111 Works

Data from: Drivers of vegetative dormancy across herbaceous perennial plant species

Richard P. Shefferson, Tiiu Kull, Michael J. Hutchings, Marc-André Selosse, Hans Jacquemyn, Kimberly M. Kellett, Eric S. Menges, Richard B. Primack, Juha Tuomi, Kirsi Alahuhta, Sonja Hurskainen, Helen M. Alexander, Derek S. Anderson, Rein Brys, Emilia Brzosko, Slavomir Dostálik, Katharine Gregg, Zdeněk Ipser, Anne Jäkäläniemi, Jana Jersáková, W. Dean Kettle, Melissa K. McCormick, Ana Mendoza, Michael T. Miller, Asbjørn Moen … & Dennis F. Whigham
Vegetative dormancy, that is the temporary absence of aboveground growth for ≥ 1 year, is paradoxical, because plants cannot photosynthesise or flower during dormant periods. We test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses for its widespread persistence. We show that dormancy has evolved numerous times. Most species displaying dormancy exhibit life‐history costs of sprouting, and of dormancy. Short‐lived and mycoheterotrophic species have higher proportions of dormant plants than long‐lived species and species with other nutritional modes. Foliage...

Data from: Encroachment of shrubs into subalpine grasslands in the Pyrenees modifies the structure of soil fungal communities and soil properties.

Oriol Grau, Karita Saravesi, Josep M. Ninot, József Geml, Annamari Markkola, Saija H.K. Ahonen & Josep Peñuelas
The encroachment of shrubs into grasslands is common in terrestrial ecosystems dominated by grass. Land abandonment and favourable climatic trends in recent decades have favoured the expansion of shrubs into subalpine grasslands in many mountainous regions across Europe. The advance of the succession from grassland to shrubland is expected to have a major impact on ecosystem functioning. We used DNA metabarcoding to assess whether the structure of soil fungal communities varied along the succession from...

Data from: Differential responses by stream and riparian biodiversity to in-stream restoration of forestry-impacted streams

Jarno Turunen, Jukka Aroviita, Hannu Marttila, Pauliina Louhi, Tiina Laamanen, Mikko Tolkkinen, Pirkko-Liisa Luhta, Bjørn Kløve & Timo Muotka
1. Forestry can have detrimental impacts on stream ecosystems, particularly via excessive sedimentation. A key challenge to stream management is therefore to identify the best restoration practices to mitigate the harmful impacts of fine sediments on stream biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. 2. We studied the effects of restoration of sediment-impacted headwater streams on the habitat structure, hydrologic retention, biodiversity (microbes, bryophytes, benthic macroinvertebrates, riparian plants) and ecosystem functions (periphyton accrual rate and leaf breakdown) by...

Data from: Local adaptation and ecological differentiation under selection, migration and drift in Arabidopsis lyrata

Tuomas Hämälä, Tiina Marja Mattila & Outi Savolainen
How the balance between selection, migration and drift influences the evolution of local adaptation has been under intense theoretical scrutiny. Yet, empirical studies that relate estimates of local adaptation to quantification of gene flow and effective population sizes have been rare. Here, we conducted a reciprocal transplant trial, a common garden trial, and a whole-genome based demography analysis to examine these effects among Arabidopsis lyrata populations from two altitudinal gradients in Norway. Demography simulations indicated...

Data from: Climate-driven hydrological variability determines inter-annual changes in stream invertebrate community assembly

Romain Sarremejane, Heikki Mykra, Kaisa-Leena Huttunen, Kaisa-Riikka Mustonen, Hannu Marttila, Riku Paavola, Kalle Sippel, Noora Veijalainen & Timo Muotka
Although flow regime is one of the major drivers of riverine communities, not much is known about how inter-annual variability and extremes of flow influence community assembly mechanisms. We used data on benthic macroinvertebrates and modelled flow regimes in 23 near-pristine boreal streams to assess how community assembly mechanisms and species occupancy varied in response to inter-annual variability in flow conditions across 11 successive years encompassing extreme (both low and high) flow events. A null...

Data from: Gene flow in the European coal tit, Periparus ater (Aves: Passeriformes): low among Mediterranean populations but high in a continental contact zone

Christian Tritsch, Heiko Stuckas, Jochen Martens, Stefan Pentzold, Laura Kvist, Mario Lo Valvo, Gabriele Giacalone, Dieter Thomas Tietze, Alexander A. Nazarenko & Martin PÄckert
Extant phylogeographic patterns of Palearctic terrestrial vertebrates are generally believed to have originated from glacial range fragmentation. Post-Pleistocene range expansions have led to the formation of secondary contact zones among genetically distinct taxa. For coal tits (Periparus ater), such a contact zone has been localized in Germany. In this study, we quantified gene flow between Fennoscandian and southern European coal tits using a set of 13 microsatellite loci. STRUCTURE analysis revealed four genetic clusters two...

Data from: Genetic substructure and admixture as important factors in linkage disequilibrium-based estimation of effective number of breeders in recovering wildlife populations

Alexander Kopatz, Hans Geir Eiken, Julia Schregel, Jouni Aspi, Ilpo Kojola & Snorre B. Hagen
The number of effective breeders (Nb) and effective population size (Ne) are population parameters reflective of evolutionary potential, susceptibility to stochasticity, and viability. We have estimated these parameters using the linkage disequilibrium-based approach with LDNE through the latest phase of population recovery of the brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Finland (1993–2010; N = 621). This phase of the recovery was recently documented to be associated with major changes in genetic composition. In particular, differentiation between...

Data from: Inferences of genetic architecture of bill morphology in house sparrow using a high‐density SNP array point to a polygenic basis

Sarah L. Lundregan, Ingerid J. Hagen, Jostein Gohli, Alina K. Niskanen, Petri Kemppainen, Thor Harald Ringsby, Thomas Kvalnes, Henrik Pärn, Bernt Rønning, Håkon Holand, Peter S. Ranke, Anna S. Båtnes, Linn-Karina Selvik, Sigbjorn Lien, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Arild Husby, Henrik Jensen & Bernt-Erik Saether
Understanding the genetic architecture of quantitative traits can provide insights into the mechanisms driving phenotypic evolution. Bill morphology is an ecologically important and phenotypically variable trait, which is highly heritable and closely linked to individual fitness. Thus, bill morphology traits are suitable candidates for gene mapping analyses. Previous studies have revealed several genes that may influence bill morphology, but the similarity of gene and allele effects between species and populations is unknown. Here, we develop...

Data from: Resistance to gapeworm parasite has both additive and dominant genetic components in house sparrows, with evolutionary consequences for ability to respond to parasite challenge

Sarah Lundregan, Alina Niskanen, Stefanie Muff, Håkon Holand, Thomas Kvalnes, Thor-Harald Ringsby, Arild Husby & Henrik Jensen
Host parasite relationships are likely to change over the coming decades in response to climate change and increased anthropogenic stressors. Understanding the genetic architecture of parasite resistance will aid prediction of species’ responses to intensified parasite challenge. The gapeworm “Syngamus trachea” is prevalent in natural bird populations and causes symptomatic infections ranging from mild to severe. The parasite may affect ecological processes by curtailing bird populations and is important due to its propensity to spread...

Data from: Northward expanding resident species benefit from warming winters through increased foraging rates and predator vigilance

Veli-Matti Pakanen, Eveliina Ahonen, Esa Hohtola & Seppo Rytkönen
Species distributions shift northwards due to climate change, but the ecological mechanisms allowing range expansions are not fully understood. Most studies have concentrated on breeding seasons, but winter warming may also be important. Wintering distributions are restricted by food availability and temperature, which may also interact. Foraging in cold conditions requires adaptations as individuals have to be efficient in foraging, while staying warm and vigilant for predators. When the ambient temperature declines, foraging rates should...

Screening and microsatellite data for Varroa infesting resistant honey bee pupae

Benjamin Conlon, Chedly Kastally, Marina Kardell, John Kefuss, Robin Moritz & Jarkko Routtu
We investigated how the evolution of host resistance could affect the infesting population of Varroa mites. We screened a Varroa-resistant honey bee population near Toulouse, France, for a Varroa resistance trait: the inhibition of Varroa's reproduction in drone pupae. We then genotyped Varroa which had co-infested a cell using microsatellites. Across all resistant honey bee colonies, Varroa's reproductive success was significantly higher in co-infested cells but the distribution of Varroa between singly and multiply infested...

Limited dispersal and an unexpected aggression pattern in a native supercolonial ant

Sanja Hakala, Mats Ittonen, Perttu Seppä & Heikki Helanterä
Understanding how social groups function requires studies on how individuals move across the landscape and interact with each other. Ant supercolonies are extreme cooperative units that may consist of thousands of interconnected nests, and their individuals cooperate over large spatial scales. However, the inner structure of suggested supercolonial (or unicolonial) societies has rarely been extensively studied using both genetic and behavioral analyses. We describe a dense supercolony-like aggregation of more than 1300 nests of the...

Blue consequences of the green bioeconomy: clear-cutting intensifies the harmful impacts of land drainage on stream invertebrate biodiversity

Maria Rajakallio, Jussi Jyväsjärvi, Timo Muotka & Jukka Aroviita
1. Growing bioeconomy is increasing the pressure to clear-cut drained peatland forests. Yet, the cumulative effects of peatland drainage and clear-cutting on the biodiversity of recipient freshwater ecosystems are largely unknown. 2. We studied the isolated and combined effects of peatland drainage and clear-cutting on stream macroinvertebrate communities. We further explored whether the impact of these forestry-driven catchment alterations to benthic invertebrates is related to stream size. We quantified the impact on invertebrate biodiversity by...

Microsatellite data of Southern Dunlin breeding across the Baltic

Veli-Matti Pakanen, Nelli Rönkä, Angela Pauliny, Robert Leslie Thomson, Kimmo Nuotio, Hannes Pehlak, Ole Thorup, Petteri Lehikoinen, Antti Rönkä, Donald Blomqvist, Kari Koivula & Laura Kvist
The stored data were used in a study by Rönkä et al. (2021). See full citation in Usage notes. Here is the abstract of Rönkä et al. (2021). Background: Populations living in fragmented habitats may suffer from loss of genetic variation and reduced between-patch dispersal, which are processes that can result in genetic differentiation. This occurs frequently in species with reduced mobility, whereas genetic differentiation is less common among mobile species such as migratory birds....

Data from: Complex genetic effects on early vegetative development shape resource allocation differences between Arabidopsis lyrata populations

David L. Remington, Päivi H. Leinonen, Johanna Leppälä & Outi Savolainen
Costs of reproduction due to resource allocation trade-offs have long been recognized as key forces in life history evolution, but little is known about their functional or genetic basis. Arabidopsis lyrata, a perennial relative of the annual model plant A. thaliana with a wide climatic distribution, has populations that are strongly diverged in resource allocation. In this study, we evaluated the genetic and functional basis for variation in resource allocation in a reciprocal transplant experiment,...

Data from: Y chromosome haplotype distribution of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Northern Europe provides insight into population history and recovery (Ursus arctos)

Julia Schregel, Hans Geir Eiken, Finn Audun Grøndahl, Frank Hailer, Jouni Aspi, Ilpo Kojola, Konstantin Tirronen, Pjotr Danilov, Alexander Rykov, Eugene Poroshin, Axel Janke, Jon E. Swenson, Snorre B. Hagen & Piotr Danilov
High-resolution, male-inherited Y-chromosomal markers are a useful tool for population genetic analyses of wildlife species, but to date have only been applied in this context to relatively few species besides humans. Using nine Y-chromosomal STR and three Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers (Y-SNPs), we studied whether male gene flow was important for the recent recovery of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in Northern Europe, where the species declined dramatically in numbers and geographic distribution during...

Data from: Avian top predator and the landscape of fear: responses of mammalian mesopredators to risk imposed by the golden eagle

Mari S. Lyly, Alexandre Villers, Elina Koivisto, Pekka Helle, Tuomo Ollila & Erkki Korpimäki
Top predators may induce extensive cascading effects on lower trophic levels, for example, through intraguild predation (IGP). The impacts of both mammalian and avian top predators on species of the same class have been extensively studied, but the effects of the latter upon mammalian mesopredators are not yet as well known. We examined the impact of the predation risk imposed by a large avian predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, L.), on its potential mammalian...

Data from: Natural and anthropogenic influences on the population structure of white-tailed eagles in the Carpathian Basin and Central Europe

Edina Nemesházi, Szilvia Kövér, Frank E. Zachos, Zoltán Horváth, Gábor Tihanyi, Attila Mórocz, Tibor Mikuska, István Hám, Ivan Literák, Suvi Ponnikas, Tadeusz Mizera & Krisztián Szabó
European populations of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) suffered a drastic decline during the 20th century. In many countries, only a few dozen breeding pairs survived or the species disappeared completely. By today, the populations have recovered, naturally or through restocking (e.g. in Scotland or the Czech Republic). In the Carpathian Basin, which is now a stronghold in southern Europe for the species in the southern part of the distribution range with more than 500...

Data from: Combined effects of local habitat, anthropogenic stress, and dispersal on stream ecosystems: a mesocosm experiment

Jarno Turunen, Pauliina Louhi, Heikki Mykrä, Jukka Aroviita, Emmi Putkonen, Ari Huusko & Timo Muotka
The effects of anthropogenic stressors on community structure and ecosystem functioning can be strongly influenced by local habitat structure and dispersal from source communities. Catchment land uses increase the input of fine sediments into stream channels, clogging the interstitial spaces of benthic habitats. Aquatic macrophytes enhance habitat heterogeneity and mediate important ecosystem functions, being thus a key component of habitat structure in many streams. Therefore, the recovery of macrophytes following in-stream habitat modification may be...

Data from: Low dose of neonicotinoid insecticide reduces foraging motivation of bumblebees

Juho Lämsä, Erno Kuusela, Juha Tuomi, Sini Juntunen & Phillip C. Watts
Widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides, such as imidacloprid, is often associated with diminishing populations of bees; this loss of pollinators presents a concern for food security and may cause unpredictable changes in ecological networks. However, little is known about the potential behavioral mechanisms behind the neonicotinoid-associated pollinator decline. We quantified the effects of low dose (1 ppb) imidacloprid exposure on the foraging behaviour of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Individual bumblebees were released into a flight arena...

Data from: Genetic heterogeneity underlying variation in a locally adaptive clinal trait in Pinus sylvestris revealed by a Bayesian multipopulation analysis

Sonja T. Kujala, Timo Knürr, Katri Kärkkäinen, David B. Neale, Mikko J. Sillanpää & Outi Savolainen
Local adaptation is a common feature of plant and animal populations. Adaptive phenotypic traits are genetically differentiated along environmental gradients, but the genetic basis of such adaptation is still poorly known. Genetic association studies of local adaptation combine data over populations. Correcting for population structure in these studies can be problematic since both selection and neutral demographic events can create similar allele frequency differences between populations. Correcting for demography with traditional methods may lead to...

Data from: Proxy comparison in ancient peat sediments: pollen, macrofossil and plant DNA

Laura Parducci, Minna Väliranta, J. Sakari Salonen, Tiina Ronkainen, Irina Matetovici, Sonia L. Fontana, Tiina Eskola, Pertti Sarala & Yoshihisa Suyama
We compared DNA, pollen and macrofossil data obtained from Weichselian interstadial and Holocene (maximum age 8400 cal yr BP) peat sediments from northern Europe and used them to reconstruct contemporary floristic compositions at two sites. The majority of the samples provided plant DNA sequences of good quality with success amplification rates depending on age. DNA and sequencing analysis provided five plant taxa from the older site and nine taxa from the younger site, corresponding to...

Data from: A comparative analysis reveals little evidence for niche conservatism in aquatic macrophytes among four areas on two continents

Janne Alahuhta, Frauke Ecke, Lucinda B. Johnson, Laura Sass & Jani Heino
One of the most intriguing questions in current ecology is the extent to which the ecological niches of species are conserved in space and time. Niche conservatism has mostly been studied using coarse-scale data of species' distributions, although it is at the local habitat scales where species' responses to ecological variables primarily take place. We investigated the extent to which niches of aquatic macrophytes are conserved among four study regions (i.e. Finland, Sweden and the...

Data from: Different ultimate factors define timing of breeding in two related species

Veli-Matti Pakanen, Markku Orell, Emma Vatka, Seppo Rytkönen & Juli Broggi
Correct reproductive timing is crucial for fitness. Breeding phenology even in similar species can differ due to different selective pressures on the timing of reproduction. These selection pressures define species’ responses to warming springs. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis suggests that timing of breeding in animals is selected to match with food availability (synchrony). Alternatively, time-dependent breeding success (the date hypothesis) can result from other seasonally deteriorating ecological conditions such as intra- or interspecific competition or...

Data from: Sediments and flow have mainly independent effects on multitrophic stream communities and ecosystem functions

Kaisa-Riikka Mustonen, Heikki Mykrä, Pauliina Louhi, Annamari Markkola, Mikko Tolkkinen, Ari Huusko, Nico Alioravainen, Sirkku Mäkinen, Timo Muotka & Sirkku Lehtinen
Stream ecosystems are affected by multiple abiotic stressors, and species responses to simultaneous stressors may differ from those predicted based on single-stressor responses. Using 12 semi-natural stream channels, we examined the individual and interactive effects of flow level (low or high flow) and addition of fine sediments (grain size < 2mm) on key ecosystem processes (leaf breakdown, algal biomass accrual) and benthic macroinvertebrate and fungal communities. Both stressors had mostly independent effects on biological responses,...

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