65 Works

Data from: Diet complexity in early life affects survival in released pheasants by altering foraging efficiency, food choice, handling skills and gut morphology

Mark A. Whiteside, Rufus Sage & Joah R. Madden
1. Behavioural and physiological deficiencies are major reasons why reintroduction programmes suffer from high mortality when captive animals are used. Mitigation of these deficiencies is essential for successful reintroduction programmes. 2. Our study manipulated early developmental diet to better replicate foraging behaviour in the wild. Over 2 years, we hand-reared 1800 pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), from 1 day old, for 7 weeks under different dietary conditions. In year one, 900 pheasants were divided into three groups...

Data from: Assembly mechanisms determining high species turnover in aquatic communities over regional and continental scales

Duarte S. Viana, Jordi Figuerola, Klaus Schwenk, Marina Manca, Anders Hobæk, Marit Mjelde, Christopher D. Preston, Richard J. Gornall, Jane M. Croft, Robert A. King, Andy J. Green & Luis Santamaría
Niche and neutral processes drive community assembly and metacommunity dynamics, but their relative importance might vary with the spatial scale. The contribution of niche processes is generally expected to increase with increasing spatial extent at a higher rate than that of neutral processes. However, the extent to what community composition is limited by dispersal (usually considered a neutral process) over increasing spatial scales might depend on the dispersal capacity of composing species. To investigate the...

Data from: Anthropogenic and ecological drivers of amphibian disease (Ranavirosis)

Alexandra C. North, David J. Hodgson, Stephen J. Price & Amber G. F. Griffiths
Ranaviruses are causing mass amphibian die-offs in North America, Europe and Asia, and have been implicated in the decline of common frog (Rana temporaria) populations in the UK. Despite this, we have very little understanding of the environmental drivers of disease occurrence and prevalence. Using a long term (1992-2000) dataset of public reports of amphibian mortalities, we assess a set of potential predictors of the occurrence and prevalence of Ranavirus-consistent common frog mortality events in...

Data from: Human mining activity across the ages determines the genetic structure of modern brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations

R. Andrew King, Jamie R. Stevens & Josephine R. Paris
Humans have exploited the earth's metal resources for thousands of years leaving behind a legacy of toxic metal contamination and poor water quality. The southwest of England provides a well-defined example, with a rich history of metal mining dating to the Bronze Age. Mine water washout continues to negatively impact water quality across the region where brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations exist in both metal-impacted and relatively clean rivers. We used microsatellites to assess...

Data from: Siderophore cooperation of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil

Adela M. Luján, Pedro Gómez & Angus Buckling
While social interactions play an important role for the evolution of bacterial siderophore production in vitro, the extent to which siderophore production is a social trait in natural populations is less clear. Here, we demonstrate that siderophores act as public goods in a natural physical environment of Pseudomonas fluorescens: soil-based compost. We show that monocultures of siderophore producers grow better than non-producers in soil, but non-producers can exploit others' siderophores, as shown by non-producers' ability...

Data from: An invasive non-native mammal population conserves genetic diversity lost from its native range

Andrew J. Veale, Olivia J. Holland, Robbie A. McDonald, Mick N. Clout, Dianne Gleeson & D.M. Gleeson
Invasive, non-native species are one of the major causes of global biodiversity loss. Although they are, by definition, successful in their non-native range, their populations generally show major reductions in their genetic diversity during the demographic bottleneck they experience during colonization. By investigating the mitochondrial genetic diversity of an invasive non-native species, the stoat Mustela erminea, in New Zealand and comparing it to diversity in the species’ native range in Great Britain, we reveal the...

Data from: How integrated are behavioural and endocrine stress response traits? A repeated measures approach to testing the stress coping style model

Kay Boulton, Elsa Couto, Andrew J. Grimmer, Ryan L. Earley, Adelino V.M. Canario, Alastair J. Wilson, Craig A. Walling & Adelino V. M. Canario
It is widely expected that physiological and behavioral stress responses will be integrated within divergent stress-coping styles (SCS) and that these may represent opposite ends of a continuously varying reactive–proactive axis. If such a model is valid, then stress response traits should be repeatable and physiological and behavioral responses should also change in an integrated manner along a major axis of among-individual variation. While there is some evidence of association between endocrine and behavioral stress...

Data from: Developmental plasticity affects sexual size dimorphism in an anole lizard

Camille Bonneaud, Erin Marnocha, Anthony Herrel, Bieke Vanhooydonck, Duncan J. Irschick & Thomas B. Smith
While developmental plasticity has been shown to contribute to sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in laboratory studies, its role in shaping SSD variation in wild vertebrate populations is unclear. Here we use a field study and a laboratory experiment to show that resource availability influences the degree of SSD among insular populations of Anolis sagrei lizards in the Bahamas. Total amounts of food biomass explained variation in male, but not female, body size on six Bahamian...

Data from: Assessing bundles of ecosystem services from regional to landscape scale: insights from the French Alps

Emilie Crouzat, Maud Mouchet, Francis Turkelboom, Coline Byczek, Jeroen Meersmans, Frederic Berger, Pieter Johannes Verkerk & Sandra Lavorel
1. Assessments of ecosystem services (ES) and biodiversity (hereafter ecological parameters) provide a comprehensive view of the links between landscapes, ecosystem functioning and human well-being. The investigation of consistent associations between ecological parameters, called bundles, and of their links to landscape composition and structure is essential to inform management and policy, yet it is still in its infancy. 2. We mapped over the French Alps an unprecedented array of 18 ecological parameters (16 ES and...

Data from: Phenotype-environment matching in sand fleas

Martin Stevens, Annette C. Broderick, Brendan J. Godley, Alice E. Lown, Jolyon Troscianko, Nicola Weber & Sam B. Weber
Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread anti-predator strategy in nature, found in numerous animal groups. A long-standing prediction is that individuals should have camouflage tuned to the visual backgrounds where they live. However, while several studies have demonstrated phenotype–environment associations, few have directly shown that this confers an improvement in camouflage, particularly with respect to predator vision. Here, we show that an intertidal crustacean, the sand flea (Hippa testudinaria), has coloration tuned to the different...

Data from: Sexual selection and population divergence I: the influence of socially flexible cuticular hydrocarbon expression in male field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus)

Sonia Pascoal, Magdalena Mendrok, Christopher Mitchell, Alastair J. Wilson, John Hunt & Nathan W. Bailey
Debates about how coevolution of sexual traits and preferences might promote evolutionary diversification have permeated speciation research for over a century. Recent work demonstrates that the expression of such traits can be sensitive to variation in the social environment. Here we examined social flexibility in a sexually selected male trait – cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles – in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus and tested whether population genetic divergence predicts the extent or direction of social...

Data from: Genome-wide transcriptional signatures of migratory flight activity in a globally invasive insect pest

Christopher M. Jones, Alexie Papanicolaou, George K. Mironidis, John Vontas, Yihua Yang, Ka S. Lim, Kumar S. Singh, John G. Oakeshott, Christopher Bass, Jason W. Chapman & Chris Bass
Migration is a key life history strategy for many animals and requires a suite of behavioural, morphological and physiological adaptations which together form the ‘migratory syndrome’. Genetic variation has been demonstrated for many traits that make up this syndrome, but the underlying genes involved remain elusive. Recent studies investigating migration-associated genes have focussed on sampling migratory and nonmigratory populations from different geographic locations but have seldom explored phenotypic variation in a migratory trait. Here, we...

Data from: Impacts of regular and random noise on the behaviour, growth and development of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

Sophie L. Nedelec, Stephen D. Simpson, Erica L. Morley, Brendan Nedelec & Andrew N. Radford
Anthropogenic noise impacts behaviour and physiology in many species, but responses could change with repeat exposures. As repeat exposures can vary in regularity, identifying regimes with less impact is important for regulation. We use a 16-day split-brood experiment to compare effects of regular and random acoustic noise (playbacks of recordings of ships), relative to ambient-noise controls, on behaviour, growth and development of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Short-term noise caused startle responses in newly hatched...

Data from: Negative frequency-dependent selection is intensified at higher population densities in protist populations

Ewan J. A. Minter, Phillip C. Watts, Chris D. Lowe & Michael A. Brockhurst
Natural populations of free-living protists often exhibit high-levels of intraspecific diversity, yet this is puzzling as classic evolutionary theory predicts dominance by genotypes with high fitness, particularly in large populations where selection is efficient. Here, we test whether negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) plays a role in the maintenance of diversity in the marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina using competition experiments between multiple pairs of strains. We observed strain-specific responses to frequency and density, but an overall...

Data from: Fitness costs in spatially structured environments

Florence Débarre
The clustering of individuals that results from limited dispersal is a double-edged sword: while it allows for local interactions to be mostly among related individuals, it also results in increased local competition. Here I show that, because they mitigate local competition, fitness costs such as reduced fecundity or reduced survival are less costly in spatially structured environments than in non spatial settings. I first present a simple demographic example to illustrate how spatial structure weakens...

Data from: Population genetic structure of serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) across Europe and implications for the potential spread of bat rabies (European bat lyssavirus EBLV-1)

Caroline Moussy, Helen Atterby, Amber G. F. Griffiths, Theodore R. Allnut, Fiona Mathews, Graham C. Smith, James N. Aegerter, Stuart Bearhop & David J. Hosken
Understanding of the movements of species at multiple scales is essential to appreciate patterns of population connectivity and in some cases, the potential for pathogen transmission. The serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) is a common and widely distributed species in Europe where it frequently harbours European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1), a virus causing rabies and transmissible to humans. In the United Kingdom, it is rare, with a distribution restricted to south of the country and...

Data from: Behavioral plasticity and GxE of reproductive tactics in Nicrophorus vespilloides burying beetles

Mauricio J. Carter, Megan L. Head, Allen J. Moore & Nick J. Royle
Phenotypic plasticity is important in the evolution of traits and facilitates adaptation to rapid environmental changes. However, variation in plasticity at the individual level, and the heritable basis underlying this plasticity is rarely quantified for behavioral traits. Alternative behavioral reproductive tactics are key components of mating systems but are rarely considered within a phenotypic plasticity framework (i.e., as reaction norms). Here, using lines artificially selected for repeated mating rate, we test for genetic (GxE) sources...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity lowers rather than increases host-parasite specialization

Elze Hesse, Alex Best, Michael Boots, Alex R. Hall & Angus Buckling
Abiotic environmental heterogeneity can promote the evolution of diverse resource specialists, which in turn may increase the degree of host-parasite specialization. We coevolved Pseudomonas fluorescens and lytic phage ϕ2 in spatially structured populations, each consisting of two interconnected subpopulations evolving in the same or different nutrient media (homogeneous and heterogeneous environments, respectively). Counter to the normal expectation, host-parasite specialization was significantly lower in heterogeneous compared with homogeneous environments. This result could not be explained by...

Data from: Temporal dynamics of linkage disequilibrium in two populations of bighorn sheep

Joshua M. Miller, Jocelyn Poissant, René M. Malenfant, John T. Hogg & David W. Coltman
Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is the nonrandom association of alleles at two markers. Patterns of LD have biological implications as well as practical ones when designing association studies or conservation programs aimed at identifying the genetic basis of fitness differences within and among populations. However, the temporal dynamics of LD in wild populations has received little empirical attention. In this study, we examined the overall extent of LD, the effect of sample size on the accuracy...

Data from: Temperature can shape a cline in polyandry, but only genetic variation can sustain it over time

Michelle L. Taylor, Tom A. R. Price, Alison Skeats & Nina Wedell
Multiple mating by females (polyandry) is a widespread behavior occurring in diverse taxa, species, and populations. Polyandry can also vary widely within species, and individual populations, so that both monandrous and polyandrous females occur together. Genetic differences can explain some of this intraspecific variation in polyandry, but environmental factors are also likely to play a role. One environmental factor that influences many fundamental biological processes is temperature. Higher temperatures have been shown to directly increase...

Data from: Determinants of flammability in savanna grass species

Kimberley J. Simpson, Brad S. Ripley, Pascal-Antione Christin, Claire M. Belcher, Caroline E. R. Lehmann, Gavin H. Thomas, Colin P. Osborne & Pascal-Antoine Christin
1. Tropical grasses fuel the majority of fires on Earth. In fire-prone landscapes, enhanced flammability may be adaptive for grasses via the maintenance of an open canopy and an increase in spatiotemporal opportunities for recruitment and regeneration. In addition, by burning intensely but briefly, high flammability may protect resprouting buds from lethal temperatures. Despite these potential benefits of high flammability to fire-prone grasses, variation in flammability among grass species, and how trait differences underpin this...

Data from: Host population bottlenecks drive parasite extinction during antagonistic coevolution

Elze Hesse & Angus Buckling
Host-parasite interactions are often characterized by large fluctuations in host population size, and we investigated how such host bottlenecks affected coevolution between a bacterium and a virus. Previous theory suggests that host bottlenecks should provide parasites with an evolutionary advantage, but instead we found that phages were rapidly driven to extinction when coevolving with hosts exposed to large genetic bottlenecks. This was caused by the stochastic loss of sensitive bacteria, which are required for phage...

Data from: Male sexually coercive behaviour drives increased swimming efficiency in female guppies

Shaun S. Killen, Darren P. Croft, Karine Salin & Safi K. Darden
Sexual coercion of females by males is widespread across sexually reproducing species. It stems from a conflict of interest over reproduction and exerts selective pressure on both sexes. For females, there is often a significant energetic cost of exposure to male sexually coercive behaviours. Our understanding of the efficiency of female resistance to male sexually coercive behaviour is key to understanding how sexual conflict contributes to population level dynamics and ultimately to the evolution of...

Data from: Genotype reconstruction of paternity in European lobsters (Homarus gammarus)

Charlie D. Ellis, David J. Hodgson, Carl André, Tonje K. Sørdalen, Halvor Knutsen & Amber G. F. Griffiths
Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in...

Data from: The oxidative costs of reproduction are group-size dependent in a wild cooperative breeder

Dominic L. Cram, Jonathan D. Blount & Andrew J. Young
Life-history theory assumes that reproduction entails a cost, and research on cooperatively breeding societies suggests that the cooperative sharing of workloads can reduce this cost. However, the physiological mechanisms that underpin both the costs of reproduction and the benefits of cooperation remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesised that reproductive costs may arise in part from oxidative stress, as reproductive investment may elevate exposure to reactive oxygen species, compromising survival and future reproduction and accelerating...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Exeter
  • University of Georgia
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Queensland
  • University of Glasgow
  • University of Edinburgh
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University of Liverpool
  • South African National Biodiversity Institute