 to provide Digital Surface Models (DSM) for two sections of the South Saskatchewan River, Canada. DSMs were generated using aerial plane images with a 0.06m ground resolution, captured at a height of c. 1500 m from a fixed-wing aeroplane with an UltraCamXp sensor. DSMs were generated as part of NERC project NE/L00738X/1. DSMs were constructed using imagery obtained on four occasions (13th May 2015; 2nd Sept 2016;...

Llanbedr (Mochras Farm) Core Scanning Dataset

Magret Damaschke, Simon Wylde, Mengjie Jiang, Teuntje Hollaar & Clemens V Ullmann
A core scanning dataset from part of the Llanbedr (Mochras Farm) drill core that was drilled onshore in the Cardigan Bay Basin, Wales, UK. This core scan dataset was obtained using the Itrax XRF Scanner MC at the Core Scanning Facility (CSF) at the British Geological Survey (BGS), UK. It contains X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental data expressed as elemental counts or peak areas and optical images of each representative core stick. The dataset was created...

Changing carbonate budgets and the maintenance of coral reefs and reef islands

Chris T Perry
The ecology and structure of many tropical coral reefs have altered markedly over the past few decades. Drivers of this degradation range from direct local damage from destructive human practices to global scale climate stressors, and especially those associated with elevated sea‐surface temperature anomalies. A major consequence of these climatic and pervasive local stressors has often been a rapid decrease in the abundance of habitat building corals, which has consequently reduced reef structural complexity and...

Hot-headed peckers: thermographic changes during aggression among juvenile pheasants (Phasianus colchicus)

Sophia Knoch, Mark Whiteside, Joah Madden, Paul Rose & Tim Fawcett
In group-living vertebrates, dominance status often covaries with physiological measurements (e.g. glucocorticoid levels), but it is unclear how dominance is linked to dynamic changes in physiological state over a shorter, behavioural timescale. In this observational study, we recorded spontaneous aggression among captive juvenile pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) alongside infrared thermographic measurements of their external temperature, a non-invasive technique previously used to examine stress responses in non-social contexts, where peripheral blood is redirected towards the body core....

Dataset from: Warming effects on grassland productivity depend on plant diversity

Junjiong Shao, Xuhui Zhou, Kees Van Groenigen, Guiyao Zhou, Huimin Zhou, Lingyan Zhou, Meng Lu, Jianyang Xia, Lin Jiang, Bruce Hungate, Yiqi Luo, Fangliang He & Madhav Thakur
Aim: Climate warming and biodiversity loss both alter plant productivity, yet we lack an understanding of how biodiversity regulates the responses of ecosystems to warming. In this study, we examine how plant diversity regulates the responses of grassland productivity to experimental warming using meta-analytic techniques. Location: Global Major taxa studied: Grassland ecosystems Methods: Our meta-analysis is based on warming responses of 40 different plant communities obtained from 20 independent studies on grasslands across five continents....

Territory-level temperature influences breeding phenology and reproductive output in three forest passerine birds

Jack D. Shutt, Sophie C. Bell, Fraser Bell, Joan Castello, Myriam El Harouchi & Malcolm D. Burgess
Temperature plays an important role in determining the breeding phenology of birds in temperate climates, with higher spring temperatures associated with earlier breeding. However, the effect of localised territory-scale temperature variations is poorly understood, with relationships between temperature and breeding phenology mostly studied using coarse-grained climatic indices. Here, we interpolate spring temperatures recorded at 150 m2 grid intersections encompassing 417 ha of forest to examine the influence of territory-scale temperature, and its interaction with mean...

Leaf flammbility and volatiles of Ginkgo, Agathis, and Dicksonia

Rebecca Dewhirst, Sarah Baker, Jennifer McElwain, Matthew Haworth & Claire Belcher
The Triassic-Jurassic Boundary marks the third largest mass extinction event in the Phanerozoic, characterised by a rise in CO2-concentrations from ~600 ppm to ~2100 – 2400ppm, coupled with a ~3.0 – 4.0°C temperature rise. This is hypothesized to have induced major floral turnover, altering vegetation structure, composition and leaf morphology, which in turn are hypothesized to have driven changes in wildfire. However, the effects of elevated CO2 on fuel properties, such as chemical composition of...

The genetic and social contributions to sex differences in lifespan in Drosophila serrata

Vikram P. Narayan, Alastair J. Wilson & Stephen F. Chenoweth
Sex differences in lifespan remain an intriguing puzzle in evolutionary biology. While explanations range from sex differences in selection to sex differences in the expression of recessive lifespan-altering mutations (via X-linkage), little consensus has been reached. One unresolved issue is the extent to which genetic influences on lifespan dimorphism are modulated by the environment. For example, studies have shown that sex-differences in lifespan can either increase or decrease depending upon the social environment. Here we...

CamoEvo: an open access toolbox for artificial camouflage evolution experiments

George Hancock & Jolyon Troscianko
Camouflage research has long shaped our understanding of evolution by natural selection, and elucidating the mechanisms by which camouflage operates remains a key question in visual ecology. However, the vast diversity of colour patterns found in animals and their backgrounds, combined with the scope for complex interactions with receiver vision presents a fundamental challenge for investigating optimal camouflage strategies. Genetic algorithms have provided a potential method for accounting for these interactions, but with limited accessibility....

Abandoned pastures and restored savannahs have distinct patterns of plant-soil feedback and nutrient cycling compared with native Brazilian savannahs.

André D'Angioli, André Giles, Patrícia Costa, Gabriel Wolfsdorf, Luísa Pecoral, Larissa Verona, Fernanda Piccolo, Alexandre Sampaio, Isabel Schmidt, Lucy Rowland, Hans Lambers, Ellen Kandeler, Rafael Oliveira & Anna Abrahão
Around 40% of the original Brazilian savannah territory is occupied by pastures dominated by fast-growing exotic C4 grasses, which impact ecosystem nutrient cycling. The restoration of these areas depends on the re-establishment of soil processes. We assessed how restoration of abandoned pastures through direct seeding of native species and land-management practices (burning and ploughing) affect soil nutrient cycling dynamics compared to native savannahs. We compared the activity of soil enzymes related to carbon (C), nitrogen...

Effects of trading networks on the risk of bovine tuberculosis incidents on cattle farms in Great Britain

Helen Fielding, Trevelyan McKinley, Richard Delahay, Matthew Silk & Robbie McDonald
Trading animals between farms and via markets can provide a conduit for spread of infections. By studying trading networks we might better understand the dynamics of livestock diseases. We constructed ingoing contact chains of cattle farms in Great Britain that were linked by trading, to elucidate potential pathways for the transmission of infection, and to evaluate their effect on the risk of a farm experiencing a bovine tuberculosis (bTB) incident. Our findings are consistent with...

Isotopic and morphologic proxies for reconstructing light environment from fossil leaves: a modern calibration in the Daintree Rainforest, Australia

Alexander Cheesman, Heather Duff, Kathryn Hill, Lucas Cernusak & Francesca McInerney
Premise: Within closed canopy forests, vertical gradients of light and atmospheric CO 2 drive variations in leaf carbon isotope ratios, leaf mass per area (LMA), and the micromorphology of leaf epidermal cells. Variations in such traits observed in preserved or fossilized leaves could enable inferences of past forest canopy closure and the habitat of individual taxa. However, as yet no calibration study has examined how multiple traits in combination reflect position within a modern closed...

Historical translocations and stocking alter the genetic structure of a Mediterranean lobster fishery

Tom Jenkins, Charlie Ellis, Eric Durieux, Jean-José Filippi, Jérémy Bracconi & Jamie Stevens
Stocking is often used to supplement wild populations that are overexploited or have collapsed, yet it is unclear how this affects the genetic diversity of marine invertebrate populations. During the 1970s, a lobster stock enhancement programme was carried out around the island of Corsica in the Mediterranean using individuals translocated from the Atlantic coast of France. This included the release of thousands of hatchery-reared post-larval lobsters and several adult individuals, but no monitoring plan was...

Evolution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea related to global events

Yiyan Yang, Chuanlun Zhang, Timothy Lenton, Xinmiao Yan, Maoyan Zhu, Jianchang Tao, Tommy Phelps & Zhiwei Cao
Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are chemolithoautotrophs that dominate nitrification in today’s low ammonium ocean, playing critical roles in the global nitrogen cycle, alongside ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) that favor higher ammonium environments. Nitrification may have occurred soon after the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis and provided fundamental nutrients for the emergence of eukaryotic organisms in the Proterozoic; however, the timing of biological evidence remains unclear. Here we show using phylogenetic models that AOA occurred ~1,165 (1,928-880) Mya in...

Fungal and Oomycete cardinal temperatures (the Togashi dataset)

Daniel Bebber, Thomas Chaloner & Sarah Gurr
We collated and analysed temperature responses, specifically the minimum (Tmin), optimum (Topt) and maximum (Tmax) temperatures that comprise the ‘cardinal temperatures’, of various biological processes for 695 plant-associated microbes (631 fungi and 64 oomycetes) reported in "Togashi, K. (1949). Biological characters of plant pathogens: temperature relations. Meikundo". Cardinal temperatures can be used to derive temperature response functions, or thermal performance curves, using mathematical forms such as the beta function. The biological processes for which cardinal...

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