19 Works

Data from: Getting chased up the mountain- high elevation may limit performance and fitness characters in a montane insect

Elizabeth P. Dahlhoff, Victoria C. Dahlhoff, Corinne A. Grainger, Nicolas A. Zavala, Dami Otepola-Bello, Brynn A. Sargent, Kevin T. Roberts, Sarah J. Heidl, John T. Smiley & Nathan E. Rank
1. Climate change is expected to shift species distributions as populations grow in favorable habitats and decline in harsh ones. Montane animals escape warming conditions at low elevation by moving upslope, but may be physiologically constrained by conditions there. Effects of elevation were studied for montane populations of the leaf beetle Chrysomela aeneicollis, where allele frequencies at nuclear genes and the mitochondrion vary along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. 2. A population presence survey conducted along...

Predicting intraspecific trait variation among California’s grasses

Brody Sandel, Claire Pavelka, Thomas Hayashi, Lachlan Charles, Jennifer Funk, Fletcher Halliday, Gaurav Kandlikar, Andrew Kleinhesslink, Nathan Kraft, Loralee Larios, Tesa Madsen-McQueen & Marko Spasojevic
1. Plant species can show considerable morphological and functional variation along environmental gradients. This intraspecific trait variation (ITV) can have important consequences for community assembly, biotic interactions, ecosystem functions and responses to global change. However, directly measuring ITV across many species and wide geographic areas is often infeasible. Thus, a method to predict spatial variation in a species’ functional traits could be valuable. 2. We measured specific leaf area (SLA), height and leaf area (LA)...

Business versus ethics? Thoughts on the future of business ethics

M. Tina Dacin, Jeffrey S. Harrison, David Hess, SHEILA KILLIAN & Julia Roloff
To commemorate 40 years since the founding of the Journal of Business Ethics, the editors in chief of the journal have invited the editors to provide commentaries on the future of business ethics. This essay comprises a selection of commentaries aimed at creating dialogue around the theme Business versus Ethics? (inspired by the title of the commentary by Jefrey Harrison). The authors of these commentaries seek to transcend the age-old separation fallacy (Freeman in Bus...

Data from: Digital photography provides a fast, reliable and non-invasive method to estimate anthocyanin pigment concentration in reproductive and vegetative plant tissues

José Carlos Del Valle, Antonio Gallardo-López, María L. Buide, Justen B. Whittall & Eduardo Narbona
1. Anthocyanin pigments have become a model trait for evolutionary ecology since they often provide adaptive benefits for plants. Anthocyanins have been traditionally quantified biochemically, or more recently using spectral reflectance. However, both methods require destructive sampling and can be labour intensive and challenging with small samples. Recent advances in digital photography and image processing make it the method of choice for measuring colour in the wild. Here, we use digital images as a quick,...

Mitonuclear mismatch alters performance and reproductive success in naturally-introgressed populations of a montane leaf beetle

Nathan Rank, Nathan E Rank, Patrick Mardulyn, Sarah J Heidl, Kevin T Roberts, Nicolas A Zavala, John T Smiley & Elizabeth P Dahlhoff
Coordination between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes is critical to metabolic processes underlying animals' ability to adapt to local environments, yet consequences of mitonuclear interactions have rarely been investigated in populations where individuals with divergent mitochondrial and nuclear genomes naturally interbreed. Genetic variation in the leaf beetle Chrysomela aeneicollis was assessed along a latitudinal thermal gradient in California's Sierra Nevada. Variation at mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and the nuclear gene phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) shows concordance...

Data from: Long-term persistence of wildlife populations in a pastoral area

Christian Kiffner, John Kioko, Jack Baylis, Camille Beckwith, Craig Brunner, Christine Burns, Vasco Chavez-Molina, Sara Cotton, Laura Glazik, Ellen Loftis, Megan Moran, Caitlin O’Neill, Ole Theisinger & Bernard Kissui
Facilitating coexistence between people and wildlife is a major conservation challenge in East Africa. Some conservation models aim to balance the needs of people and wildlife, but the effectiveness of these models is rarely assessed. Using a case-study approach, we assessed the ecological performance of a pastoral area in northern Tanzania (Manyara Ranch) and established a long-term wildlife population monitoring programme (carried out intermittently from 2003-2008 and regularly from 2011-2019) embedded in a distance sampling...

Global intraspecific trait-climate relationships for grasses are linked to a species’ typical form and function

Robert Griffin-Nolan & Brody Sandel
Plant traits are useful for predicting how species may respond to environmental change and/or influence ecosystem properties. Understanding the extent to which traits vary within species and across climatic gradients is particularly important for understanding how species may respond to climate change. We explored whether climate drives spatial patterns of intraspecific trait variation for three traits (specific leaf area (SLA), plant height, and leaf nitrogen content (Nmass)) across 122 grass species (family: Poaceae) with a...

Business Cycles in Small, Open Economies: Evidence from Panel Data Between 1900 and 2013

Wataru Miyamoto & Thuy Lan Nguyen
Using a novel data set for 17 countries dating from 1900 to 2013, we characterize business cycles in both small developed and developing countries in a model with financial frictions and a common shock structure. We estimate the model jointly for these 17 countries using Bayesian methods. We find that financial frictions are an important feature for not only developing countries but also small developed countries. Furthermore, business cycles in both groups of countries are...

Business versus ethics? Thoughts on the future of business ethics

M. Tina Dacin, Jeffrey S. Harrison, David Hess, SHEILA KILLIAN & Julia Roloff
To commemorate 40 years since the founding of the Journal of Business Ethics, the editors in chief of the journal have invited the editors to provide commentaries on the future of business ethics. This essay comprises a selection of commentaries aimed at creating dialogue around the theme Business versus Ethics? (inspired by the title of the commentary by Jefrey Harrison). The authors of these commentaries seek to transcend the age-old separation fallacy (Freeman in Bus...

Leveraging Latinx Adolescents, Photovoice, and Longitudinal Data to Disentangle the Bidirectional Effects of Social Media and Mental Health

Melissa Dupont-Reyes
Briefly, the goal of our research project is to disentangle the bidirectional relationship between social media and adolescent mental health by examining the effect of exposure to social media and its mental health promotion and harmful content on mental health outcomes, and potential mediation of these effects by mental illness stigma and self-perceptions. Moderation by age, gender, race, ethnic origin, socioeconomic status, and other personal, peer, and family factors will be assessed, and by mental...

Should Central Banks Worry About Nonlinearities of their Large-Scale Macroeconomic Models?

Vadym Lepetyuk, Lilia Maliar & Serguei Maliar
How wrong could policymakers be when using linearized solutions to their macroeconomic models instead of nonlinear global solutions? This question became of much practical interest during the Great Recession and the recent zero lower bound crisis. We assess the importance of nonlinearities in a scaled-down version of the Terms of Trade Economic Model (ToTEM), the main projection and policy analysis model of the Bank of Canada. In a meticulously calibrated “baby” ToTEM model with 21...

Snow modulates winter energy use and cold exposure across an elevation gradient in a montane ectotherm

Kevin Roberts, Nathan Rank, Elizabeth Dahlhoff, Jonathon Stillman & Caroline Williams
Snow insulates the soil from air temperature, decreasing winter cold stress and altering energy use for organisms that overwinter in the soil. As climate change alters snowpack and air temperatures, it is critical to account for the role of snow in modulating vulnerability to winter climate change. Along elevational gradients in snowy mountains, snow cover increases but air temperature decreases, and it is unknown how these opposing gradients impact performance and fitness of organisms overwintering...

Data from: Temperature shapes opposing latitudinal gradients of plant taxonomic and phylogenetic β diversity

Ian R. McFadden, Brody Sandel, Constantinos Tsirogiannis, Naia Morueta-Holme, Jens-Christian Svenning, Brian J. Enquist & Nathan J. B. Kraft
Latitudinal and elevational richness gradients have received much attention from ecologists but there is little consensus on underlying causes. One possible proximate cause is increased levels of species turnover, or β diversity, in the tropics compared to temperate regions. Here, we leverage a large botanical dataset to map taxonomic and phylogenetic β diversity, as mean turnover between neighboring 100 × 100 km cells, across the Americas and determine key climatic drivers. We find taxonomic and...

Data from: The emergence and selection of reputation systems that drive cooperative behaviour

Alain Schlaepfer
Reputational concerns are believed to play a crucial role in explaining cooperative behaviour among non-kin humans. Individuals cooperate to avoid a negative social image if being branded as defector reduces pay-offs from future interactions. Similarly, individuals sanction defectors to gain a reputation as punisher, prompting future co-players to cooperate. But reputation can only effectively support cooperation if a sufficient number of individuals condition their strategies on their co-players' reputation, and if a sufficient number of...

Mapping dynamic transitions across neural, behavioral, and social scales in ferrets and humans

Mengsen Zhang
Human behavior and cognitions are fundamentally shaped by a myriad of processes across spatiotemporal scales – from the activities of neurons to the dynamics of social interaction. We will develop a computational framework for multiscale modeling of brain and behavioral dynamics across scales (Aim 1). We will further develop a multimodal recording framework that better capture naturalistic behavior in socially interacting ferrets (Aim 2). This experimental-computational framework will provide much-needed tools to examine multiscale relations...

Data from : Historical legacies and ecological determinants of grass naturalizations worldwide

Anne-Christine Monnet, Maria S. Vorontsova, Rafaël H. A. Govaerts, Jens-Christian Svenning & Brody Sandel
The global distribution of exotic species is the result of abiotic, biotic and dispersal filtering processes that shape the movement and success of species outside their native range. In this study we aim to understand how these filtering processes drive the fluxes of grass species among regions, the factors that influence which species establish outside of their native range, and where they do so. We used national and subnational checklists of native and introduced grass...

Skin Cancer and UV Exposure-Related Behaviors Among Appalachian and Non-Appalachian Adults

Minal Patel, Katrina Serrano, Elise Rice, Chan Thai, Kelly Blake & Robin C. Vanderpool
Introduction: Appalachian communities experience elevated rates of cancer incidence and mortality relative to other regions in the U.S. Specifically, melanoma mortality rates are higher in Appalachia compared to the national average, despite comparable incidence rates. Purpose: To examine differences in self-reported history of skin cancer and prevalence of two UV exposure behaviors between Appalachian and non-Appalachian adults in a nationally representative sample. Methods: Data are from four cross-sectional cycles of the Health Information National Trends...

Enacting the Glastonbury Pilgrimage through Communitas and Aural/Visual Culture

Kathryn. R. Barush
The sacred sites of Glastonbury in Somerset, England have long been places of pilgrimage, connected to the legend of the journey of Joseph of Arimathea to the British Isles, and have fired the imagination from the Middle Ages to today - inspiring the Arthurian legends, folk-stories and song, and visual representations. In response to the question ‘What is Pilgrimage,’ this essay seeks to explore the conjunction of artistic representations and geographic journeys to and among...

Government Spending Multipliers Under the Zero Lower Bound: Evidence from Japan

Wataru Miyamoto, Thuy Lan Nguyen & Dmitriy Sergeyev
Using a rich data set on government spending forecasts in Japan, we provide new evidence on the effects of unexpected changes in government spending when the nominal interest rate is near the zero lower bound (ZLB). The on-impact output multiplier is 1.5 in the ZLB period, and 0.6 outside of it. We estimate that government spending shocks increase both private consumption and investment during the ZLB period but crowd them out in the normal period....

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  • Santa Clara University
  • Sonoma State University
  • Bank of Canada
  • University of Limerick
  • Aarhus University
  • University of Nevada Reno
  • University of California Los Angeles
  • National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
  • Stanford University