64 Works

Data from: Sex differences in the effects of juvenile and adult diet on age-dependent reproductive effort

Thomas M. Houslay, John Hunt, Matthew C. Tinsley & Luc F. Bussière
Sexual selection should cause sex differences in patterns of resource allocation. When current and future reproductive effort trade-off, variation in resource acquisition might further cause sex differences in age-dependent investment, or in sensitivity to changes in resource availability over time. However, the nature and prevalence of sex differences in age-dependent investment remain unclear. We manipulated resource acquisition at juvenile and adult stages in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and assessed effects on sex-specific allocation to age-dependent...

Data from: Adaptive strategies in nocturnally migrating insects and songbirds: contrasting responses to wind

Jason W. Chapman, Cecilia Nilsson, Ka S. Lim, Johan Bäckman, Donald R. Reynolds, Thomas Alerstam & Don R. Reynolds
1. Animals that use flight as their mode of transportation must cope with the fact that their migration and orientation performance is strongly affected by the flow of the medium they are moving in, i.e. by the winds. Different strategies can be used to mitigate the negative effects and benefit from the positive effects of a moving flow. The strategies an animal can use will be constrained by the relationship between the speed of the...

Data from: Maternal effects and maternal selection arising from variation in allocation of free amino acid to eggs

Devi Newcombe, John Hunt, Christopher Mitchell & Allen J. Moore
Maternal provisioning can have profound effects on offspring phenotypes, or maternal effects, especially early in life. One ubiquitous form of provisioning is in the makeup of egg. However, only a few studies examine the role of specific egg constituents in maternal effects, especially as they relate to maternal selection (a standardized selection gradient reflecting the covariance between maternal traits and offspring fitness). Here, we report on the evolutionary consequences of differences in maternal acquisition and...

Data from: Image Calibration and Analysis Toolbox – a free software suite for measuring reflectance, colour, and pattern objectively and to animal vision

Jolyon Troscianko & Martin Stevens
1. Quantitative measurements of colour, pattern, and morphology are vital to a growing range of disciplines. Digital cameras are readily available and already widely used for making these measurements, having numerous advantages over other techniques, such as spectrometry. However, off-the-shelf consumer cameras are designed to produce images for human viewing, meaning that their uncalibrated photographs cannot be used for making reliable, quantitative measurements. Many studies still fail to appreciate this, and of those scientists who...

Data from: Racehorses are getting faster

Patrick Sharman & Alastair J. Wilson
Previous studies have concluded that thoroughbred racehorse speed is improving very slowly, if at all, despite heritable variation for performance and putatively intensive selective breeding. This has led to the suggestion that racehorses have reached a selection limit. However, previous studies have been limited, focusing only on the winning times of a few elite races run over middle and long distances, and failing to account for potentially confounding factors. Using a much larger dataset covering...

Data from: Female choice for male cuticular hydrocarbon profile in decorated crickets is not based on similarity to their own profile

Sandra Steiger, Alexandra Capodeanu-Nägler, Susan N. Gershman, Carie B. Weddle, James Rapkin, Scott K. Sakaluk & John Hunt
Indirect genetic benefits derived from female mate choice comprise additive (good genes) and non-additive genetic benefits (genetic compatibility). Although good genes can be revealed by condition-dependent display traits, the mechanism by which compatibility alleles are detected is unclear because evaluation of the genetic similarity of a prospective mate requires the female to assess the genotype of the male and compare it to her own. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), lipids coating the exoskeleton of most insects, influence...

Data from: Temporal variation in antibiotic environments slows down resistance evolution in pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Roderich Roemhild, Camilo Barbosa, Robert E. Beardmore, Gunther Jansen & Hinrich Schulenburg
Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern to public health. New treatment strategies may alleviate the situation by slowing down the evolution of resistance. Here, we evaluated sequential treatment protocols using two fully independent laboratory-controlled evolution experiments with the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 and two pairs of clinically relevant antibiotics (doripenem/ciprofloxacin and cefsulodin/gentamicin). Our results consistently show that the sequential application of two antibiotics decelerates resistance evolution relative to monotherapy. Sequential treatment enhanced population extinction...

Data from: Plasma markers of oxidative stress are uncorrelated in a wild mammal

Louise L. Christensen, Colin Selman, Jonathan D. Blount, Jill G. Pilkington, Kathryn A. Watt, Josephine M. Pemberton, Jane M. Reid & Daniel H. Nussey
Oxidative stress, which results from an imbalance between the production of potentially damaging reactive oxygen species versus antioxidant defenses and repair mechanisms, has been proposed as an important mediator of life-history trade-offs. A plethora of biomarkers associated with oxidative stress exist, but few ecological studies have examined the relationships among different markers in organisms experiencing natural conditions or tested whether those relationships are stable across different environments and demographic groups. It is therefore not clear...

Data from: Baculovirus infection triggers a positive phototactic response in caterpillars (a response to Dobson et al. Biol Letters 2015).

Stineke Van Houte, Monique M. Van Oers, Yue Han, Just M. Vlak & Vera I. D. Ros
We recently reported that baculovirus Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) triggers positive phototaxis in Spodoptera exigua larvae, leading to death at elevated positions. Dobson et al. [1] (University of Stirling, Scotland) question our interpretation of the data. Unfortunately, Dobson et al. rely on unwarranted assumptions possibly reflecting a poor understanding of baculovirus–insect pathobiology, make invalid comparisons and fail to take relevant literature into account. Here, we recapitulate the context and interpretation of our experiments and...

Data from: Symbiodinium thermophilum sp. nov., a thermotolerant symbiotic alga prevalent in corals of the world’s hottest sea, the Persian/Arabian Gulf

Benjamin C. C. Hume, Cecilia D'Angelo, Edward G. Smith, Jamie R. Stevens, John Burt & Joerg Wiedenmann
Coral reefs are in rapid decline on a global scale due to human activities and a changing climate. Shallow water reefs depend on the obligatory symbiosis between the habitat forming coral host and its algal symbiont from the genus Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae). This association is highly sensitive to thermal perturbations and temperatures as little as 1°C above the average summer maxima can cause the breakdown of this symbiosis, termed coral bleaching. Predicting the capacity of corals...

Data from: Macronutrient intake regulates sexual conflict in decorated crickets

James Rapkin, Kim Jensen, Sarah M. Lane, Clarissa M. House, Scott K. Sakaluk & John Hunt
Sexual conflict results in a diversity of sex-specific adaptations, including chemical additions to ejaculates. Male decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) produce a gelatinous nuptial gift (the spermatophylax) that varies in size and free amino acid composition, which influences a female's willingness to fully consume this gift. Complete consumption of this gift maximizes sperm transfer through increased retention of the sperm-containing ampulla, but hinders post-copulatory mate choice. Here, we examine the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate...

Data from: Experimental evidence for phonemic contrasts in a nonhuman vocal system

Sabrina Engesser, Jodie M. S. Crane, James L. Savage, Andrew F. Russell & Simon W. Townsend
The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone. Using acoustic analyses, natural observations, and a series of controlled playback...

Data from: Bottom-up effects of a no-take zone on endangered penguin demographics

Richard B. Sherley, Henning Winker, Res Altwegg, Carl D. Van Der Lingen, Stephen C. Votier & Robert J. M. Crawford
Marine no-take zones can have positive impacts for target species and are increasingly important management tools. However, whether they indirectly benefit higher order predators remains unclear. The endangered African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) depends on commercially exploited forage fish. We examined how chick survival responded to an experimental 3-year fishery closure around Robben Island, South Africa, controlling for variation in prey biomass and fishery catches. Chick survival increased by 18% when the closure was initiated, which...

Data from: Transcriptomes of parents identify parenting strategies and sexual conflict in a subsocial beetle

Darren J. Parker, Christopher B. Cunningham, Craig A. Walling, Clare E. Stamper, Megan L. Head, Eileen M. Roy-Zokan, Elizabeth C. McKinney, Michael G. Ritchie & Allen J. Moore
Parenting in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides is complex and, unusually, the sex and number of parents that can be present is flexible. Such flexibility is expected to involve specialized behaviour by the two sexes under biparental conditions. Here, we show that offspring fare equally well regardless of the sex or number of parents present. Comparing transcriptomes, we find a largely overlapping set of differentially expressed genes in both uniparental and biparental females and in...

Data from: Three dimensional tracking of a wide-ranging marine predator: flight heights and vulnerability to offshore wind farms

Ian R. Cleasby, Ewan D. Wakefield, Stuart Bearhop, Thomas W. Bodey, Stephen C. Votier & Keith C. Hamer
A large increase in offshore wind turbine capacity is anticipated within the next decade, raising concerns about possible adverse impacts on birds as a result of collision risk. Birds’ flight heights greatly influence this risk, yet height estimates are currently available only using methods such as radar- or ship-based observations over limited areas. Bird-borne data-loggers have the potential to provide improved estimates of collision risk and here, we used data from Global Position System (GPS)-loggers...

Data from: Host population bottlenecks drive parasite extinction during antagonistic coevolution

Elze Hesse & Angus Buckling
Host-parasite interactions are often characterized by large fluctuations in host population size, and we investigated how such host bottlenecks affected coevolution between a bacterium and a virus. Previous theory suggests that host bottlenecks should provide parasites with an evolutionary advantage, but instead we found that phages were rapidly driven to extinction when coevolving with hosts exposed to large genetic bottlenecks. This was caused by the stochastic loss of sensitive bacteria, which are required for phage...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity lowers rather than increases host-parasite specialization

Elze Hesse, Alex Best, Michael Boots, Alex R. Hall & Angus Buckling
Abiotic environmental heterogeneity can promote the evolution of diverse resource specialists, which in turn may increase the degree of host-parasite specialization. We coevolved Pseudomonas fluorescens and lytic phage ϕ2 in spatially structured populations, each consisting of two interconnected subpopulations evolving in the same or different nutrient media (homogeneous and heterogeneous environments, respectively). Counter to the normal expectation, host-parasite specialization was significantly lower in heterogeneous compared with homogeneous environments. This result could not be explained by...

Data from: Temperature can shape a cline in polyandry, but only genetic variation can sustain it over time

Michelle L. Taylor, Tom A. R. Price, Alison Skeats & Nina Wedell
Multiple mating by females (polyandry) is a widespread behavior occurring in diverse taxa, species, and populations. Polyandry can also vary widely within species, and individual populations, so that both monandrous and polyandrous females occur together. Genetic differences can explain some of this intraspecific variation in polyandry, but environmental factors are also likely to play a role. One environmental factor that influences many fundamental biological processes is temperature. Higher temperatures have been shown to directly increase...

Data from: Determinants of flammability in savanna grass species

Kimberley J. Simpson, Brad S. Ripley, Pascal-Antione Christin, Claire M. Belcher, Caroline E. R. Lehmann, Gavin H. Thomas, Colin P. Osborne & Pascal-Antoine Christin
1. Tropical grasses fuel the majority of fires on Earth. In fire-prone landscapes, enhanced flammability may be adaptive for grasses via the maintenance of an open canopy and an increase in spatiotemporal opportunities for recruitment and regeneration. In addition, by burning intensely but briefly, high flammability may protect resprouting buds from lethal temperatures. Despite these potential benefits of high flammability to fire-prone grasses, variation in flammability among grass species, and how trait differences underpin this...

Data from: Structure and functioning of intertidal food webs along an avian flyway: a comparative approach using stable isotopes

Teresa Catry, Pedro M. Lourenço, Ricardo J. Lopes, Camilo Carneiro, José A. Alves, Joana Costa, Hamid Rguibi-Idrissi, Stuart Bearhop, Theunis Piersma & José P. Granadeiro
Food webs and trophic dynamics of coastal systems have been the focus of intense research throughout the world, as they prove to be critical in understanding ecosystem processes and functions. However, very few studies have undertaken a quantitative comparison of entire food webs from a key consumer perspective across a broad geographical area, limiting relevant comparisons among systems with distinct biotic and abiotic components. We investigate the structure and functioning of food webs in four...

Data from: Genotype reconstruction of paternity in European lobsters (Homarus gammarus)

Charlie D. Ellis, David J. Hodgson, Carl André, Tonje K. Sørdalen, Halvor Knutsen & Amber G. F. Griffiths
Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in...

Data from: The oxidative costs of reproduction are group-size dependent in a wild cooperative breeder

Dominic L. Cram, Jonathan D. Blount & Andrew J. Young
Life-history theory assumes that reproduction entails a cost, and research on cooperatively breeding societies suggests that the cooperative sharing of workloads can reduce this cost. However, the physiological mechanisms that underpin both the costs of reproduction and the benefits of cooperation remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesised that reproductive costs may arise in part from oxidative stress, as reproductive investment may elevate exposure to reactive oxygen species, compromising survival and future reproduction and accelerating...

Data from: Negative frequency-dependent selection is intensified at higher population densities in protist populations

Ewan J. A. Minter, Phillip C. Watts, Chris D. Lowe & Michael A. Brockhurst
Natural populations of free-living protists often exhibit high-levels of intraspecific diversity, yet this is puzzling as classic evolutionary theory predicts dominance by genotypes with high fitness, particularly in large populations where selection is efficient. Here, we test whether negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) plays a role in the maintenance of diversity in the marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina using competition experiments between multiple pairs of strains. We observed strain-specific responses to frequency and density, but an overall...

Data from: Male sexually coercive behaviour drives increased swimming efficiency in female guppies

Shaun S. Killen, Darren P. Croft, Karine Salin & Safi K. Darden
Sexual coercion of females by males is widespread across sexually reproducing species. It stems from a conflict of interest over reproduction and exerts selective pressure on both sexes. For females, there is often a significant energetic cost of exposure to male sexually coercive behaviours. Our understanding of the efficiency of female resistance to male sexually coercive behaviour is key to understanding how sexual conflict contributes to population level dynamics and ultimately to the evolution of...

Data from: Behavioral plasticity and GxE of reproductive tactics in Nicrophorus vespilloides burying beetles

Mauricio J. Carter, Megan L. Head, Allen J. Moore & Nick J. Royle
Phenotypic plasticity is important in the evolution of traits and facilitates adaptation to rapid environmental changes. However, variation in plasticity at the individual level, and the heritable basis underlying this plasticity is rarely quantified for behavioral traits. Alternative behavioral reproductive tactics are key components of mating systems but are rarely considered within a phenotypic plasticity framework (i.e., as reaction norms). Here, using lines artificially selected for repeated mating rate, we test for genetic (GxE) sources...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Exeter
  • University of Georgia
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Queensland
  • University of Glasgow
  • University of Edinburgh
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University of Liverpool
  • South African National Biodiversity Institute