77 Works

Natural enemies of crop pests in oilseed rape fields in relation to local plant diversity and landscape characteristics

R.F. Shaw, J.K. Pell, J.W. Redhead, J.M. Bullock & J.L. Osborne
The number and type of natural enemies of crop pests found in winter-sown oilseed rape fields (Brassica napus L.) in relation to local plant diversity (in crop and field margin) and landscape characteristics. Natural enemies and pests were collected using two methods (suction sampling and pitfall traps). Local plant diversity was assessed using quadrats in field margins and in cropped area. The presence of hedges was also recorded. Landscape characteristics include the amount of mass...

Data from: Fish in habitats with higher motorboat disturbance show reduced sensitivity to motorboat noise

Harry R. Harding, Timothy A.C. Gordon, Rachel E. Hsuan, Alex C.E. Mackaness, Andrew N. Radford, Stephen D. Simpson, Alex C. E. Mackaness & Timothy A. C. Gordon
Anthropogenic noise can negatively impact many taxa worldwide. It is possible that in noisy, high-disturbance environments the range and severity of impacts could diminish over time, but the influence of previous disturbance remains untested in natural conditions. This study demonstrates effects of motorboat noise on the physiology of an endemic cichlid fish in Lake Malaŵi. Exposure to motorboats driven 20–100 m from fish and loudspeaker-playback of motorboat noise both elevated oxygen-consumption rate at a single...

Data from: No evidence of quantitative signal honesty across species of aposematic burnet moths (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae)

Emmanuelle S. Briolat, Mika Zagrobelny, Carl E. Olsen, Jonathan D. Blount & Martin Stevens
Many defended species use conspicuous visual warning signals to deter potential predators from attacking. Traditional theory holds that these signals should converge on similar forms, yet variation in visual traits and the levels of defensive chemicals is common, both within and between species. It is currently unclear how the strength of signals and potency of defences might be related: conflicting theories suggest that aposematic signals should be quantitatively honest, or, in contrast, that investment in...

Data from: Temperature drives diversification in a model adaptive radiation

Quan-Guo Zhang, Han-Shu Lu & Angus Buckling
The warmer regions harbor more species, attributable to accelerated speciation and increased ecological opportunities for coexistence. While correlations between temperature and energy availability and habitat area have been suggested as major drivers of these biodiversity patterns, temperature can theoretically also have direct effects on the evolution of diversity. Here we experimentally studied the evolution of diversity in a model adaptive radiation of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens across a temperature gradient. Diversification increased at higher temperatures,...

Data from: Territorial defence in a network: audiences only matter to male crabs primed for confrontation

Safi K. Darden, Maggie K. May, Natasha K. Boyland & Torben Dabelsteen
Territorial contests often occur in the presence of conspecifics not directly involved in the interaction. Actors may alter their behaviour in the presence of this audience, an ‘audience effect’, and audiences themselves may alter their behaviour as a result of observing an interaction, a ‘bystander effect’. Previous work has documented these effects by looking at each in isolation, but to our knowledge, none has investigated their interaction; something that is more likely to represent a...

Data from: The costs of kleptoparasitism: a study of mixed-species seabird breeding colonies

Davide Gaglio, Richard B. Sherley, Timothée R. Cook, Peter G. Ryan & Tom Flower
Mixed-species assemblages are common in nature, providing mutual benefits to associating species including anti-predator advantages or resource facilitation. However, associating with other species may also impose costs through kleptoparasitism (food theft). Identification of these costs, and how they vary when different species breed alongside one another, is essential to understand the payoffs of mixed-species assemblages. We explore the costs of kleptoparasitism for greater crested terns Thalasseus bergii provisioning offspring at a single-species colony, where individuals...

Data from: Genotype-by-sex-by-diet interactions for nutritional preference, dietary consumption and lipid deposition in a field cricket

James Rapkin, Kim Jensen, Clarissa M. House, Alastair J. Wilson & John Hunt
Changes in feeding behaviour, especially the over-consumption of calories, has led to a rise in the rates of obesity, diabetes and other associated disorders in humans and a range of animals inhabiting human-influenced environments. However, understanding the relative contribution of genes, the nutritional environment and their interaction to dietary intake and lipid deposition in the sexes still remains a major challenge. By combining nutritional geometry with quantitative genetics, we determined the effect of genes, the...

Data from: Effects of increased N and P availability on biomass allocation and root carbohydrate reserves differ between N‐fixing and non‐N‐fixing savanna tree seedlings

Varun Varma, Arockia M. Catherin & Mahesh Sankaran
In mixed tree‐grass ecosystems, tree recruitment is limited by demographic bottlenecks to seedling establishment arising from inter‐ and intra‐life‐form competition, and disturbances such as fire. Enhanced nutrient availability resulting from anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deposition can alter the nature of these bottlenecks by changing seedling growth and biomass allocation patterns, and lead to longer‐term shifts in tree community composition if different plant functional groups respond differently to increased nutrient availability. However, the extent...

Data from: Specific adaptation to strong competitors can offset the negative effects of population size reductions

Xin-Feng Zhao, Angus Buckling, Quan-Guo Zhang & Elze Hesse
Competition plays a crucial role in determining adaptation of species, yet we know little as to how adaptation is affected by the strength of competition. On the one hand, strong competition typically results in population size reductions, which can hamper adaptation due to a shortage of beneficial mutations; on the other hand, specificity of adaptation to competitors may offset the negative evolutionary consequences of such population size effects. Here, we investigate how competition strength affects...

Data from: The early-life environment and individual plasticity in life history

Ornela De Gasperin, Ana Duarte, Sinead English, Alfredo Attisano & Rebecca M. Kilner
We tested whether the early-life environment can influence the extent of individual plasticity in a life history trait. We asked: can the early-life environment explain why, in response to the same adult environmental cue, some individuals invest more than others in current reproduction? And can it additionally explain why investment in current reproduction trades off against survival in some individuals, but is positively correlated with survival in others? We addressed these questions using the burying...

Data from: The foot is more than a spring: human foot muscles perform work to adapt to the energetic requirements of locomotion

Ryan Riddick, Dominic J. Farris & Luke A. Kelly
The foot has been considered both as an elastic mechanism that increases the efficiency of locomotion by recycling energy, as well as an energy sink that helps stabilize movement by dissipating energy through contact with the ground. We measured the activity of two intrinsic foot muscles, Flexor Digitorum Brevis (FDB) and Abductor Hallucis (AH), as well as the mechanical work performed by the foot as a whole and at a modelled plantar muscle tendon unit...

Effects of different intensities of artificial light at night on multi-trophic population dynamics

D. Sanders, K. J. Gaston & F. J. Frank Van Veen
The datasets contain insect numbers, plant biomass, successful attacks of parasitoids, and behavioural response of parasitoids. The data have been sampled as part of the NERC project NE/N001672/1 "Effects of artificial light on multi-trophic population dynamics". The data are based on direct observations of insects and plants in field and laboratory experiments testing for the impact of different intensities of artificial light at night on an experimental insect food web with control (no light), and...

Impacts of experimental drought and plant trait diversity on floral resources and pollinator visitation

B.B. Phillips, R.F. Shaw, M. Holland, E.L. Fry, R.D. Bardgett, J.M. Bullock & J.L. Osborne
The floral resources provided to pollinators by different sown plant experimental plant communities were assessed under ambient and experimental drought conditions. The dataset includes the abundance and diversity of floral resources in all plant communities and more detailed information on the nectar quality and quantity provided by three focal plant species. Pollinator visit surveys were carried out on selected plots. These data can be linked to the related 'Ecosystem functions and vegetation data for Winklebury...

Data from: Behavioural mechanisms of sexual isolation involving multiple modalities and their inheritance

Peter A. Moran, John Hunt, Christopher Mitchell, Michael G. Ritchie & Nathan W. Bailey
Speciation research dissects the genetics and evolution of reproductive barriers between parental species. Hybrids are the ‘gatekeepers’ of gene flow, so it is also important to understand the behavioural mechanisms and genetics of any potential isolation from their parental species. We tested the role of multiple behavioural barriers in reproductive isolation among closely related field crickets and their hybrids (Teleogryllus oceanicus and T. commodus). These species hybridise in the laboratory, but the behaviour of hybrids...

Data from: “Green incubation”: avian offspring benefit from aromatic nest herbs through improved parental incubation behaviour

Helga Gwinner, Pablo Capilla-Lasheras, Caren Cooper & Barbara Helm
Development of avian embryos requires thermal energy, usually from parents. Parents may however trades off catering for embryonic requirements against their own need to forage through intermittent incubation. This dynamically adjusted behaviour can be affected by properties of the nest. Here we experimentally show a novel mechanism by which parents, through incorporation of aromatic herbs into nests, effectively modify their incubation behaviour to the benefit of their offspring. Our study species, the European starling, includes...

Data from: The diversity of population responses to environmental change

Fernando Colchero, Owen R. Jones, Dalia A. Conde, Dave Hodgson, Felix Zajitschek, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Aurelio F. Malo, Susan C. Alberts, Peter H. Becker, Sandra Bouwhuis, Anne M. Bronikowski, Kristel M. De Vleeschouwer, Richard J. Delahay, Stefan Dummermuth, Eduardo Fernández-Duque, John Frisenvænge, Martin Hesselsøe, Sam Larson, Jean-Francois Lemaitre, Jennifer McDonald, David A.W. Miller, Colin O'Donnell, Craig Packer, Becky E. Raboy, Christopher J. Reading … & Chris J. Reading
The current extinction and climate change crises pressure us to predict population dynamics with ever-greater accuracy. Although predictions rest on the well-advanced theory of age-structured populations, two key issues remain poorly-explored. Specifically, how the age-dependency in demographic rates and the year-to-year interactions between survival and fecundity affect stochastic population growth rates. We use inference, simulations, and mathematical derivations to explore how environmental perturbations determine population growth rates for populations with different age-specific demographic rates and...

Data from: Kin discrimination via odour in the cooperatively breeding banded mongoose

Jessica Mitchell, Solomon Kyabulima, Robert Businge, Michael A. Cant & Hazel J. Nichols
Kin discrimination is often beneficial for group-living animals as it aids in inbreeding avoidance and providing nepotistic help. In mammals, the use of olfactory cues in kin discrimination is widespread and may occur through learning the scents of individuals that are likely to be relatives, or by assessing genetic relatedness directly through assessing odour similarity (phenotype matching). We use scent presentations to investigate these possibilities in a wild population of the banded mongoose Mungos mungo,...

Data from: Evolution of non-kin cooperation: social assortment by cooperative phenotype in guppies

Josefine Brask, Darren Croft, Matthew Edenbrow, Richard James, Heather Bleakley, Indar Ramnarine, Robert Heathcote, Charles Tyler, Patrick Hamilton, Torben Dabelsteen & Safi Darden
Cooperation among non-kin constitutes a conundrum for evolutionary biology. Theory suggests that non-kin cooperation can evolve if individuals differ consistently in their cooperative phenotypes and assort socially by these, such that cooperative individuals interact predominantly with one another. However, our knowledge of the role of cooperative phenotypes in the social structuring of real-world animal populations is minimal. In this study, we investigated cooperative phenotypes and their link to social structure in wild Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia...

Data from: SNP discovery in European lobster (Homarus gammarus) using RAD sequencing

Tom L. Jenkins, Charlie D. Ellis & Jamie R. Stevens
The European lobster (Homarus gammarus) is a decapod crustacean with a high market value and therefore their fisheries are of major importance to the economies they support. However, over-exploitation has led to profound stock declines in some regions such as Scandinavia and the Mediterranean. To manage this resource sustainably, knowledge of population structure and connectivity is crucial to inform management about dispersal, recruitment, stock identification and food traceability. We used restriction-site associated DNA sequencing to...

Data from: Intralocus sexual conflict can resolve the male-female health-survival paradox

C. Ruth Archer, Mario Recker, Eoin Duffy & David J. Hosken
At any given age, men are more likely to die than women, but women have poorer health at older ages. This is referred to as the “male-female, health-survival paradox”, which is not fully understood. Here, we provide a general solution to the paradox that relies on intralocus sexual conflict, where alleles segregating in the population have late-acting positive effects on male fitness, but negative effects on female health. Using an evolutionary modelling framework we show...

Data from: Hydrological niche segregation defines forest structure and drought tolerance strategies in a seasonal Amazon forest

Mauro Brum, Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur, Valeriy Ivanov, Heidi Asbjornsen, Scott Saleska, Luciana F. Alves, Deliane Penha, Jadson D. Dias, Luiz E.O.C. Aragão, Fernanda Barros, Paulo Bittencourt, Luciano Pereira & Rafael S. Oliveira
1) Understanding if and how trees coordinate rooting depth and aboveground hydraulic traits to define drought-resistance strategies in seasonal Amazon forests is a major gap to model parametrization aimed at predicting the effects of climate change in these ecosystems. 2) We assessed the rooting depth of 12 dominant tree species (representing ~ 42% of the forest basal area) in a seasonal Amazon forest, using the stable isotope ratios (δ18O and δ²H) of water collected from...

Data from: Effects of an early-life paraquat exposure on adult resistance to oxidative stress, plumage colour and sperm performance in a wild bird

Sylvain Losdat, Jonathan D. Blount, Viviana Marri, Lea Maronde, Heinz Richner & Fabrice Helfenstein
1. Early-life stressful conditions can shape individual phenotypes and ultimately influence fitness. Oxidative stress is a pervasive threat that affects many fitness-related traits and can modulate life-history trade-offs. Yet, the extent to which exposure to oxidative stress during early life can have long-lasting effects on key fitness-related traits remains to be elucidated, particularly in natural populations of vertebrates. 2. Using a wild population of great tits Parus major, we experimentally dosed 11 day-old birds with...

Data from: Discovery of a multi-species shark aggregation and parturition area in the Ba Estuary, Fiji Islands

Tom Vierus, Stefan Gehrig, Juerg M. Brunnschweiler, Kerstin Glaus, Martin Zimmer, Amandine D. Marie & Ciro Rico
Population declines in shark species have been reported on local and global scales, with overfishing, habitat destruction and climate change posing severe threats. The lack of species-specific baseline data on ecology and distribution of many sharks, however, makes conservation measures challenging. Here we present a fisheries-independent shark survey from the Fiji Islands, where scientific knowledge on locally occurring elasmobranchs is largely still lacking despite the location’s role as a shark hotspot in the Pacific. Juvenile...

Data from: Matching habitat choice promotes species persistence under climate change

Félix Pellerin, Julien Cote, Elvire Bestion & Robin Aguilee
Species may survive under contemporary climate change by either shifting their range or adapting locally to the warmer conditions. Theoretical and empirical studies recently underlined that dispersal, the central mechanism behind these responses, may depend on the match between an individuals’ phenotype and local environment. Such matching habitat choice is expected to induce an adaptive gene flow, but it now remains to be studied whether this local process could promote species’ responses to climate change....

Data from: Small-scale spatial variation in infection risk shapes the evolution of a Borrelia resistance gene in wild rodents

Luca Cornetti, Daniela Hilfiker, Mélissa Lemoine & Barbara Tschirren
Spatial variation in pathogen-mediated selection is predicted to influence the evolutionary trajectory of host populations and lead to spatial variation in their immunogenetic composition. However, to date few studies have been able to directly link small-scale spatial variation in infection risk to host immune gene evolution in natural, non-human populations. Here we use a natural rodent-Borrelia system to test for associations between landscape-level spatial variation in Borrelia infection risk along replicated elevational gradients in the...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    77

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    77

Affiliations

  • University of Exeter
    77
  • Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
    7
  • Lund University
    4
  • University of Copenhagen
    4
  • University of Oxford
    4
  • University of Bath
    3
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    3
  • University of Bern
    3
  • Bangor University
    2
  • University of Sussex
    2