111 Works

Data from: Reproductive conflicts in polyandrous and polygynous ant Formica sanguinea

Kukka Haapaniemi & Pekka Pamilo
The occurrence of multiple reproductives within an ant colony changes the balance between indirect fitness benefits and reproductive competition. We test whether the number of matings by an ant queen (polyandry) correlates negatively with the number of reproductive queens in the colony (polygyny), whether the patrilines and matrilines differ in their contribution to the sexual and worker progeny and whether there is an overall reproductive skew. For these aims, we genotyped both worker and sexual...

Data from: Climatic adaptation and ecological divergence between two closely related pine species in Southeast China

Yongfeng Zhou, Lirui Zhang, Jianquan Liu, Guili Wu & Outi Savolainen
Climatic selection contributes greatly to local adaptation and intraspecific differentiation, but this kind of selection could have also promoted interspecific divergence through ecological speciation. In this study, we examined genetic variation within and between two closely related pine species, Pinus massoniana and Pinus hwangshanensis. These two species occur in Southeast China and exhibit contrasting ecological preferences, although hybrids are formed where their distributions overlap. We sampled 26 populations of the two species across their distributional...

Data from: Erosion of beta diversity under interacting global change impacts in a semiarid grassland

Anu Eskelinen & Susan Harrison
1. Human impacts are often thought of as homogenizing natural communities, but it is unclear how these impacts interact to alter the beta diversity (spatial variability) of plant communities. 2. In a grassland with high beta diversity along a soil fertility gradient, we asked which combinations of nutrient enrichment, precipitation enhancement, and disturbance would homogenize communities along the gradient by allowing dominant species from one part of the gradient to increase their abundances in other...

Data from: Climatic effects on planning behavior

Yong Liu, Vassilis Kostakos & Hongxiu Li
What mechanism links climate change and social change? Palaeoanthropological analysis of human remains suggests that abrupt climate change is linked to societal restructuring, but it has been challenging to reliably identify the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship. Here we identify one potential mechanism that can link climate to behavior change, and underpins many of the reported findings on social restructuring. Specifically, we show that daily weather is linked to human planning behavior, and this effect...

Data from: Habitat connectivity and in-stream vegetation control temporal variability of benthic invertebrate communities

Kaisa-Leena Huttunen, Heikki Mykrä, Jari Oksanen, Anna Astorga, Riku Paavola & Timo Muotka
One of the key challenges to understanding patterns of β diversity is to disentangle deterministic patterns from stochastic ones. Stochastic processes may mask the influence of deterministic factors on community dynamics, hindering identification of the mechanisms causing variation in community composition. We studied temporal β diversity (among-year dissimilarity) of macroinvertebrate communities in near-pristine boreal streams across 14 years. To assess whether the observed β diversity deviates from that expected by chance, and to identify processes...

Data from: Role of seed germination in adaptation and reproductive isolation in Arabidopsis lyrata

Tuomas Hämälä, Tiina M. Mattila, Päivi H. Leinonen, Helmi Kuittinen & Outi Savolainen
Seed germination is an important developmental and life history stage. Yet, the evolutionary impact of germination has mainly been studied in the context of dormancy, or for its role in reproductive isolation between species. Here, we aim to examine multiple consequences of genetic divergence on germination traits between two Arabidopsis lyrata subspecies: ssp. petraea (Eurasia) and ssp. lyrata (North-America). Post-dormancy germination time, a potentially adaptive trait, showed differentiation between the populations, and quantitative trait loci...

Data from: Genomic signatures of parasite-driven natural selection in north European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Ksenia J. Zueva, Jaakko Lumme, Alexei E Veselov, Matthew P. Kent & Craig R. Primmer
Understanding the genomic basis of host-parasite adaptation is important for predicting the long-term viability of species and developing successful management practices. However, in wild populations, identifying specific signatures of parasite-driven selection often presents a challenge, as it is difficult to unravel the molecular signatures of selection driven by different, but correlated, environmental factors. Furthermore, separating parasite-mediated selection from similar signatures due to genetic drift and population history can also be difficult. Populations of Atlantic salmon...

Leave me alone: solitary females attract more mates in a nocturnal insect

Topi Lehtonen & Arja Kaitala
Spatial distributions of sexual competitors and potential mating partners have a large impact on sexual selection and mating systems. Typically, such effects are investigated with regard to male aggregations. However, females may also need to compete for mating opportunities. Here, we investigated consequences of clustering and rival attractiveness on female mate attraction success under field conditions in a nocturnal beetle, the common glow-worm, Lampyrus noctiluca. We placed dummy females of two glow intensity (attractiveness) levels...

Rapid colour shift by reproductive character displacement in Cupido butterflies

Joan Carles Hinojosa, Darina Koubínová, Vlad Dincă, Juan Hernández-Roldán, Miguel L. Munguira, Enrique García-Barros, Marta Vila, Nadir Alvarez, Marko Mutanen & Roger Vila
Reproductive character displacement occurs when competition for successful breeding imposes a divergent selection on the interacting species, causing a divergence of reproductive traits. Here, we show that a disputed butterfly taxon is actually a case of male wing colour shift, apparently produced by reproductive character displacement. Using double digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing and mitochondrial DNA sequencing we studied four butterfly taxa of the subgenus Cupido (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): Cupido minimus and the taxon carswelli, both...

The roles of temperature, nest predators and information parasites for geographical variation in egg covering behaviour of tits (Paridae)

Olli Loukola, Peter Adamik, Frank Adriaensen, Emilio Barba, Blandine Doligez, Einar Flensted-Jensen, Tapio Eeva, Sami Kivelä, Toni Laaksonen, Chiara Morosinotto, Raivo Mänd, Petri Niemelä, Vladimir Remeš, Jelmer Samplonius, Manrico Sebastiano, Juan Carlos Senar, Tore Slagsvold, Alberto Sorace, Barbara Tschirren, János Török & Jukka Forsman
Aim: Nest building is widespread among animals. Nests may provide receptacles for eggs, developing offspring and the parents, and protect them from adverse environmental conditions. Nests may also indicate the quality of the territory and its owner and can be considered as an extended phenotype of its builder(s). Nests may, thus, function as a sexual and social signal. Here, we examined ecological and abiotic factors—temperature, nest predation and interspecific information utilization—shaping geographical variation in a...

Current climate overrides historical effects on species richness and range size of freshwater plants in Europe and North America

Janne Alahuhta, Harri Antikainen, Jan Hjort, Aveliina Helm & Jani Heino
1. The latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) hypothesis suggests that species richness should be highest at low latitudes, whereas Rapoport’s rule states that largest ranges ought to be found for species at high latitudes. However, there is no consensus over these patterns and their underlying drivers in the freshwater realm. 2. We investigated species richness and mean range size of freshwater plants in 50 km × 50 km grid cells across Europe (40°N to 71°N) and...

Data from: Quantitative genetics of the use of conspecific and heterospecific social cues for breeding site choice

Jere Tolvanen, Sami Mikael Kivelä, Blandine Doligez, Jennifer Morinay, Lars Gustafsson, Piter Bijma, Veli-Matti Pakanen & Jukka T. Forsman
Social information use for decision-making is common and affects ecological and evolutionary processes, including social aggregation, species coexistence and cultural evolution. Despite increasing ecological knowledge on social information use, very little is known about its genetic basis and therefore its evolutionary potential. Genetic variation in a trait affecting an individual's social and non-social environment may have important implications for population dynamics, interspecific interactions and for expression of other, environmentally plastic traits. We estimated repeatability, additive...

Comparative analysis of larval growth in Lepidoptera reveals instar-level constraints

Sami Kivelä, Robert Davis, Toomas Esperk, Karl Gotthard, Marko Mutanen, Daniel Valdma & Toomas Tammaru
1. Juvenile growth trajectories evolve via the interplay of selective pressures on age and size at maturity, and developmental constraints. In insects, the moulting cycle is a major constraint on larval growth trajectories. 2. Surface area to volume ratio of a larva decreases during growth, so renewal of certain surfaces by moulting is likely needed for the maintenance of physiological efficiency. A null hypothesis of isometry, implied by Dyar’s Rule, would mean that the relative...

Information collected during the post-breeding season guides future breeding decisions in a migratory bird

Jere Tolvanen, Chiara Morosinotto, Jukka Forsman & Robert Thomson
Breeding habitat choice and investment decisions are key contributors to fitness in animals. Density of individuals is a well-known cue of habitat quality used for future breeding decisions, but accuracy of density cues decreases as individuals disperse from breeding sites. Used nests remain an available information source also after breeding season, but whether such information is used for breeding decisions is less well known. We experimentally investigated whether migratory, cavity-nesting pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) prospect...

Data from \"Removal of grazers alters the response of tundra soil carbon to warming and enhanced nitrogen availability\", Ecological Monograps in October 2019

Henni Ylänne, Elina Kaarlejärvi, Maria Väisänen, Minna K Männistö, Saija H. K. Ahonen, Johan Olofsson & Sari Stark
Here we present the data used in the manuscript "Removal of grazers alters the response of tundra soil carbon to warming and enhanced nitrogen availability", Ecological Monograps, Early view in October 2019 by H. Ylänne, E. Kaarlejärvi, M. Väisänen, M. K. Männistö, S. H. K. Ahonen, J. Olofsson & S. Stark. In this paper we studied, how five years of experimental warming and increased soil nitrogen availability interact with both long- and short-term differences in...

Linking biotic homogenisation with large-scale changes of species' associations

Stanislas Rigal, Vincent Devictor, Pierre Gaüzère, Sonia Kéfi, Jukka Forsman, Mira Kajanus, Mikko Mönkkönen & Vasilis Dakos
This is the dataset used for the manuscript Linking biotic homogenisation with large-scalechanges of species' associations Aim: The impact of global change on biodiversity is commonly assessed in terms of changes in species distributions, community richness and community composition. Whether and how much associations between species, i.e. the degree of correlation in their spatial co-occurrence, are also changing is much less documented and mostly limited to local studies of ecological networks. Here, we propose to...

Data from: Latitudinal clines in the timing and temperature-sensitivity of photoperiodic reproductive diapause in Drosophila montana

Venera Tyukmaeva, Pekka Lankinen, Johanna Kinnunen, Hannele Kauranen & Anneli Hoikkala
Reproductive diapause is a primary mechanism used by arthropods to synchronize their life cycle with seasonal changes in temperate regions. Our study species, Drosophila montana, represents the northern insect species where flies enter reproductive diapause under short day conditions and where the precise timing of diapause is crucial for both survival and offspring production. We have studied clinal variation in the critical day length for female diapause induction (CDL) and their overall susceptibility to enter...

Survival probability in a small shorebird decreases with the time an individual carries a tracking device

Veli-Matti Pakanen, Nelli Rönkä, Robert L Thomson, Donald Blomqvist & Kari Koivula
Effects of tracking devices on survival are generally considered to be small. However, most studies to date have been conducted over a time-period of only one year, neglecting the possible accumulation of negative effects and consequently stronger negative impacts on survival when the individuals have carried the tracking devices for longer periods. We studied the effects of geolocators in a closely monitored and colour-ringed southern dunlin (Calidris alpina schinzii) population breeding in Finland. Our capture-recapture...

Data from: Translocation of an arctic seashore plant reveals signs of maladaptation to altered climatic conditions

Maria Hällfors, Susanna Lehvävirta, Tone Aandahl, Iida-Maria Lehtimäki, Lars Ola Nilsson, Anna-Liisa Ruotsalainen, Leif Schulman & Marko Hyvärinen
Ongoing anthropogenic climate change alters the local climatic conditions to which species may be adapted. Information on species’ climatic requirements and their intraspecific variation is necessary for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. We used a climatic gradient to test whether populations of two allopatric varieties of an arctic seashore herb (Primula nutans ssp. finmarchica) show adaptation to their local climates and how a future warmer climate may affect them. Our experimental set-up...

Dynamic effects of insect herbivory and climate on tundra shrub growth: roles of browsing and ramet age

Adam Clark, Risto Virtanen, Michael Den Herder & Heikki Roininen
1. To predict shrub responses under climate change in tundra, we need to understand how thermal conditions and herbivory contribute to growth. We hypothesise that shrub growth increases with thermal conditions and precipitation, but that this increase is counteracted by insect herbivory, and that these climate-insect herbivory relationships are modified by both browsing and plant age. 2. We use empirical dynamic modelling (EDM) to analyse a 20-year time series on willow (Salix phylicifolia) shoot growth,...

Data from: Genome-wide evidence reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals are distinct species

Klaus-Peter Koepfli, John Pollinger, Raquel Godinho, Jacqueline Robinson, Amanda Lea, Sarah Hendricks, Rena M. Schweizer, Olaf Thalmann, Pedro Silva, Zhenxin Fan, Andrey A. Yurchenko, Pavel Dobrynin, Alexey Makunin, James A. Cahill, Beth Shapiro, Francisco Álvares, José C. Brito, Eli Geffen, Jennifer A. Leonard, Kristofer M. Helgen, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Blaire Van Valkenburgh & Robert K. Wayne
The golden jackal of Africa (Canis aureus) has long been considered a conspecific of jackals distributed throughout Eurasia, with the nearest source populations in the Middle East. However, two recent reports found that mitochondrial haplotypes of some African golden jackals aligned more closely to gray wolves (Canis lupus), which is surprising given the absence of gray wolves in Africa and the phenotypic divergence between the two species. Moreover, these results imply the existence of a...

Data from: Larval melanism in a geometrid moth: promoted neither by a thermal nor seasonal adaptation but desiccating environments

Panu Välimäki, Sami M. Kivelä, Jani Raitanen, Veli-Matti Pakanen, Emma Vatka, Maarit I. Mäenpää, Netta Keret & Toomas Tammaru
1. Spatio-temporal variation in the degree of melanism is often considered in the context of thermal adaptation, melanism being advantageous under suboptimal thermal conditions. Yet, other mutually non-exclusive explanations exist. Analysis of geographical patterns combined with laboratory experiments on the mechanisms of morph induction helps to unveil the adaptive value of particular cases of polyphenism. 2. In the context of the thermal melanism hypothesis and seasonal adaptations, we explored an array of environmental factors that...

Data from: A rapid and cost-effective quantitative microsatellite genotyping protocol to estimate intraspecific competition in protist microcosm experiments

Ewan J. A. Minter, Chris D. Lowe, Michael A. Brockhurst & Phillip C. Watts
High levels of intra-specific variation are commonly observed in natural microbial populations, yet the consequences of this variation for ecological and evolutionary processes remains poorly understood. Protists are excellent experimental models for investigating fundamental and applied questions in ecology and evolution, but studying intra-specific variation remains a challenge due to a lack of molecular resources to aid in quantifying and distinguishing strains during experiments. Here we present a molecular method, quantitative microsatellite genotyping, to accurately...

Data from: I’m sexy and I glow it: female ornamentation in a nocturnal capital breeder

Juhani Hopkins, Gautier Baudry, Ulrika Candolin & Arja Kaitala
In many species, males rely on sexual ornaments to attract females. Females, by contrast, rarely produce ornaments. The glow-worm (Lampyris noctiluca) is an exception where wingless females glow to attract males that fly in search of females. However, little is known about the factors that promote the evolution of female ornaments in a sexual selection context. Here, we investigated if the female ornament of the glow-worm is a signal of fecundity used in male mate...

Data from: Extrapolating multi-decadal plant community changes based on medium-term experiments can be risky: evidence from high-latitude tundra

Patrick Saccone & Risto Virtanen
For most experimental studies the short-term responses to manipulation often differ from the long-term changes in the community composition, dynamics or functioning. Such discrepancy limits the translation of experimental results into key ecological topics such as global environmental change. Here we analyzed plant community dynamics from a 23-year transplant experiment in the Fennoscandian mountain tundra and explored how well the pattern of responses over the first 12 years of the experiment can predict longer-term changes....

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