Data from: Ecological drivers of jellyfish blooms – the complex life history of a 'well-known' medusa (Aurelia aurita)Josephine Goldstein & Ulrich Steiner
Jellyfish blooms are conspicuous demographic events with significant ecological and socio-economic impact. Despite worldwide concern about an increased frequency and intensity of such mass occurrences, predicting their booms and busts remains challenging. Forecasting how jellyfish populations may respond to environmental change requires considering their complex life histories. Metagenic life cycles, which include a benthic polyp stage, can boost jellyfish mass occurrences via asexual recruitment of pelagic medusae. Here we present stage-structured matrix population models with...
Biodiversity loss is a major challenge. Over the past century, the average rate of vertebrate extinction has been about 100-fold higher than the estimated background rate and population declines continue to increase globally. Birth and death rates determine the pace of population increase or decline, thus driving the expansion or extinction of a species. Design of species conservation policies hence depends on demographic data (e.g., for extinction risk assessments or estimation of harvesting quotas). However,...
Across vertebrates, progressive changes in vocal behavior during postnatal development are typically attributed solely to developing neural circuits. How the changing body influences vocal development remains unknown. Here we show that state changes in the contact vocalizations of infant marmoset monkeys, which transition from noisy, low frequency cries to tonal, higher pitched vocalizations in adults, are caused partially by laryngeal development. Combining analyses of natural vocalizations, motorized excised larynx experiments, tensile material tests and high-speed...
1. Aging is ubiquitous to all organisms, but aging does not always mean senescence. Counter to most evolutionary theories of aging, patterns of mortality and reproduction may remain unchanged or improve with age, as well as deteriorate. Describing this diversity presents a challenge to eco-evolutionary demography. The pace-shape framework of mortality tackled this challenge to qualify and quantify orthogonal components of aging patterns in mortality. Here we extend this framework to fertility. 2. Analogous to...
Data from: Variation of carbon contents in eelgrass (Zostera marina) sediments implied from depth profilesTheodor Kindeberg, Emilia Röhr, Per-Olav Moksnes, Christoffer Boström & Marianne Holmer
Seagrass meadows are able to store significant amounts of organic carbon in their underlying sediment but global estimates are uncertain partly due to spatiotemporal heterogeneity between areas and species. In order to provide robust estimates, there is a need to better understand the fate of, and mechanisms behind, organic carbon storage. In this observational study, we analyse a suite of biotic and abiotic parameters in sediment cores from 47 different eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds spanning...
Organisms are faced with variable environments and one of the most common solutions to cope with such variability is phenotypic plasticity, a modification of the phenotype to the environment. These modifications are commonly modelled in evolutionary theories as adaptive, influencing ecological and evolutionary processes. If plasticity is adaptive, we would predict that the closer to fitness a trait is, the less plastic it would be. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a meta-analysis of 213...
Differential expression of olfactory genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during the parr-smolt transformationSteffen Søndergaard Madsen, Sara Winther, Rebecca Bollinger, Ulrich Steiner & Martin Larsen
The anadromous salmon life-cycle includes two migratory events, downstream smolt migration and adult homing migration, during which they must navigate with high precision. During homing migration, olfactory cues are used for navigation in coastal and freshwater areas, and studies have suggested that the parr-smolt transformation has a sensitive period for imprinting. Accordingly, we hypothesized that there would be significant changes in gene expression in the olfactory epithelium specifically related to smoltification and sampled olfactory rosettes...
Data from: Accelerated redevelopment of vocal skills is preceded by lasting reorganization of the song motor circuitryMichiel Vellema, Mariana Diales Rocha, Sabrina Bascones, Sandor Zsebok, Jes Dreier, Stefan Leitner, Annemie Van Der Linden, Jonathan Brewer & Manfred Gahr
Complex motor skills take considerable time and practice to learn. Without continued practice the level of skill performance quickly degrades, posing a problem for the timely utilization of skilled motor behaviors. Here we quantified the recurring development of vocal motor skills and the accompanying changes in synaptic connectivity in the brain of a songbird, while manipulating skill performance by consecutively administrating and withdrawing testosterone. We demonstrate that a songbird with prior singing experience can significantly...
Data from: Seasonal ecosystem metabolism across shallow benthic habitats measured by aquatic eddy covarianceKarl M. Attard, Ivan F. Rodil, Ronnie N. Glud, Peter Berg, Joanna Norkko & Alf Norkko
This submission consists of 40 eddy covariance datasets collected from six shallow sites in the Baltic Sea over an 18 month period. Hourly fluxes were extracted from the high-density data streams and were used to compute daily rates of benthic metabolism (gross primary production (GPP), respiration (R), and net ecosystem metabolism (NEM); in mmol O2 m-2 d-1). These were converted to C assuming an O2 : C of 1.0 for GPP and R. A description...
University of Southern Denmark11
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology1
College of Charleston1
Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive1
University of Antwerp1
University of Queensland1
University of Cambridge1
University of Virginia1
Australian National University1