471 Works

Fungal and Oomycete cardinal temperatures (the Togashi dataset)

Daniel Bebber, Thomas Chaloner & Sarah Gurr
We collated and analysed temperature responses, specifically the minimum (Tmin), optimum (Topt) and maximum (Tmax) temperatures that comprise the ‘cardinal temperatures’, of various biological processes for 695 plant-associated microbes (631 fungi and 64 oomycetes) reported in "Togashi, K. (1949). Biological characters of plant pathogens: temperature relations. Meikundo". Cardinal temperatures can be used to derive temperature response functions, or thermal performance curves, using mathematical forms such as the beta function. The biological processes for which cardinal...

Data from: Age-related variation in the trophic characteristics of a marsupial carnivore, the Tasmanian devil Sarcophilus harrisii

Olivia Bell, Menna E. Jones, Manuel Ruiz Aravena, Rodrigo K. Hamede-Ross, Stuart Bearhop & Robbie A. McDonald
Age-related changes in diet have implications for competitive interactions and for predator-prey dynamics, affecting individuals and groups at different life stages. To quantify patterns of variation and ontogenetic change in the diets of Tasmanian devils Sarcophilus harrisii, a threatened marsupial carnivore, we analysed variation in the stable isotope composition of whisker tissue samples taken from 91 individual devils from Wilmot, Tasmania from December 2014 to February 2017. Both δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N decreased with increasing age...

Data from: The size, symmetry, and color saturation of a male guppy’s ornaments forecast his resistance to parasites

Jessica Stephenson, Martin Stevens, Jolyon Troscianko & Jukka Jokela
Sexually selected ornaments range from highly dynamic traits to those that are fixed during development and relatively static throughout sexual maturity. Ornaments along this continuum differ in the information they provide about the qualities of potential mates, such as their parasite resistance. Dynamic ornaments enable real-time assessment of the bearer’s condition: they can reflect an individual’s current infection status, or resistance to recent infections. Static ornaments, however, are not affected by recent infection but may...

Data from: Oxidative stress experienced during early development influences the offspring phenotype

Ana Angela Romero Haro & Carlos Alonso-Alvarez
Oxidative stress (OS) experienced early in life can affect an individual’s phenotype. However, its consequences for the next generation remain largely unexplored. We manipulated the OS level endured by zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) during their development by transitorily inhibiting the synthesis of the key antioxidant glutathione (‘early-high-OS’). The offspring of these birds and control parents were cross-fostered at hatching to enlarge or reduce its brood size. Independently of parents’ early-life OS levels, the chicks raised...

Data from: Social learning in otters

Zosia Ladds, William Hoppitt & Neeltje J. Boogert
The use of information provided by others to tackle life's challenges is widespread, but should not be employed indiscriminately if it is to be adaptive. Evidence is accumulating that animals are indeed selective and adopt ‘social learning strategies’. However, studies have generally focused on fish, bird and primate species. Here we extend research on social learning strategies to a taxonomic group that has been neglected until now: otters (subfamily Lutrinae). We collected social association data...

Data from: Natal foraging philopatry in eastern Pacific hawksbill turtles

Alexander R. Gaos, Rebecca L. Lewison, Michael P. Jensen, Michael J. Liles, Ana Henriquez, Sofia Chavarria, Carlos Mario Pacheco, Melissa Valle, David Melero, Velkiss Gadea, Eduardo Altamirano, Perla Torres, Felipe Vallejo, Cristina Miranda, Carolina LeMarie, Jesus Lucero, Karen Oceguera, Didiher Chacón, Luis Fonseca, Marino Abrego, Jeffrey A. Seminoff, Eric E. Flores, Israel Llamas, Rodrigo Donadi, Bernardo Peña … & Daniela Alarcón Ruales
The complex processes involved with animal migration have long been a subject of biological interest and broad-scale movement patterns of many marine turtle populations still remain unresolved. While it is widely accepted that once marine turtles reach sexual maturity they home to natal areas for nesting or reproduction, the role of philopatry to natal areas during other life stages has received less scrutiny, despite widespread evidence across the taxa. Here we report on genetic research...

Data from: Egg mimicry by the pacific koel: mimicry of one host facilitates exploitation of other hosts with similar egg types

Virginia E. Abernathy, Jolyon Troscianko & Naomi E. Langmore
When brood parasites exploit multiple host species, egg rejection by hosts may select for the evolution of host-specific races, where each race mimics a particular host’s egg type. However, some brood parasites that exploit multiple hosts with the ability to reject foreign eggs appear to have only a single egg type. In these cases, it is unclear how the parasite egg escapes detection by its hosts. Three possible explanations are: (i) host-specific races are present,...

Data from: Little evidence for intralocus sexual conflict over the optimal intake of nutrients for lifespan and reproduction in the black field cricket Teleogryllus commodus

James Rapkin, C. Ruth Archer, Charles E. Grant, Kim Jensen, Clarissa M. House, Alastair J. Wilson & John Hunt
There is often large divergence in the effects of key nutrients on lifespan and reproduction in the sexes, yet nutrient intake is regulated in the same way in males and females given dietary choice. This suggests that the sexes are constrained from feeding to their sex-specific nutritional optima for these traits. Here we examine the potential for intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) over optimal protein and carbohydrate intake for lifespan and reproduction to constrain the evolution...

Data from: Comparative genomics to explore phylogenetic relationship, cryptic sexual potential and host specificity of Rhynchosporium species on grasses

Daniel Penselin, Martin Muensterkoetter, Susanne Kirsten, Marius Felder, Stefan Taudien, Matthias Platzer, Kevin Ashelford, Konrad H. Paskiewicz, Richard J. Harrison, David J. Hughes, Thomas Wolf, Ekaterina Shelest, Jenny Graap, Jan Hoffmann, Claudia Wenzel, Nadine Woeltje, Kevin M. King, Bruce D. L. Fitt, Ulrich Gueldener, Anna Avrova & Wolfgang Knogge
Background: The Rhynchosporium species complex consists of hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens specialized to different sweet grass species including the cereal crops barley and rye. A sexual stage has not been described, but several lines of evidence suggest the occurrence of sexual reproduction. Therefore, a comparative genomics approach was carried out to disclose the evolutionary relationship of the species and to identify genes demonstrating the potential for a sexual cycle. Furthermore, due to the evolutionary very young...

Data from: Joint evolution of differential seed dispersal and self-fertilization

Ryosuke Iritani, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou, R. Iritani & P.-O. Cheptou
Differential seed dispersal, in which selfed and outcrossed seeds possess different dispersal propensities, represents a potentially important individual-level association. A variety of traits can mediate differential seed dispersal, including inflorescence and seed size variation. However, how natural selection shapes such associations is poorly known. Here, we developed theoretical models for the evolution of mating system and differential seed dispersal in metapopulations, incorporating heterogeneous pollination, dispersal cost, cost of outcrossing, and environment-dependent inbreeding depression. We considered...

Data from: Does fuel type influence the amount of charcoal produced in wildfires? Implications for the fossil record

Victoria A. Hudspith, Rory M. Hadden, Alastair I. Bartlett & Claire M. Belcher
Charcoal occurrence is extensively used as a tool for understanding wildfires over geological timescales. Yet, the fossil charcoal literature to date rarely considers that fire alone is capable of creating a bias in the abundance and nature of charcoal it creates, before it even becomes incorporated into the fossil record. In this study we have used state-of-the-art calorimetry to experimentally produce charcoal from twenty species that represent a range of surface fuels and growth habits,...

Data from: Ecological selection of siderophore-producing microbial taxa in response to heavy metal contamination

Elze Hesse, Siobhan O'Brien, Nicolas Tromas, Florian Bayer, Adela M. Lujan, Eleanor M. Van Veen, Dave J. Hodgson & Angus Buckling
Some microbial public goods can provide both individual and community-wide benefits, and are open to exploitation by non-producing species. One such example is the production of metal-detoxifying siderophores. Here, we investigate whether conflicting selection pressures on siderophore production by heavy metals – a detoxifying effect of siderophores, and exploitation of this detoxifying effect – results in a net increase or decrease. We show that the proportion of siderophore-producing taxa increases along a natural heavy metal...

Offspring sex-ratios are stable across the life-course in Drosophila simulans

C. Ruth Archer, Matthew Carey, Tomohito Noda, Stefan Store & David Hosken
Within populations, adult sex ratios influence population growth and extinction risk, mating behaviors and parental care. Additionally, sex ratio adjustment can have pronounced effects on individual fitness. Accordingly, it is important that we understand how often, and why, offspring sex ratios deviate from parity. In Drosophila melanogaster, females appear to improve their fitness by producing fewer sons when paired with older males. However, facultative sex ratio adjustment in D. melanogaster is controversial, and our understanding...

Seedlings leaf loss by herbivory in a fertilized forest in Central Amazonia (2019 - 2020)

F.A. Antonieto, R.L. Assis, I.P. Hartley, R. Di Ponzio & C.A. Quesada
Data are presented showing for individual seedling, herbivory damage at the leaf level; galls, pathogens, trail herbivory presence/absence qualitative data; and leaf mortality. Data were collected in each leaf from a plot based fertilisation experiment. The experiment was carried out at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP) approximately 100 km north of Manaus. Data were collected bimonthly from February 2019 to January 2020, by the dataset first author. Leaf loss in percentage was...

Soil temperature profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset consists of soil temperature profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Soil temperature profiles were monitored during summer in 2013 and 2014 in Yukon and Northwest Territories. Monitored sites included peatland plateaus, thawing features of peatland plateaus, unburnt and burnt black spruce forests, and additional sites.

Soil thaw depth from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This datasets contains measures of soil thaw depth from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Soil thaw depth was measured in 2013 and 2014 in sites from Yukon and Northwest Territories.

Land-use and climate change for 1.5 and 2.0 degrees centigrade warming scenarios (JULES land surface model)

A. Harper, T. Powell, P. Cox, E. Comyn-Platt & C. Huntingford
This dataset includes six sets of model output from JULES/IMOGEN simulations. Each set includes output from JULES (the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) run with 34 climate change patterns from 2000-2099. The outputs provide carbon stocks and variables related to the surface energy budget to understand the implications of land-based climate mitigation.

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) eddy covariance flux data for Abbotts Hall, Essex

T. Hill & M. Chocholek
The eddy covariance data describes the fluxes of CO2, latent energy, and sensible heat. It also includes ancillary data: air and soil temperatures, net radiation balance, down-welling photosynthetically active radiation, wind speed, wind direction, vapour pressure deficit, friction velocity, Monin-Obukhov stability and modelled respiration. Data collection was carried out at Abbotts Hall marsh from the 15 December 2012 till the 27 January 2015. The Abbotts Hall site is in Essex, South East England, and the...

Digital Surface Models for the South Saskatchewan River, Canada

P. Ashworth, A. Nicholas, D. Parsons & G. Sambrook Smith
Data were collected in 2015, 2016 and 2017 to provide Digital Surface Models (DSM) for two sections of the South Saskatchewan River, Canada. DSMs were generated using aerial plane images with a 0.06m ground resolution, captured at a height of c. 1500 m from a fixed-wing aeroplane with an UltraCamXp sensor. DSMs were generated as part of NERC project NE/L00738X/1. DSMs were constructed using imagery obtained on four occasions (13th May 2015; 2nd Sept 2016;...

Plant physiological measurements in North Wales and Northwest England (2013, 2014 and 2016)

M.C. Blanes, S. Reinsch, L. Mercado, H. Harmens, S. Smart, B.J. Cosby, H.C. Glanville, D.L. Jones, M.R. Marshall & B.A. Emmett
The data consists of plant physiological measurements from 15 sites located in the Conwy catchment (North Wales) and from 2 sites in North West England. Plant photosynthetic parameters for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) and the maximum light saturated photosynthesis (Asat) were measured on the dominant plant species as were foliar nitrogen (Foliar N) and phosphorus (Foliar P). Leaf mass area (LMA) and specific leaf area (SLA)...

Data from: Genotype-by-sex-by-diet interactions for nutritional preference, dietary consumption and lipid deposition in a field cricket

James Rapkin, Kim Jensen, Clarissa M. House, Alastair J. Wilson & John Hunt
Changes in feeding behaviour, especially the over-consumption of calories, has led to a rise in the rates of obesity, diabetes and other associated disorders in humans and a range of animals inhabiting human-influenced environments. However, understanding the relative contribution of genes, the nutritional environment and their interaction to dietary intake and lipid deposition in the sexes still remains a major challenge. By combining nutritional geometry with quantitative genetics, we determined the effect of genes, the...

Data from: Fish in habitats with higher motorboat disturbance show reduced sensitivity to motorboat noise

Harry R. Harding, Timothy A.C. Gordon, Rachel E. Hsuan, Alex C.E. Mackaness, Andrew N. Radford, Stephen D. Simpson, Alex C. E. Mackaness & Timothy A. C. Gordon
Anthropogenic noise can negatively impact many taxa worldwide. It is possible that in noisy, high-disturbance environments the range and severity of impacts could diminish over time, but the influence of previous disturbance remains untested in natural conditions. This study demonstrates effects of motorboat noise on the physiology of an endemic cichlid fish in Lake Malaŵi. Exposure to motorboats driven 20–100 m from fish and loudspeaker-playback of motorboat noise both elevated oxygen-consumption rate at a single...

Data from: The early-life environment and individual plasticity in life history

Ornela De Gasperin, Ana Duarte, Sinead English, Alfredo Attisano & Rebecca M. Kilner
We tested whether the early-life environment can influence the extent of individual plasticity in a life history trait. We asked: can the early-life environment explain why, in response to the same adult environmental cue, some individuals invest more than others in current reproduction? And can it additionally explain why investment in current reproduction trades off against survival in some individuals, but is positively correlated with survival in others? We addressed these questions using the burying...

Data from: Testing social learning of anti-predator responses in juvenile jackdaws: the importance of accounting for levels of agitation

Guillam E. McIvor, Victoria E. Lee & Alex Thornton
Social learning is often assumed to help young animals respond appropriately to potential threats in the environment. We brought wild, juvenile jackdaws briefly into captivity to test whether short exposures to conspecific vocalisations are sufficient to promote anti-predator learning. Individuals were presented with one of two models – a stuffed fox representing a genuine threat, or a toy elephant simulating a novel predator. Following an initial baseline presentation, juveniles were trained by pairing models with...

Data from: Defining conservation units with enhanced molecular tools to reveal fine scale structuring among Mediterranean green turtle rookeries

Phil J. Bradshaw, Annette C. Broderick, Carlos Carreras, Wayne Fuller, Robin T.E. Snape, Lucy I. Wright, Brendan J. Godley, A.C. Broderick, R.T.E. Snape, B.J. Godley, W. Fuller, C. Carreras, P.J. Bradshaw & L.I. Wright
Understanding the connectivity among populations is a key research priority for species of conservation concern. Genetic tools are widely used for this purpose, but the results can be limited by the resolution of the genetic markers in relation to the species and geographic scale. Here, we investigate natal philopatry in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from four rookeries within close geographic proximity (~ 200km) on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus. We genotyped hypervariable mtSTRs, a mtDNA...

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