542 Works

Data from: The early-life environment and individual plasticity in life history

Ornela De Gasperin, Ana Duarte, Sinead English, Alfredo Attisano & Rebecca M. Kilner
We tested whether the early-life environment can influence the extent of individual plasticity in a life history trait. We asked: can the early-life environment explain why, in response to the same adult environmental cue, some individuals invest more than others in current reproduction? And can it additionally explain why investment in current reproduction trades off against survival in some individuals, but is positively correlated with survival in others? We addressed these questions using the burying...

Data from: Behavioral plasticity and GxE of reproductive tactics in Nicrophorus vespilloides burying beetles

Mauricio J. Carter, Megan L. Head, Allen J. Moore & Nick J. Royle
Phenotypic plasticity is important in the evolution of traits and facilitates adaptation to rapid environmental changes. However, variation in plasticity at the individual level, and the heritable basis underlying this plasticity is rarely quantified for behavioral traits. Alternative behavioral reproductive tactics are key components of mating systems but are rarely considered within a phenotypic plasticity framework (i.e., as reaction norms). Here, using lines artificially selected for repeated mating rate, we test for genetic (GxE) sources...

Data from: No evidence of quantitative signal honesty across species of aposematic burnet moths (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae)

Emmanuelle S. Briolat, Mika Zagrobelny, Carl E. Olsen, Jonathan D. Blount & Martin Stevens
Many defended species use conspicuous visual warning signals to deter potential predators from attacking. Traditional theory holds that these signals should converge on similar forms, yet variation in visual traits and the levels of defensive chemicals is common, both within and between species. It is currently unclear how the strength of signals and potency of defences might be related: conflicting theories suggest that aposematic signals should be quantitatively honest, or, in contrast, that investment in...

Data from: Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance

Kyle M. Benowitz, Megan L. Head, Camellia A. Williams, Allen J. Moore & Nick J. Royle
Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age,...

Data from: Temporal dynamics of linkage disequilibrium in two populations of bighorn sheep

Joshua M. Miller, Jocelyn Poissant, René M. Malenfant, John T. Hogg & David W. Coltman
Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is the nonrandom association of alleles at two markers. Patterns of LD have biological implications as well as practical ones when designing association studies or conservation programs aimed at identifying the genetic basis of fitness differences within and among populations. However, the temporal dynamics of LD in wild populations has received little empirical attention. In this study, we examined the overall extent of LD, the effect of sample size on the accuracy...

Data from: Social effects on foraging behaviour and success depend on local environmental conditions

Harry H. Marshall, Alecia J. Carter, Alexandra Ashford, J. Marcus Rowcliffe & Guy Cowlishaw
In social groups, individuals' dominance rank, social bonds, and kinship with other group members have been shown to influence their foraging behavior. However, there is growing evidence that the particular effects of these social traits may also depend on local environmental conditions. We investigated this by comparing the foraging behavior of wild chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, under natural conditions and in a field experiment where food was spatially clumped. Data were collected from 55 animals...

Data from: Host population bottlenecks drive parasite extinction during antagonistic coevolution

Elze Hesse & Angus Buckling
Host-parasite interactions are often characterized by large fluctuations in host population size, and we investigated how such host bottlenecks affected coevolution between a bacterium and a virus. Previous theory suggests that host bottlenecks should provide parasites with an evolutionary advantage, but instead we found that phages were rapidly driven to extinction when coevolving with hosts exposed to large genetic bottlenecks. This was caused by the stochastic loss of sensitive bacteria, which are required for phage...

Data from: Determinants of flammability in savanna grass species

Kimberley J. Simpson, Brad S. Ripley, Pascal-Antione Christin, Claire M. Belcher, Caroline E. R. Lehmann, Gavin H. Thomas, Colin P. Osborne & Pascal-Antoine Christin
1. Tropical grasses fuel the majority of fires on Earth. In fire-prone landscapes, enhanced flammability may be adaptive for grasses via the maintenance of an open canopy and an increase in spatiotemporal opportunities for recruitment and regeneration. In addition, by burning intensely but briefly, high flammability may protect resprouting buds from lethal temperatures. Despite these potential benefits of high flammability to fire-prone grasses, variation in flammability among grass species, and how trait differences underpin this...

Data from: The impact of Wolbachia, male age and mating history on cytoplasmic incompatibility and sperm transfer in Drosophila simulans

Znmako A. Awrahman, Fleur Champion De Crespigny & Nina Wedell
Most insects harbour a variety of maternally inherited endosymbionts, the most widespread being Wolbachia pipientis that commonly induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and reduced hatching success in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. High temperature and increasing male age are known to reduce the level of CI in a variety of insects. In Drosophila simulans, infected males have been shown to mate at a higher rate than uninfected males. By examining the impact of mating...

Data from: Fish in habitats with higher motorboat disturbance show reduced sensitivity to motorboat noise

Harry R. Harding, Timothy A.C. Gordon, Rachel E. Hsuan, Alex C.E. Mackaness, Andrew N. Radford, Stephen D. Simpson, Alex C. E. Mackaness & Timothy A. C. Gordon
Anthropogenic noise can negatively impact many taxa worldwide. It is possible that in noisy, high-disturbance environments the range and severity of impacts could diminish over time, but the influence of previous disturbance remains untested in natural conditions. This study demonstrates effects of motorboat noise on the physiology of an endemic cichlid fish in Lake Malaŵi. Exposure to motorboats driven 20–100 m from fish and loudspeaker-playback of motorboat noise both elevated oxygen-consumption rate at a single...

Data from: Oxidative stress and the evolution of sex differences in lifespan and ageing in the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus

Catharine Ruth Archer, Scott K. Sakaluk, Colin Selman, Nick Royle & John Hunt
The Free Radical Theory of Ageing (FRTA) predicts that oxidative stress, induced when levels of reactive oxygen species exceed the capacity of antioxidant defences, causes ageing. Recently, it has also been argued that oxidative damage may mediate important life-history trade-offs. Here, we use inbred lines of the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, to estimate the genetic (co)variance between age-dependent reproductive effort, lifespan, ageing, oxidative damage and total antioxidant capacity within and between the sexes. The FRTA...

Data from: Population genetic structure and direct observations reveal sex-reversed patterns of dispersal in a cooperative bird

Xavier A. Harrison, Andrew J. Young & Jennifer E. York
Sex-biased dispersal is pervasive and has diverse evolutionary implications, but the fundamental drivers of dispersal sex biases remain unresolved. This is due in part to limited diversity within taxonomic groups in the direction of dispersal sex biases, which leaves hypothesis testing critically dependent upon identifying rare reversals of taxonomic norms. Here we use a combination of observational and genetic data to demonstrate a rare reversal of the avian sex-bias in dispersal in the cooperatively breeding...

Data from: Ecological selection of siderophore-producing microbial taxa in response to heavy metal contamination

Elze Hesse, Siobhan O'Brien, Nicolas Tromas, Florian Bayer, Adela M. Lujan, Eleanor M. Van Veen, Dave J. Hodgson & Angus Buckling
Some microbial public goods can provide both individual and community-wide benefits, and are open to exploitation by non-producing species. One such example is the production of metal-detoxifying siderophores. Here, we investigate whether conflicting selection pressures on siderophore production by heavy metals – a detoxifying effect of siderophores, and exploitation of this detoxifying effect – results in a net increase or decrease. We show that the proportion of siderophore-producing taxa increases along a natural heavy metal...

Data from: The oxidative costs of reproduction are group-size dependent in a wild cooperative breeder

Dominic L. Cram, Jonathan D. Blount & Andrew J. Young
Life-history theory assumes that reproduction entails a cost, and research on cooperatively breeding societies suggests that the cooperative sharing of workloads can reduce this cost. However, the physiological mechanisms that underpin both the costs of reproduction and the benefits of cooperation remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesised that reproductive costs may arise in part from oxidative stress, as reproductive investment may elevate exposure to reactive oxygen species, compromising survival and future reproduction and accelerating...

Data from: Population genetic structure of serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) across Europe and implications for the potential spread of bat rabies (European bat lyssavirus EBLV-1)

Caroline Moussy, Helen Atterby, Amber G. F. Griffiths, Theodore R. Allnut, Fiona Mathews, Graham C. Smith, James N. Aegerter, Stuart Bearhop & David J. Hosken
Understanding of the movements of species at multiple scales is essential to appreciate patterns of population connectivity and in some cases, the potential for pathogen transmission. The serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) is a common and widely distributed species in Europe where it frequently harbours European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1), a virus causing rabies and transmissible to humans. In the United Kingdom, it is rare, with a distribution restricted to south of the country and...

Data from: Testing social learning of anti-predator responses in juvenile jackdaws: the importance of accounting for levels of agitation

Guillam E. McIvor, Victoria E. Lee & Alex Thornton
Social learning is often assumed to help young animals respond appropriately to potential threats in the environment. We brought wild, juvenile jackdaws briefly into captivity to test whether short exposures to conspecific vocalisations are sufficient to promote anti-predator learning. Individuals were presented with one of two models – a stuffed fox representing a genuine threat, or a toy elephant simulating a novel predator. Following an initial baseline presentation, juveniles were trained by pairing models with...

Data from: Maasai pastoralists kill lions in retaliation for depredation of livestock by lions

Enoch M. Ontiri, Martin Odino, Antony Kasanga, Paula Kahumbu, Lance W. Robinson, Tom Currie & Dave J. Hodgson
The borders of national parks in Kenya are hotspots for human–wildlife conflict. The deliberate killing of lions by Maasai pastoralists is illegal, but continues despite mitigation attempts. Currently, there is a somewhat pervasive opinion, within the human–wildlife conflict literature, that lions are killed by Maasai people either as cultural ceremony or indiscriminately in response to the loss of livestock. We reconsider the indiscriminate reputation of lion‐killing, using a combination of structured dialogue and quantitative analysis....

Data from: The foot is more than a spring: human foot muscles perform work to adapt to the energetic requirements of locomotion

Ryan Riddick, Dominic J. Farris & Luke A. Kelly
The foot has been considered both as an elastic mechanism that increases the efficiency of locomotion by recycling energy, as well as an energy sink that helps stabilize movement by dissipating energy through contact with the ground. We measured the activity of two intrinsic foot muscles, Flexor Digitorum Brevis (FDB) and Abductor Hallucis (AH), as well as the mechanical work performed by the foot as a whole and at a modelled plantar muscle tendon unit...

Data from: Wing shape variation associated with mimicry in butterflies

Robert Tyrrell Jones, Yann Le Poul, Annabel C. Whibley, Claire Mérot, Richard H. Ffrench-Constant & Mathieu Joron
Mimetic resemblance in unpalatable butterflies has been studied by evolutionary biologists for over a century, but has largely focused on the convergence in wing color patterns. In Heliconius numata, discrete color-pattern morphs closely resemble co-mimics in the distantly-related genus Melinaea. We examine the possibility that the shape of the butterfly wing also shows adaptive convergence. First, simple measures of forewing dimensions were taken of individuals in a cross between H. numata morphs, and showed quantitative...

Data from: Adaptation to abiotic conditions drives local adaptation in bacteria and viruses coevolving in heterogeneous environments

Florien A. Gorter, Pauline D. Scanlan & Angus Buckling
Parasite local adaptation, the greater performance of parasites on their local compared with foreign hosts, has important consequences for the maintenance of diversity and epidemiology. While the abiotic environment may significantly affect local adaptation, most studies to date have failed either to incorporate the effects of the abiotic environment, or to separate them from those of the biotic environment. Here, we tease apart biotic and abiotic components of local adaptation using the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens...

Data from: Environmental heterogeneity, multivariate sexual selection and genetic constraints on cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila simulans

Fiona C. Ingleby, David J. Hosken, Kristy Flowers, Michael F. Hawkes, Sarah M. Lane, James Rapkin, Clarissa M. House, Manmohan D. Sharma & John Hunt
Sexual selection is responsible for the evolution of many elaborate traits, but sexual trait evolution could be influenced by opposing natural selection as well as genetic constraints. As such, the evolution of sexual traits could depend heavily on the environment if trait expression and attractiveness vary between environments. Here, male Drosophila simulans were reared across a range of diets and temperatures, and we examined differences between these environments in terms of (1) the expression of...

Data from: Specific adaptation to strong competitors can offset the negative effects of population size reductions

Xin-Feng Zhao, Angus Buckling, Quan-Guo Zhang & Elze Hesse
Competition plays a crucial role in determining adaptation of species, yet we know little as to how adaptation is affected by the strength of competition. On the one hand, strong competition typically results in population size reductions, which can hamper adaptation due to a shortage of beneficial mutations; on the other hand, specificity of adaptation to competitors may offset the negative evolutionary consequences of such population size effects. Here, we investigate how competition strength affects...

Data from: Negative frequency-dependent selection is intensified at higher population densities in protist populations

Ewan J. A. Minter, Phillip C. Watts, Chris D. Lowe & Michael A. Brockhurst
Natural populations of free-living protists often exhibit high-levels of intraspecific diversity, yet this is puzzling as classic evolutionary theory predicts dominance by genotypes with high fitness, particularly in large populations where selection is efficient. Here, we test whether negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) plays a role in the maintenance of diversity in the marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina using competition experiments between multiple pairs of strains. We observed strain-specific responses to frequency and density, but an overall...

Data from: Structure and functioning of intertidal food webs along an avian flyway: a comparative approach using stable isotopes

Teresa Catry, Pedro M. Lourenço, Ricardo J. Lopes, Camilo Carneiro, José A. Alves, Joana Costa, Hamid Rguibi-Idrissi, Stuart Bearhop, Theunis Piersma & José P. Granadeiro
Food webs and trophic dynamics of coastal systems have been the focus of intense research throughout the world, as they prove to be critical in understanding ecosystem processes and functions. However, very few studies have undertaken a quantitative comparison of entire food webs from a key consumer perspective across a broad geographical area, limiting relevant comparisons among systems with distinct biotic and abiotic components. We investigate the structure and functioning of food webs in four...

Data from: Self-recognition in crickets via on-line processing

Alexandra Capodeanu-Nägler, James Rapkin, Scott K. Sakaluk, John Hunt & Sandra Steiger
Self-referent phenotype matching, the ability of animals to use aspects of their own phenotype as a referent in discrimination decisions, is believed to play a significant role in nepotistic interactions and mate choice in a wide range of taxa [1]. An individual’s ability to assess the similarity between its own phenotype and that of the individuals it encounters can provide a reliable measure of relatedness, thereby facilitating inbreeding avoidance, optimal outbreeding or altruistic behavior towards...

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