33 Works

Data from: Protein and carbohydrate intake influence sperm number and male fertility in male cockroaches but not sperm viability

Harriet Bunning, James Rapkin, Catharine Ruth Archer, Kim Jensen, John Hunt & Laurence Belcher
It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on...

Data from: Using social parasitism to test reproductive skew models in a primitively eusocial wasp

Jonathan P. Green, Michael A. Cant & Jeremy Field
Remarkable variation exists in the distribution of reproduction (skew) among members of cooperatively breeding groups, both within and between species. Reproductive skew theory has provided an important framework for understanding this variation. In the primitively eusocial Hymenoptera, two models have been routinely tested: concessions models, which assume complete control of reproduction by a dominant individual, and tug-of-war models, which assume on-going competition among group members over reproduction. Current data provide little support for either model,...

Data from: Social evolution of toxic metal bioremediation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Siobhán O'Brien, David J. Hodgson & Angus Buckling
Bacteria are often iron-limited, and hence produce extracellular iron-scavenging siderophores. A crucial feature of siderophore production is that it can be an altruistic behaviour (individually costly but benefitting neighbouring cells), thus siderophore producers can be invaded by non-producing social ‘cheats’. Recent studies have shown that siderophores can also bind other heavy metals (such as Cu and Zn), but in this case siderophore chelation actually reduces metal uptake by bacteria. These complexes reduce heavy metal toxicity,...

Data from: Salient eyes deter conspecific nest intruders in wild jackdaws (Corvus monedula)

Gabrielle L. Davidson, Nicola S. Clayton & Alex Thornton
Animals often respond fearfully when encountering eyes or eye-like shapes. Although gaze aversion has been documented in mammals when avoiding group-member conflict, the importance of eye coloration during interactions between conspecifics has yet to be examined in non-primate species. Jackdaws (Corvus monedula) have near-white irides, which are conspicuous against their dark feathers and visible when seen from outside the cavities where they nest. Because jackdaws compete for nest sites, their conspicuous eyes may act as...

Data from: Sex-specific effects of natural and sexual selection on the evolution of life span and ageing in Drosophila simulans

Catharine Ruth Archer, Eoin Duffy, David J. Hosken, Mikael Mokkonen, Kensuke Okada, Keiko Oku, Manmohan D. Sharma & John Hunt
1. Variation in the strength of age-dependent natural selection shapes differences in ageing rates across species and populations. Likewise, sexual selection can promote divergent patterns of senescence across the sexes. However, the effects of these processes on the evolution of ageing have largely been considered independently, and interactions between them are poorly understood. 2. We use experimental evolution to investigate how natural and sexual selection affect life span and ageing in Drosophila simulans. 3. Replicate...

Data from: Population genetic structure and direct observations reveal sex-reversed patterns of dispersal in a cooperative bird

Xavier A. Harrison, Andrew J. Young & Jennifer E. York
Sex-biased dispersal is pervasive and has diverse evolutionary implications, but the fundamental drivers of dispersal sex biases remain unresolved. This is due in part to limited diversity within taxonomic groups in the direction of dispersal sex biases, which leaves hypothesis testing critically dependent upon identifying rare reversals of taxonomic norms. Here we use a combination of observational and genetic data to demonstrate a rare reversal of the avian sex-bias in dispersal in the cooperatively breeding...

Data from: Self-recognition in crickets via on-line processing

Alexandra Capodeanu-Nägler, James Rapkin, Scott K. Sakaluk, John Hunt & Sandra Steiger
Self-referent phenotype matching, the ability of animals to use aspects of their own phenotype as a referent in discrimination decisions, is believed to play a significant role in nepotistic interactions and mate choice in a wide range of taxa [1]. An individual’s ability to assess the similarity between its own phenotype and that of the individuals it encounters can provide a reliable measure of relatedness, thereby facilitating inbreeding avoidance, optimal outbreeding or altruistic behavior towards...

Data from: High rates of growth recorded for hawksbill sea turtles in Anegada, British Virgin Islands

Lucy A. Hawkes, Andrew McGowan, Annette C. Broderick, Shannon Gore, Damon Wheatley, Jim White, Matthew J. Witt & Brendan J. Godley
Management of species of conservation concern requires knowledge of demographic parameters, such as rates of recruitment, survival, and growth. In the Caribbean, hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) have been historically exploited in huge numbers to satisfy trade in their shells and meat. In the present study, we estimated growth rate of juvenile hawksbill turtles around Anegada, British Virgin Islands, using capture–mark–recapture of 59 turtles over periods of up to 649 days. Turtles were recaptured up to...

Data from: Genetic and environmental variation in condition, cutaneous immunity, and haematocrit in house wrens

Scott K. Sakaluk, Alastair J. Wilson, E. Keith Bowers, L. Scott Johnson, Brian S. Masters, Bonnie G.P. Johnson, Laura A. Vogel, Anna M. Forsman & Charles F. Thompson
Background: Life-history studies of wild bird populations often focus on the relationship between an individual’s condition and its capacity to mount an immune response, as measured by a commonly-employed assay of cutaneous immunity, the PHA skin test. In addition, haematocrit, the packed cell volume in relation to total blood volume, is often measured as an indicator of physiological performance. A multi-year study of a wild population of house wrens has recently revealed that those exhibiting...

Data from: Social effects on foraging behaviour and success depend on local environmental conditions

Harry H. Marshall, Alecia J. Carter, Alexandra Ashford, J. Marcus Rowcliffe & Guy Cowlishaw
In social groups, individuals' dominance rank, social bonds, and kinship with other group members have been shown to influence their foraging behavior. However, there is growing evidence that the particular effects of these social traits may also depend on local environmental conditions. We investigated this by comparing the foraging behavior of wild chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, under natural conditions and in a field experiment where food was spatially clumped. Data were collected from 55 animals...

Data from: Environmental heterogeneity, multivariate sexual selection and genetic constraints on cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila simulans

Fiona C. Ingleby, David J. Hosken, Kristy Flowers, Michael F. Hawkes, Sarah M. Lane, James Rapkin, Clarissa M. House, Manmohan D. Sharma & John Hunt
Sexual selection is responsible for the evolution of many elaborate traits, but sexual trait evolution could be influenced by opposing natural selection as well as genetic constraints. As such, the evolution of sexual traits could depend heavily on the environment if trait expression and attractiveness vary between environments. Here, male Drosophila simulans were reared across a range of diets and temperatures, and we examined differences between these environments in terms of (1) the expression of...

Data from: Pan-Atlantic analysis of the overlap of a highly migratory species, the leatherback turtle, with pelagic longline fisheries

Sabrina Fossette, Matthew J. Witt, Philip Miller, Michel A. Nalovic, Diego Albareda, Antonio P. Almeida, Annette C. Broderick, Didiher Chacón-Chaverri, Michael S. Coyne, Andres Domingo, Scott Eckert, Daniel Evans, Alejandro Fallabrino, Sandra Ferraroli, Angela Formia, Bruno Giffoni, Graeme C. Hays, George Hughes, Laurent Kelle, Aimee Leslie, Milagros López-Mendilaharsu, Paolo Luschi, Laura Prosdocimi, Sergio Rodriguez-Heredia, Avanaisa Turny … & Brendan J. Godley
Large oceanic migrants play important roles in ecosystems, yet many species are of conservation concern as a result of anthropogenic threats, of which incidental capture by fisheries is frequently identified. The last large populations of the leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, occur in the Atlantic Ocean, but interactions with industrial fisheries could jeopardize recent positive population trends, making bycatch mitigation a priority. Here, we perform the first pan-Atlantic analysis of spatio-temporal distribution of the leatherback turtle...

Data from: Comparative genomics of the mimicry switch in Papilio dardanus

Martijn J. T. N. Timmermans, Simon W. Baxter, Rebecca Clark, David G. Heckel, Heiko Vogel, Steve Collins, Alexie Papanicolaou, Iva Fukova, Mathieu Joron, Martin J. Thompson, Chris D. Jiggins, Richard H. Ffrench-Constant & Alfried P. Vogler
The African Mocker Swallowtail, Papilio dardanus, is a textbook example in evolutionary genetics. Classical breeding experiments have shown that wing pattern variation in this polymorphic Batesian mimic is determined by the polyallelic H locus that controls a set of distinct mimetic phenotypes. Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing, recombination analyses and comparative genomics, we show that H co-segregates with an interval of less than 500 kb that is collinear with two other Lepidoptera genomes and...

Data from: Sexual selection is influenced by both developmental and adult environments

Stephanie R. Gillespie, M. Scarlett Tudor, Allen J. Moore & Christine W. Miller
Sexual selection is often assumed to be strong and consistent, yet increasing research shows it can fluctuate over space and time. Few experimental studies have examined changes in sexual selection in response to natural environmental variation. Here, we use a difference in resource quality to test for the influence of past environmental conditions and current environmental conditions on male and female mate choice and resulting selection gradients for leaf-footed cactus bugs, Narnia femorata. We raised...

Data from: The potential influence of morphology on the evolutionary divergence of an acoustic signal.

William R. Pitchers, Chris P. Klingenberg, Tom Tregenza, John Hunt & Ian Dworkin
The evolution of acoustic behaviour and that of the morphological traits mediating its production are often coupled. Lack of variation in the underlying morphology of signalling traits has the potential to constrain signal evolution. This relationship is particularly likely in field crickets, where males produce acoustic advertisement signals to attract females by stridulating with specialized structures on their forewings. In this study, we characterize the size and geometric shape of the forewings of males from...

Data from: Life-history trade-offs mediate ‘personality’ variation in two colour morphs of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

Wiebke Schuett, Sasha R. X. Dall, Michaela H. Kloesener, Jana Baeumer, Felix Beinlich & Till Eggers
(1) Life-history trade-offs are considered a major driving force in the emergence of consistent behavioural differences (personality variation); but empirical tests are scarce. (2) We investigated links between a personality trait (escape response), life-history and state variables (growth rate, size and age at first reproduction, age-dependent reproductive rates, lifetime reproductive success, lifespan) in red and green colour morphs of clonal pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Escape response (dropping/non-dropping off a plant upon a predatory attack) was...

Data from: Evolution of cultural traits occurs at similar relative rates in different world regions

Thomas E. Currie & Ruth Mace
A fundamental issue in understanding human diversity is whether or not there are regular patterns and processes involved in cultural change. Theoretical and mathematical models of cultural evolution have been developed and are increasingly being used and assessed in empirical analyses. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rates of change of features of human socio-cultural organization are governed by general rules. One prediction of this hypothesis is that different cultural traits will tend to...

Data from: Baculovirus infection triggers a positive phototactic response in caterpillars to induce ‘tree-top’ disease

Stineke Van Houte, Monique M. Van Oers, Han Yue, Just M. Vlak, Vera I.D. Ros, Y. Han & V. I. D. Ros
Many parasites manipulate host behaviour to enhance parasite transmission and survival. A fascinating example is baculoviruses, which often induce death in caterpillar hosts at elevated positions (‘tree-top’ disease). To date, little is known about the underlying processes leading to this adaptive host manipulation. Here, we show that the baculovirus Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) triggers a positive phototactic response in S. exigua larvae prior to death and causes the caterpillars to die at elevated positions....

Data from: An experimental study of strong reciprocity in bacteria

R. Fredrik Inglis, Stuart West & Angus Buckling
Strong reciprocity, whereby cooperators punish non-cooperators, may help to explain the evolutionary success of cooperative behaviours. However, theory suggests that selection for strong reciprocity can depend upon tight genetic linkage between cooperation and punishment, to avoid the strategy being outcompeted by non-punishing cooperators. We tested this hypothesis using experimental populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which cooperate by producing iron-scavenging siderophores and, in this context, punish non-cooperators with toxins. Consistent with theory, we show that...

Data from: Woody cover in wet and dry African savannas after six decades of experimental fires

Aisling P. Devine, Iain Stott, Robbie A. McDonald & Ilya M. D. Maclean
1. Fire is an integral process in savannas because it plays a crucial role in altering woody cover of this globally important biome. 2. In this study we examine the long term effects of varying fire frequencies over a 60 year time period in South Africa. We analyse the effects of fire exclusion and of experimental burns every 1, 2 and 3 years on woody cover, tree abundance and stem structure on a wet and...

Data from: Factors influencing clinical trial site selection in Europe: the survey of attitudes towards trial sites in Europe (the SAT-EU StudyTM)

Marta Gehring, Rod S. Taylor, Marie Mellody, Brigitte Casteels, Angela Piazzi, Gianfranco Gensini & Giuseppe Ambrosio
Objectives: Applications to run clinical trials in Europe fell 25% between 2007 and 2011. Costs, speed of approvals, and shortcomings of European Clinical Trial Directive are commonly invoked to explain this unsatisfactory performance. However, no hard evidence is available on the actual weight of these factors, nor has it been previously investigated whether other criteria may also impact clinical trial site selection. Design: The SAT-EU StudyTM was an anonymous, cross-sectional Web-based survey that systematically assessed...

Data from: Maternal effects and warning signal honesty in eggs and offspring of an aposematic ladybird beetle

Anne E. Winters, Martin Stevens, Chris Mitchell, Simon P. Blomberg & Jonathan D. Blount
1. The eggs of oviparous species are often subject to intense predation pressure. One parental strategy to deter predators is to produce eggs that are laced with noxious chemicals and are conspicuously coloured (i.e. aposematism). 2. Ladybird eggs are conspicuously coloured and contain alkaloids; these traits are believed to function in concert as visual signal and chemical defence, respectively, to deter predators. However, it remains unclear whether such aposematic signals reveal the strength (rather than...

Data from: Developmental stress predicts social network position

Neeltje J. Boogert, Damien R. Farine & Karen A. Spencer
The quantity and quality of social relationships, as captured by social network analysis, can have major fitness consequences. Various studies have shown that individual differences in social behaviour can be due to variation in exposure to developmental stress. However, whether these developmental differences translate to consistent differences in social network position is not known. We experimentally increased levels of the avian stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in nestling zebra finches in a fully balanced design. Upon...

Data from: Flies on the move: an inherited virus mirrors Drosophila melanogaster’s elusive ecology and demography

Lena Wilfert & Francis M. Jiggins
Vertically transmitted parasites rely on their host's reproduction for their transmission, leading to the evolutionary histories of both parties being intimately entwined. Parasites can thus serve as a population genetic magnifying glass for their host's demographic history. Here, we study the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster's vertically transmitted sigma virus DMelSV. The virus has a high mutation rate and low effective population size, allowing us to reconstruct at a fine scale how the combined forces of the...

Data from: Effects of epistasis on infectivity range during host-parasite coevolution

Ben Ashby, Sunetra Gupta & Angus Buckling
Understanding how parasites adapt to changes in host resistance is crucial to evolutionary epidemiology. Experimental studies have demonstrated that parasites are more capable of adapting to gradual, rather than sudden changes in host phenotype, as the latter may require multiple mutations that are unlikely to arise simultaneously. A key, but as yet unexplored factor is precisely how interactions between mutations (epistasis) affect parasite evolution. Here, we investigate this phenomenon in the context of infectivity range,...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Exeter
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Liverpool
  • Illinois State University
  • University of Oxford
  • Australian National University
  • Okayama University
  • University of Ulm
  • Wageningen University & Research
  • Michigan State University