20 Works

A probable oligochaete from an Early Triassic Lagerstätte of the southern Cis-Urals and its evolutionary implications

Andrey Zhuravlev, Dmitry Shcherbakov, Tarmo Timm, Alexander Tzetlin & Olev Vinn
Oligochaetes, despite their important role in terrestrial ecosystems and a tremendous biomass, are extremely rare fossils. The palaeontological record of these worms is restricted to some cocoons, presumable trace fossils and a few body fossils the most convincing of which are discovered in Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata. The Olenekian (Lower Triassic) siliciclastic lacustrine Petropavlovka Lagerstätte of the southern Cis-Urals yields a number of extraordinary freshwater fossils including an annelid. The segmented body with a secondary...

Multiscale drivers of carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in small European woodlands

Ronan Marrec, Vincent Le Roux, Ludmilla Martin, Jonathan Lenoir, Jörg Brunet, Sara Cousins, Pallieter De Smedt, Marc Deconchat, Martin Diekmann, Steffen Ehrmann, Emilie Gallet-Moron, Brice Giffard, Jaan Liira, Jessica Lindgren, Alicia Valdés, Kris Verheyen, Monika Wulf & Guillaume Decocq
Aim The spatiotemporal connectivity of forest patches in lowland agricultural landscapes and their age matter to explain current biodiversity patterns across regional as well as biogeographical extents, to the point that it exceeds the contribution of macroclimate for plant diversity in the understory of temperate forests. Whether this holds true for other taxonomic groups remains largely unknown. Yet, it has important consequences for ecosystem functioning and the delivery of ecosystem services. Focusing on carabid beetle...

Data from: Co-introduction of native mycorrhizal fungi and plant seeds accelerates restoration of post-mining landscapes

Tanel Vahter, C. Bueno, John Davison, Koit Herodes, Inga Hiiesalu, Liis Kasari-Toussaint, Jane Oja, Pal Olsson, Siim Sepp, Martin Zobel, Martti Vasar & Maarja Öpik
1. Grasslands are among the most threatened terrestrial biomes, and habitat conservation alone will be insufficient to meet biodiversity goals. While restoration of indigenous grasslands is a priority, conflict with economic objectives means that incorporation of alternative habitats is necessary to offset grassland loss. With up to 800,000 km² of land affected by mining globally, there is an opportunity to create additional grassland habitat in post-mining landscapes. 2. We aimed to assess whether co-introduction of...

Light availability and light demand of plants shape the arbuscular fungal communities in their roots

Lena Neuenkamp, Martin Zobel, Kadri Koorem, Teele Jairus, John Davison, Maarj Öpik, Martti Vasar & Mari Moora
Plants involved in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis trade photosynthetically derived carbon for fungal-provided soil nutrients. However, little is known about how plant light demand and ambient light conditions influence root-associating AM fungal communities. We conducted a manipulative field experiment to test whether plants’ shade tolerance influences their root AM fungal communities in open and shaded grassland sites. We found similar light-dependent shifts shifts in AM fungal community structure for experimental bait plant roots and...

Agricultural intensification reduces plant taxonomic and functional diversity across European arable systems.

Carlos P Carmona, Irene Guerrero, Begoña Peco, Manuel B. Morales, Juan J Onate, Tomas Pärt, Teja Tscharntke, Jaan Liira, Tsipe Aavik, Mark Emmerson, Frank Berendse, Piotr Ceryngier, Vincent Bretagnolle, Wolfgang Weisser & Jan Bengtsson
1. Agricultural intensification is one of the main drivers of species loss worldwide, but there is still a lack of information about its effect on functional diversity of arable weeds communities. 2. Using a large scale pan European study including 786 fields within 261 farms from eight countries, we analysed differences in the taxonomic and functional diversity of arable weeds assemblages across different levels of agricultural intensification in. We estimated weed species frequency in each...

Essays on Housing, Monetary Policy and Consumption

Signe Rosenberg

Dark diversity reveals importance of biotic resources and competition for plant diversity across habitats

Camilla Fløjgaard, José Valdez, Lars Dalby, Jesper Erenskjold Moeslund, Kevin Clausen, Rasmus Ejrnæs, Meelis Partel & Ane Kirstine Brunbjerg
Species richness is the most commonly used metric to quantify biodiversity. However, examining dark diversity, the group of missing species which can potentially inhabit a site, can provide a more thorough understanding of the processes influencing observed biodiversity and help evaluate the restoration potential of local habitats. So far, dark diversity has mainly been studied for specific habitats or largescale landscapes while less attention has been given to variation across broad environmental gradients or as...

Primary detection records for aquatic nonindigenous species in global estuarine and marine ecosystems and the Great Lakes

Sarah Bailey, Lyndsay Brown, Marnie Campbell, João Canning-Clode, James Carlton, Nuno Castro, Paula Chainho, Farrah Chan, Joel Creed, Amelia Curd, John Darling, Paul Fofonoff, Bella Galil, Chad Hewitt, Graeme Inglis, Inti Keith, Nicholas Mandrak, Agnese Marchini, Cynthia McKenzie, Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Henn Ojaveer, Larissa Pires-Teixeira, Tamara Robinson, Gregory Ruiz, Kimberley Seaward … & Aibin Zhan
Aim The introduction of aquatic non-indigenous species (ANS) has become a major driver for global changes in species biogeography. We examined spatial patterns and temporal trends of ANS detections since 1965 to inform conservation policy and management. Location Global Methods We assembled an extensive dataset of first records of detection of ANS (1965-2015) across 49 aquatic ecosystems, including the i) year of first collection, ii) population status and iii) potential pathway(s) of introduction. Data were...

Из полемик вокруг формализма: К. Шимкевич о «Литературном факте» Ю. Тынянова

Валерий Отяковский
В статье анализируется интеллектуальный диалог К. А. Шимкевича и Ю. Н. Тынянова, двух коллег по работе в Институте истории искусств. Главным высказыванием в этом диалоге является неопубликованная работа Шимкевича «Жанр и его термины», критикующая тыняновский «Литературный факт». В статье подробно реферируется эта работа и восстанавливается теоретический контекст, на фоне которого она была создана. Ключевые слова: К. А. Шимкевич, Ю. Н. Тынянов, «Жанр и его термины», «Литературный факт», формальный метод, Институт истории искусств.

Global biogeography of fungal and bacterial biomass carbon in topsoil

Liyuan He, Jorge Rodrigues, Nadejda Soudzilovskaia, Milagros Barceló, Pål Axel Olsson, Changchun Song, Leho Tedersoo, Fenghui Yuan, Fengming Yuan, David Lipson & Xiaofeng Xu
Bacteria and fungi, representing two major soil microorganism groups, play an important role in global nutrient biogeochemistry. Biogeographic patterns of bacterial and fungal biomass are of fundamental importance for mechanistically understanding nutrient cycling. We synthesized 1323 data points of phospholipid fatty acid-derived fungal biomass C (FBC), bacterial biomass C (BBC), and fungi:bacteria (F:B) ratio in topsoil, spanning 11 major biomes. The FBC, BBC, and F:B ratio display clear biogeographic patterns along latitude and environmental gradients...

Including intraspecific trait variability to avoid distortion of functional diversity and ecological inference: lessons from natural assemblages

Carlos Carmona & Mark K. L. Wong
1. Functional diversity assessments are crucial and increasingly used for understanding ecological processes and managing ecosystems. The functional diversity of a community is assessed by sampling traits at one or more scales (individuals, populations, species) and calculating a summary index of the variation in trait values. However, it remains unclear how the scale at which traits are sampled and the indices used to estimate functional diversity may alter the patterns observed and inferences about ecological...

Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in peatlands across the Holarctic region

Fia Bengtsson, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer Baltzer, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hajek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia Koronatova, Natalia Kosykh, Anna Laine, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina … & Richard J. Payne
The relative importance of global versus local environmental factors for growth and thus carbon uptake of the bryophyte genus Sphagnum – the main peat-former and ecosystem engineer in northern peatlands – remains unclear. 2) We measured length growth and net primary production (NPP) of two abundant Sphagnum species across 99 Holarctic peatlands. We tested the importance of previously proposed abiotic and biotic drivers for peatland carbon uptake (climate, N deposition, water table depth, and vascular...

The roles of temperature, nest predators and information parasites for geographical variation in egg covering behaviour of tits (Paridae)

Olli Loukola, Peter Adamik, Frank Adriaensen, Emilio Barba, Blandine Doligez, Einar Flensted-Jensen, Tapio Eeva, Sami Kivelä, Toni Laaksonen, Chiara Morosinotto, Raivo Mänd, Petri Niemelä, Vladimir Remeš, Jelmer Samplonius, Manrico Sebastiano, Juan Carlos Senar, Tore Slagsvold, Alberto Sorace, Barbara Tschirren, János Török & Jukka Forsman
Aim: Nest building is widespread among animals. Nests may provide receptacles for eggs, developing offspring and the parents, and protect them from adverse environmental conditions. Nests may also indicate the quality of the territory and its owner and can be considered as an extended phenotype of its builder(s). Nests may, thus, function as a sexual and social signal. Here, we examined ecological and abiotic factors—temperature, nest predation and interspecific information utilization—shaping geographical variation in a...

Current climate overrides historical effects on species richness and range size of freshwater plants in Europe and North America

Janne Alahuhta, Harri Antikainen, Jan Hjort, Aveliina Helm & Jani Heino
1. The latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) hypothesis suggests that species richness should be highest at low latitudes, whereas Rapoport’s rule states that largest ranges ought to be found for species at high latitudes. However, there is no consensus over these patterns and their underlying drivers in the freshwater realm. 2. We investigated species richness and mean range size of freshwater plants in 50 km × 50 km grid cells across Europe (40°N to 71°N) and...

Comparative analysis of larval growth in Lepidoptera reveals instar-level constraints

Sami Kivelä, Robert Davis, Toomas Esperk, Karl Gotthard, Marko Mutanen, Daniel Valdma & Toomas Tammaru
1. Juvenile growth trajectories evolve via the interplay of selective pressures on age and size at maturity, and developmental constraints. In insects, the moulting cycle is a major constraint on larval growth trajectories. 2. Surface area to volume ratio of a larva decreases during growth, so renewal of certain surfaces by moulting is likely needed for the maintenance of physiological efficiency. A null hypothesis of isometry, implied by Dyar’s Rule, would mean that the relative...

Phenological responses to climate warming in temperate moths and butterflies: species traits predict future changes in voltinism

Tiit Teder
Changes in the number of generations per year (voltinism) have been among the most common phenological responses to climate warming in insects inhabiting seasonal environments. Nevertheless, numerous species have maintained univoltine (one generation per year) phenology with increasing temperatures, indicating the involvement of phylogenetic, ecological or some other constraints on phenological change. I examined geographic variation in voltinism in moths and butterflies of Northern Europe to identify species traits that might predispose species to univoltine/multivoltine...

European soil seed bank communities across a climate and land-cover gradient

Jan Plue, Hans Van Calster, Inger Auestad, Sofia Basto, Reneé M. Bekker, Hans Henrik Bruun, Richard Chevalier, Guillaume Decocq, Ulf Grandin, Martin Hermy, Hans Jacquemyn, Anna Jakobsson, Rein Kalamees, Rob H. Marrs, Bryndis Marteinsdóttir, Per Milberg, Robin J. Pakeman, Gareth Phoenix, Ken Thompson, Vigdis Vandvik, Markus Wagner, Sara A.O. Cousins, Ove Eriksson, Jamshid Ghorbani, Małgorzata Jankowska-Błaszczuk … & Alistair G. Auffret
This is the data set used for the publication Buffering effects of soil seed banks on plant community composition in response to land use and climate, published in the journal Global Ecology and Biogeography. Aim. Climate and land use are key determinants of biodiversity, with past and ongoing changes posing serious threats to global ecosystems. Unlike most other organism groups, plant species can possess dormant life-history stages such as soil seed banks, which may help...

Modern pollen–plant diversity relationships inform palaeoecological reconstructions of functional and phylogenetic diversity in calcareous fens

Ansis Blaus, Triin Reitalu, Jhonny Capichoni Massante, Inga Hiiesalu, Pille Gerhold & Siim Veski
Predicting the trajectory of ongoing diversity loss requires knowledge of historical development of community assemblages. Long-term data from paleoecological investigations combined with key biodiversity measures in ecology such as taxonomic richness, functional diversity (FD), phylogenetic diversity (PD) and environmental factors expressed as Ellenberg indicator values (EIVs) could provide that knowledge. We explored the modern pollen–plant (moss polster pollen vs. surrounding vegetation) diversity relationships for herbaceous and woody taxa in calcareous fens from two different regions...

Spatial mapping of root systems reveals diverse strategies of soil exploration and resource contest in grassland plants

Marina Semchenko, Anu Lepik, Maria Abakumova, John Davison & Kristjan Zobel
1. When foraging and competing for belowground resources, plants have to coordinate the behaviour of thousands of root tips in a manner similar to that of eusocial animal colonies. While well described in animals, we know little about the spatial behaviour of plants, particularly at the level of individual roots. 2. Here, we employed statistical methods previously used to describe animal ranging behaviour to examine root system overlap and the efficiency of root positioning in...

Paternal effects in a wild-type zebrafish implicate a role of sperm-derived small RNAs

James Ord, Paul Heath, Alireza Fazeli & Penelope Watt
While the importance of maternal effects has long been appreciated, a growing body of evidence now points to the paternal environment having an important influence on offspring phenotype. Indeed, research on rodent models suggests that paternal stress leaves an imprint on the behaviour and physiology of offspring via non-genetic information carried in the spermatozoa, however fish have been understudied with regard to these sperm-mediated effects. Here we investigated whether the zebrafish was subject to heritable...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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  • Text
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Affiliations

  • University of Tartu
    20
  • University of Oulu
    3
  • Stockholm University
    3
  • Lund University
    2
  • University of Groningen
    2
  • University of Picardie Jules Verne
    2
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    2
  • Tallinn University of Technology
    2
  • National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment
    1
  • University of Antwerp
    1