120 Works

Supplement to: Global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke care and intravenous thrombolysis

Raul Nogueira, Muhammed Qureshi, Mohamad Abdalkader, Sheila Martins, Hiroshi Yamagami, Zhongming Qiu, Ossama Mansour, Anvitha Sathya, Anna Czlonkowska, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Diana Aguiar De Sousa, Jelle Demeestere, Robert Mikulik, Peter Vanacker, James Siegler, Janika Korv, Jose Biller, Conrad Liang, Navdeep Sangha, Alicia Zha, Alexandra Czap, Christine Holmstedt, Tanya Turan, George Ntaios, Konark Malhotra … & Thanh Nguyen
Objective: The objectives of this study were to measure the global impact of the pandemic on the volumes for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with two control 4-month periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in...

Disentangling temporal food web dynamics facilitates understanding of ecosystem functioning

Susanne Kortsch, Romain Frelat, Laurene Pecuchet, Pierre Olivier, Ivars Putnis, Erik Bonsdorff, Henn Ojaveer, Iveta Jurgensone, Solvita Strāķe, Gunta Rubene, Ēriks Krūze & Marie C. Nordström
Studying how food web structure and function varies through time represents an opportunity to better comprehend and anticipate ecosystem changes. Yet, temporal studies of highly resolved food web structure are scarce. With few exceptions, most temporal food web studies are either too simplified, preventing a detailed assessment of structural properties, or binary, missing the temporal dynamics of energy fluxes among species. Using long-term, multi-trophic biomass data coupled with highly resolved information on species feeding relationships,...

Data from: Co-introduction of native mycorrhizal fungi and plant seeds accelerates restoration of post-mining landscapes

Tanel Vahter, C. Bueno, John Davison, Koit Herodes, Inga Hiiesalu, Liis Kasari-Toussaint, Jane Oja, Pal Olsson, Siim Sepp, Martin Zobel, Martti Vasar & Maarja Öpik
1. Grasslands are among the most threatened terrestrial biomes, and habitat conservation alone will be insufficient to meet biodiversity goals. While restoration of indigenous grasslands is a priority, conflict with economic objectives means that incorporation of alternative habitats is necessary to offset grassland loss. With up to 800,000 km² of land affected by mining globally, there is an opportunity to create additional grassland habitat in post-mining landscapes. 2. We aimed to assess whether co-introduction of...

Data from: Wintering bird communities are tracking climate change faster than breeding communities

Aleksi Lehikoinen, Åke Lindström, Andrea Santangeli, Päivi Sirkiä, Lluis Brotons, Vincent Devictor, Jaanus Elts, Ruud P. B. Fobben, Henning Heldbjerg, Sergi Herrando, Marc Herremans, Marie-Anne R. Hudson, Frederic Jiguet, Alison Johnston, Romain Lorrilliere, Emma-Liina Marjakangas, Nicole L. Michel, Charlotte M. Moshøj, Renno Nellis, Jean-Yves Paquet, Adam C. Smith, Tibor Szep & Chris Van Turnhout
1. Global climate change is driving species’ distributions towards the poles and mountain tops during both non-breeding and breeding seasons, leading to changes in the composition of natural communities. However, the degree of season differences in climate-driven community shifts has not been thoroughly investigated at large spatial scales. 2. We compared the rates of change in the community composition during both winter (non-breeding season) and summer (breeding) and their relation to temperature changes. 3. Based...

Phototactic choices of Drosophila melanogaster

Indrikis Krams, Tatjana Krama, Ronalds Krams, Giedrius Trakimas, Sergejs Popovs, Priit Jõers, Maris Munkevics, Didzis Elferts, Markus Rantala, Janis Makna & Benjamin De Bivort
When organisms' environmental conditions vary unpredictably in time, it can be advantageous for individuals to hedge their phenotypic bets. It has been shown that a bet-hedging strategy underlies the high inter-individual diversity of phototactic choice in Drosophila melanogaster. This study shows that fruit flies from a population living in a boreal and relatively unpredictable climate had more variable phototactic choices than fruit flies from a more stable tropical climate, consistent with bet-hedging theory. We experimentally...

Development of Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy and Total Internal Reflection Microscopy Based Biosensing Assay Systems

Robin Ehrminger

Data from: Timing of spring departure of long distance migrants correlates with previous year's conditions at their breeding site

Françoise Amélineau, Nicolas Delbart, Philipp Schwemmer, Riho Marja, Jérôme Fort, Stefan Garthe, Jaanus Elts, Philippe Delaporte, Pierre Rousseau, Françoise Duraffour & Pierrick Bocher
Precise timing of the migration is crucial for animals targeting seasonal resources at locations encountered across their annual cycle. Upon departure, long distance migrants need to anticipate unknown environmental conditions at their arrival site, and they do zkzdsxso with their internal annual clock. Here, we tested the hypothesis that long distance migrants synchronize their circannual clock according to the phenology of their environment during the breeding season, and therefore adjust their spring departure date according...

Data from: Outlier loci detect intraspecific biodiversity amongst spring and autumn spawning herring across local scales

Riho Gross, Dorte Bekkevold, Sarah J. Helyar, Timo Arula & Henn Ojaveer
Herring, Clupea harengus, is one of the ecologically and commercially most important species in European northern seas, where two distinct ecotypes have been described based on spawning time; spring and autumn. To date, it is unknown if these spring and autumn spawning herring constitute genetically distinct units. We assessed levels of genetic divergence between spring and autumn spawning herring in the Baltic Sea using two types of DNA markers, microsatellites and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, and...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: Temporal variation of Bistorta vivipara-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in the High Arctic

Sunil Mundra, Mohammad Bahram, Leho Tedersoo, Håvard Kauserud, Rune Halvorsen, Pernille Eidesen & Pernille Bronken Eidesen
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are important for efficient nutrient uptake of several widespread arctic plant species. Knowledge of temporal variation of ECM fungi, and the relationship of these patterns to environmental variables, is essential to understand energy and nutrient cycling in Arctic ecosystems. We sampled roots of Bistorta vivipara ten times over two years; three times during the growing-season (June, July and September) and twice during winter (November and April) of both years. We found 668...

Data from: Is telomere length a molecular marker of past thermal stress in wild fish?

Paul V. Debes, Marko Visse, Bineet Panda, Petteri Ilmonen & Anti Vasemägi
Telomeres protect eukaryotic chromosomes; variation in telomere length has been linked (primarily in homoeothermic animals) to variation in stress, cellular ageing and disease risk. Moreover, telomeres have been suggested to function as biomarker for quantifying past environmental stress, but studies in wild animals remain rare. Environmental stress, such as extreme environmental temperatures in poikilothermic animals, may result in oxidative stress that accelerates telomere attrition. However, growth, which may depend on temperature, can also contribute to...

Data from: Generation of a neutral FST baseline for testing local adaptation on gill-raker number within and between European whitefish ecotypes in the Baltic Sea basin

Mikhail Yu Ozerov, Mikael Himberg, Tutku Aykanat, Dmitry S. Sendek, Henry Hägerstrand, Aare Verliin, Teet Krause, Jens Olsson, Craig R. Primmer & Anti Vasemägi
Divergent selection at ecologically important traits is thought to be a major factor driving phenotypic differentiation between populations. To elucidate the role of different evolutionary processes shaping the variation in gill-raker number of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus sensu lato) in the Baltic Sea basin, we assessed the relationships between genetic and phenotypic variation among and within three whitefish ecotypes (sea-, river and lake-spawners). To generate expected neutral distribution of FST and to evaluate whether highly...

Data from: The contemporary genetic pattern of European moose is shaped by postglacial recolonization, bottlenecks, and the geographical barrier of the Baltic Sea

Magdalena Niedziałkowska, Kris J. Hundertmark, Bogumiła Jędrzejewska, Vadim E. Sidorovich, Hanna Zalewska, Rauno Veeroja, Erling J. Solberg, Sauli Laaksonen, Håkan Sand, Vyacheslav A. Solovyev, Andrey Sagaydak, Juha Tiainen, Rimvydas Juškaitis, Gundega Done, Vadim A. Borodulin, Evgenii A. Tulandin & Krzysztof Niedziałkowski
To investigate genetic diversity and the population structure of the European moose (Alces alces), we analyzed 14 microsatellite loci for 694 samples collected across 16 localities. The highest genetic diversity was detected in Belarus and Russia and the lowest was found in Scandinavia. Two major genetic clusters existed, Scandinavian and continental, and some further spatial structure was detected. There was high concordance between the spatial distribution of microsatellite clusters analyzed in the present study and...

Data from: Estimating dark diversity and species pools: an empirical assessment of two methods

Rob J. Lewis, Robert Szava-Kovats & Meelis Pärtel
1. Species absent from a community, but with the potential to establish (dark diversity) are an important, yet rarely considered, component of habitat specific species pools. However, quantifying this component remains a challenge as dark diversity cannot be observed directly, and must be estimated. Here, we empirically test whether species ecological requirements or species co-occurrences provide accurate estimates of dark diversity. 2. We used two spatially nested independent datasets, one comprising 3033 samples of coastal...

Data from: Plasticity in plant functional traits is shaped by variability in neighbourhood species composition

Maria Abakumova, Kristjan Zobel, Anu Lepik & Marina Semchenko
Plant functional traits can vary widely as a result of phenotypic plasticity to abiotic conditions. Trait variation may also reflect responses to the identity of neighbours, although not all species are equally responsive to their biotic surroundings. We hypothesized that responses to neighbours are shaped by spatial community patterns and resulting variability in neighbour composition. More precisely, we tested the theoretical prediction that plasticity is most likely to evolve if alternative environments (in this case,...

Not a melting pot: plant species aggregate in their non-native range

Gisela C. Stotz, James F. Cahill, Jonathan A. Bennett, Cameron N. Carlyle, Edward W. Bork, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Sandra Díaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Batdelger Erdenetsetseg, Alessandra Fidelis, Heath W. Garris, Hugh A.L. Henry, Anke Jentsch, Mohammad Hassan Jouri, Kadri Koorem, Peter Manning … & Lauchlan H. Fraser
Aim: Plant species continue to be moved outside of their native range by human activities. Here, we aim at determining whether, once introduced, plants assimilate into native communities, or whether they aggregate, thus forming mosaics of native- and alien-rich communities. Alien species may aggregate in their non-native range due to shared habitat preferences, such as their tendency to establish in high-biomass, species-poor areas. Location: 22 herbaceous grasslands in 14 countries, mainly in the temperate zone....

Data from: Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations

Tomas Roslin, Bess Hardwick, Vojtech Novotny, William K. Petry, Nigel R. Andrew, Ashley Asmus, Isabel C. Barrio, Yves Basset, Andrea Larissa Boesing, Timothy C. Bonebrake, Erin K. Cameron, Wesley Dáttilo, David A. Donoso, Pavel Drozd, Claudia L. Gray, David S. Hik, Sarah J. Hill, Tapani Hopkins, Shuyin Huang, Bonny Koane, Benita Laird-Hopkins, Liisa Laukkanen, Owen T. Lewis, Sol Milne, Isaiah Mwesige … & Eleanor M. Slade
Biotic interactions underlie ecosystem structure and function, but predicting interaction outcomes is difficult. We tested the hypothesis that biotic interaction strength increases toward the equator, using a global experiment with model caterpillars to measure predation risk. Across an 11,660-kilometer latitudinal gradient spanning six continents, we found increasing predation toward the equator, with a parallel pattern of increasing predation toward lower elevations. Patterns across both latitude and elevation were driven by arthropod predators, with no systematic...

Data from: Multi-level patterns in population genetics: variogram series detects a hidden isolation-by- distance- dominated structure of Scandinavian brown bears Ursus arctos

Julia Schregel, Jaanus Remm, Hans Geir Eiken, Jon E. Swenson, Urmas Saarma & Snorre B. Hagen
1. Large-scale pattern-oriented approaches are useful to understand the multi-level processes that shape the genetic structure of a population. Matching the scales of patterns and putative processes is both a key to success and a challenge. 2. We have developed a simple statistical approach, based on variogram analysis, that identifies multiple spatial scales where the population pattern, in this case genetic structure, have highest expression (i.e. the spatial scales at which the strength of patterning...

Data from: The bacterial community structure and functional profile in the heavy metal contaminated paddy soils,surrounding a nonferrous smelter in South Korea

Sherlyn C. Tipayno, Jaak Truu, Sandipan Samaddar, Marika Truu, Jens-Konrad Preem, Kristjan Oopkaup, Mikk Espenberg, Poulami Chatterjee, Yeongyeong Kang, Kiyoon Kim & Tongmin Sa
The pollution of agricultural soils by the heavy metals affects the productivity of the land and has an impact on the quality of the surrounding ecosystems. The present study investigated the bacterial community structure in the heavy metal contaminated sites along a smelter and a distantly located paddy field to elucidate the factors that are related to the alterations of the bacterial communities under the conditions of heavy metal pollution. Among the study sites, the...

Data from: Genome-wide meta-analysis of sciatica in Finnish population

Susanna Lemmelä, Svetlana Solovieva, Rahman Shiri, Christian Benner, Markku Heliövaara, Johannes Kettunen, Verneri Anttila, Samuli Ripatti, Markus Perola, Ilkka Seppälä, Markus Juonala, Mika Kähönen, Veikko Salomaa, Jorma Viikari, Olli Raitakari, Terho Lehtimäki, Aarno Palotie, Eira Viikari-Juntula, Kirsti Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Olli T. Raitakari & Eira Viikari-Juntura
Sciatica or the sciatic syndrome is a common and often disabling low back disorder in the working-age population. It has a relatively high heritability but poorly understood molecular mechanisms. The Finnish population is a genetic isolate where small founder population and bottleneck events have led to enrichment of certain rare and low frequency variants. We performed here the first genome-wide association (GWAS) and meta-analysis of sciatica. The meta-analysis was conducted across two GWAS covering 291...

Data from: A comparative morphometric study of sensory capacity in geometrid moths

Juhan Javoiš, Robert B. Davis & Toomas Tammaru
Diet breadth and the degree of capital breeding have been established as major determinants of species-specific ecology of herbivorous insects. The relationship of these variables with sensory capacity, although allowing an array of hypotheses, has remained poorly studied, let alone in phylogenetically explicit multi-species comparisons. We contribute to filling this gap in a study of 60 species of geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), using adult head measures (eye size, antennal length and shape, forehead width) as...

Data from: Impacts of dead-wood manipulation on the biodiversity of temperate and boreal forests - A systematic review

Jennie Sandström, Claes Bernes, Kaisa Junninen, Asko Lohmus, Ellen Macdonald, Jörg Müller & Bengt Gunnar Jonsson
Dead wood (DW) provides critical habitat for thousands of species in forests, but its amount, quality and diversity have been heavily reduced by forestry. Therefore, interventions aiming to increase DW might be necessary to support its associated biodiversity, even in protected forests, which may be former production forests. Our aim was to synthesise the current state of knowledge drawn from replicated experimental studies into solid quantitative evidence of the effects of DW manipulation on forest...

Areal interpolation of spatial interaction data

Jan Šimbera & Anto Aasa

Data from: Metabolic rate associates with, but does not generate covariation between, behaviours in western stutter-trilling crickets, Gryllus integer

Indrikis A. Krams, Petri T. Niemelä, Giedrius Trakimas, Ronalds Krams, Gordon M. Burghardt, Tatjana Krama, Aare Kuusik, Marika Mand, Markus J. Rantala, Raivo Mand, Jukka Kekäläinen, Ilkka Sirkka, Severi Luoto, Raine Kortet & Indrikis Krams
The causes and consequences of among-individual variation and covariation in behaviours are of substantial interest to behavioural ecology, but the proximate mechanisms underpinning this (co)variation are still unclear. Previous research suggests metabolic rate as a potential proximate mechanism to explain behavioural covariation. We measured the resting metabolic rate (RMR), boldness and exploration in western stutter-trilling crickets, Gryllus integer, selected differentially for short and fast development over two generations. After applying mixed-effects models to reveal the...

Data from: A small badge of longevity: opposing survival selection on the size of white and black wing markings

Tuul Sepp, Kalev Rattiste, Lauri Saks, Richard Meitern, Janek Urvik, Ants Kaasik & Peeter Hõrak
According to handicap principle, exaggerated ornamental traits are supposed to exert costs on their bearers. However, there is much less theoretical and practical consensus about whether and under which conditions ornament expression should positively correlate with survival. We measured age-related variation and survival selection on the size of white wing patches and black wing tips in a long-lived monogamous seabird, the common gull Larus canus. Males had larger white patches than females but patch size...

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