71 Works

Data from: Bayesian inference of a historical bottleneck in a heavily exploited marine mammal

Joe I Hoffman, Suzie M Grant, Jaume Forcada & Caleb D Phillips
Emerging Bayesian analytical approaches offer increasingly sophisticated means of reconstructing historical population dynamics from genetic data, but have been little applied to scenarios involving demographic bottlenecks. Consequently, we analysed a large mitochondrial and microsatellite dataset from the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella, a species subjected to one of the most extreme examples of uncontrolled exploitation in history when it was reduced to the brink of extinction by the sealing industry during the late eighteenth and...

Data from: Allele phasing has minimal impact on phylogenetic reconstruction from targeted nuclear gene sequences in a case study of Artocarpus

Heather Rose Kates, Matthew G. Johnson, Elliot M. Gardner, Nyree J.C. Zerega, Norman J. Wickett & Nyree J. C. Zerega
Premise of the study: Untapped information about allelic diversity within populations and individuals (i.e. heterozygosity) could improve phylogenetic resolution and accuracy. Many phylogenetic reconstructions ignore heterozygosity because it is difficult to assemble allele sequences and combine allelic data across unlinked loci and it is unclear how reconstruction methods accommodate variable sequences. We review the common methods of including heterozygosity in phylogenetic studies and present a novel method for assembling allele sequences from target enriched Illumina...

Data from: Taxonomic and phylogenetic determinants of functional composition of Bolivian bat assemblages

Luis F. Aguirre, Flavia A. Montaño-Centellas, M. Mercedes Gavilanez, Richard D. Stevens, Luis Acosta, Marcos F. Terán, M. Gabriela Flores-Saldaña & Aideé Vargas
Understanding diversity patterns and the potential mechanisms driving them is a fundamental goal in ecology. Examination of different dimensions of biodiversity can provide insights into the relative importance of different processes acting upon biotas to shape communities. Unfortunately, patterns of diversity are still poorly understood in hyper-diverse tropical countries. Here, we assess spatial variation of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of bat assemblages in one of the least studied Neotropical countries, Bolivia, and determine whether...

Data from: Can terrestrial laser scanners (TLSs) and hemispherical photographs predict tropical dry forest succession with liana abundance?

Gerardo Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa, J. Antonio Guzmán-Quesada, Mauricio Vega-Araya, Carlos A. Campos-Vargas, Sandra Milena Durán, Nikhil D'Souza, Thomas Gianoli, Carlos Portillo-Quintero, Iain Sharp, Carlos Campos-Vargas &
Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are ecosystems with long drought periods, a mean temperature of 25 °C, a mean annual precipitation that ranges from 900 to 2000 mm, and that possess a high abundance of deciduous species (trees and lianas). What remains of the original extent of TDFs in the Americas remains highly fragmented and at different levels of ecological succession. It is estimated that one of the main fingerprints left by global environmental and climate...

Data from: Fossil evidence of the avian vocal organ from the Mesozoic

Julia A. Clarke, Sankar Chatterjee, Zhiheng Li, Tobias Riede, Federico Angolin, Franz Goller, Marcelo P. Isasi, Daniel R. Martinioni, Francisco J. Mussel & Fernando E. Novas
From complex songs to simple honks, birds produce sounds using a unique vocal organ called the syrinx1, 2. Located close to the heart at the tracheobronchial junction, vocal folds or membranes attached to modified mineralized rings vibrate to produce sound1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Syringeal components were not thought to commonly enter the fossil record6, and the few reported fossilized parts of the syrinx are geologically young8, 9, 10, 11 (from the Pleistocene...

Data from: Archipelagic genetics in a widespread Caribbean anole

Robert Graham Reynolds, Tanner R. Strickland, Jason J. Kolbe, Bryan G. Falk, Gad Perry, Liam J. Revell & Jonathan B. Losos
Aim We examine the influence of fluctuating sea levels in a land-bridge archipelago on the apportioning of intraspecific genetic diversity and divergence in the widespread Puerto Rican crested anole (Anolis cristatellus). We compare three alternative scenarios for genetic diversification in an archipelagic species that contrast the relative influences of periodic isolation versus island connectedness driven by fluctuating sea levels. Our approach combines information from geography and population genetics to assess the influence of island size,...

Data from: Bat ensembles differ in response to use zones in a tropical biosphere reserve

Natalie Yoh, Isham Azhar, Katheryn V. Fitzgerald, Rieka Yu, Tenaja Smith-Butler, Azniza Mahyudin & Tigga Kingston
Biosphere reserves, designated under The United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) Man and Biosphere Programme, aim to sustainably integrate protected areas into the biological and economic landscape around them by buffering strictly protected habitats with zones of limited use. However, the effectiveness of biosphere reserves and the contribution of the different zones of use to protection is poorly known. We assessed the diversity and activity of bats in the Crocker Range Biosphere Reserve...

The evolution of virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa during chronic wound infection

Jelly Vanderwoude, Derek Fleming, Sheyda Azimi, Urvish Trivedi, Kendra Rumbaugh & Stephen Diggle
Opportunistic pathogens are associated with a number of chronic human infections, yet the evolution of virulence in these organisms during chronic infection remains poorly understood. Here, we tested the evolution of virulence in the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a murine chronic wound model using a two-part serial passage and sepsis experiment, and found that virulence evolved in different directions in each line of evolution. We also assessed P. aeruginosa adaptation to a chronic...

Phylogenomics in the hard pines (Pinus subsection Ponderosae; Pinaceae) confirms paraphyly in Pinus ponderosa, and places Pinus jeffreyi with the California big cone pines

Ann Willyard, David S. Gernandt, Blake Cooper, Connor Douglas, Kristen Finch, Hassan Karemera, Erik Lindberg, Stephen K. Langer, Julia Lefler, Paula Marquardt, Dakota Pouncey & Frank Telewski
We sampled 130 individuals (2 to 25 per taxon) of subsections Ponderosae and Sabinianae. Nucleotide sequences were obtained by targeting 703 low copy nuclear genes. From the unenriched portion of the short reads, we assembled nearly complete plastome nucleotide sequences. We used 600 nuclear genes and the plastome sequences to create phylogenies and species trees that we compared to evaluate cytonuclear concordance and reticulation. We found that Pinus jeffreyi belongs with subsect. Sabinianae based on...

The association of lactation duration with visceral and pericardial fat volumes in parous women: 25-year follow-up in the CARDIA study

Duke Appiah
Background: Lactation is associated with lower risks for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. Organ-related adiposity, which plays a significant role in the development of cardiometabolic diseases, could help explain this observation. Therefore, we evaluated the longitudinal association of lactation duration with visceral and pericardial fat volumes in women. Methods: Data were obtained from 910 women enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (1985-86) without diabetes prior to pregnancy...

Data for: Reflections of Grinnellian and Eltonian niches on the distribution of phyllostomid bats in Atlantic Forest of South America

Richard Stevens
Abstract Aim: Ecological niches are complex and the product of interactions with biotic and abiotic environments across the entire geographic range of species. One recent distinction is between Grinnellian niche characteristics that reflect influences at large spatial scales such as climate and Eltonian niche characteristics that reflect influences at the local level such as distribution of resources and how they are shared among species. Aims of this research were to estimate Grinnellian and Eltonian niche...

Are Palmer’s elm-leaf goldenrod and the smooth elm-leaf goldenrod real? The Angiosperms353 kit provides within-species signal in Solidago ulmifolia s.l.

James Beck, Morgan Markley, Mackenzie Zielke, Justin Thomas, Haley Hale, Lindsay Wiliams & Matthew Johnson
Abstract — The genus Solidago represents a taxonomically challenging group due to its sheer number of species, putative hybridization, polyploidy, and shallow genetic divergence among species. Here we use a dataset obtained exclusively from herbarium specimens to evaluate the status of Solidago ulmifolia var. palmeri, a morphologically subtle taxon potentially confined to Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Missouri. A multivariate analysis of both discrete and continuous morphological data revealed no clear distinction between S. ulmifolia var....

Mammals on mountainsides revisited: trait-based tests of assembly reveal the importance of abiotic filters

Brooks Kohli, Richard Stevens, Eric Rickart & Rebecca Rowe
Aim: Mountains provide uniquely informative systems for examining how biodiversity is distributed and identifying the causes of those patterns. Elevational patterns of species richness are well-documented for many taxa but comparatively few studies have investigated patterns in multiple dimensions of biodiversity along mountainsides, which can reveal the underlying processes at play. Here, we use trait-based diversity patterns to determine the role of abiotic filters and competition in the assembly of communities of small mammals across...

Data from: Ontogenetic variability in crystallography and mosaicity of conodont apatite: Implications for microstructure, paleothermometry and geochemistry

Mohammad Shohel, Neo McAdams & Bradley Cramer
X-ray diffraction data from Silurian conodonts belonging to various developmental stages of the species Dapsilodus obliquicostatus demonstrate changes in crystallography and degree of nanocrystallite ordering (mosaicity) in both hyaline and albid crown tissue. The exclusive use of a single species in this study, combined with systematic testing of each element type at multiple locations, provided insight into microstructural and crystallographic differentiation between element position (Sa, Sb-c, M) as well as between juveniles and adults. A...

Data from: Habitat selection and the value of information in heterogenous landscapes

Kenneth A. Schmidt & Francois Massol
Despite the wide usage of the term information in evolutionary ecology, there is no general treatise between fitness (i.e., density-dependent population growth) and selection of the environment sensu lato. Here we (1) initiate the building of a quantitative framework with which to examine the relationship between information use in spatially heterogeneous landscapes and density-dependent population growth, and (2) illustrate its utility by applying the framework to an existing model of breeding habitat selection. We begin...

Data from: Social organisation and genetic structure: insights from co-distributed bat populations

Stephen J. Rossiter, Akbar Zubaid, Adura Mohd-Adnan, Matthew J. Struebig, Thomas H. Kunz, Sucharita Gopal, Eric J. Petit & Tigga Kingston
The impact of ecology and social organisation on genetic structure at landscape spatial scales, where gene dynamics shape evolution as well as determine susceptibility to habitat fragmentation, is poorly understood. Attempts to assess these effects must take into account the potentially confounding effects of history. We used microsatellites to compare genetic structure in seven bat species with contrasting patterns of roosting ecology and social organisation, all of which are co-distributed in an ancient forest habitat...

Data from: Population genomic analysis suggests strong influence of river network on spatial distribution of genetic variation in invasive saltcedar across the southwestern US

Soo-Rang Lee, Yeong-Seok Jo, Chan-Ho Park, Jonathan M. Friedman & Matthew S. Olson
Understanding the complex influences of landscape and anthropogenic elements that shape the population genetic structure of invasive species provides insight into patterns of colonization and spread. The application of landscape genomics techniques to these questions may offer detailed, previously undocumented insights into factors influencing species invasions. We investigated the spatial pattern of genetic variation and the influences of landscape factors on population similarity in the invasive riparian shrub saltcedar (Tamarix L.) by analyzing 1,997 genome-wide...

Data from: Evaluating a handheld decision support device in pediatric intensive care settings

Tera L. Reynolds, Patricia R. DeLucia, Karen A. Esquibel, Todd Gage, Noah J. Wheeler, J. Adam Randell, James G. Stevenson & Kai Zheng
Objective: To evaluate end-user acceptance and the effect of a commercial handheld decision support device in pediatric intensive care settings. The technology, pac2, was designed to assist nurses in calculating medication dose volumes and infusion rates at the bedside. Materials and Methods: The devices, manufactured by InformMed Inc., were deployed in the pediatric and neonatal intensive care units in two health systems. This mixed methods study assessed end-user acceptance, as well as pac2’s effect on...

Data from: Context-dependent effects of large wildlife declines on small mammal communities in central Kenya

Hillary S. Young, Douglas J. McCauley, Rodolfo Dirzo, Jacob R. Goheen, Bernard Agwanda, Cara Brook, Erik O. Castillo, Adam W. Ferguson, Stephen N. Kinyua, Molly M. McDonough, Todd M. Palmer, Robert M. Pringle, Truman P. Young & Kristofer M. Helgen
Many species of large wildlife have declined drastically worldwide. These reductions often lead to profound shifts in the ecology of entire communities and ecosystems. However, the effects of these large wildlife declines on other taxa likely hinge upon both underlying abiotic properties of these systems and on the types of secondary anthropogenic changes associated with wildlife loss, making impacts difficult to predict. To better understand how these important contextual factors determine the consequences of large-wildlife...

Data from: Elevated mitochondrial genome variation after 50 generations of radiation exposure in a wild rodent

Robert J. Baker, Benjamin Dickins, Jeffrey K. Wickliffe, Faisal Anwarali Khan, Sergey Gaschak, Kateryna Makova & Caleb D. Phillips
Currently, the effects of chronic, continuous low dose environmental irradiation on the mitochondrial genome of resident small mammals are unknown. Using the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) as a model system, we tested the hypothesis that approximately 50 generations of exposure to the Chernobyl environment has significantly altered genetic diversity of the mitochondrial genome. Using deep sequencing, we compared mitochondrial genomes from 131 individuals from reference sites with radioactive contamination comparable to that present in Northern...

Data from: Conflicting evolutionary histories of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes in New World Myotis bats

, Brant C. Faircloth, Kevin A.M. Sullivan, Troy J. Kieran, Travis C. Glenn, Michael W. Vandewege, , Robert J. Baker, Richard D. Stevens, David A. Ray, Thomas E Lee, Roy N Platt & Kevin A M Sullivan
The rapid diversification of Myotis bats into more than 100 species is one of the most extensive mammalian radiations available for study. Efforts to understand relationships within Myotis have primarily utilized mitochondrial markers and trees inferred from nuclear markers lacked resolution. Our current understanding of relationships within Myotis is therefore biased towards a set of phylogenetic markers that may not reflect the history of the nuclear genome. To resolve this, we sequenced the full mitochondrial...

Analytic dataset informing modeling of winter species distributions of North American bat species

Sarah Olson, Meredith McClure, Catherine Haase, Carter Hranac, David Hayman, Brett Dickson, Liam McGuire, Daniel Crowley, Nathan Fuller, Cori Lausen & Raina Plowright
The fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans and resultant white-nose syndrome (WNS) continues to advance across North America, infecting new bat populations, species, and hibernacula. Western North America hosts the highest bat diversity in the U.S. and Canada, yet little is known about hibernacula and hibernation behavior in this region. An improved understanding of where bats hibernate and the conditions that create suitable hibernacula is critical if land managers are to anticipate and address the conservation needs...

Data from: Invasion-induced root-fungal disruptions alter plant water and nitrogen economies

Lalasia Bialic-Murphy, Nick Smith, Priya Voothuluru, Robert McElderry, Morgan Roche, Steven Cassidy, Stephanie Kivlin & Susan Kaliz
Despite widespread evidence that biological invasion influences both the biotic and abiotic soil environments, the extent to which these two pathways underpin the effects of invasion on plant traits and performance is unknown. Leveraging a long-term (14-yr) field experiment, we show that an allelochemical-producing invader affects plants through biotic mechanisms, altering the soil fungal community composition, with no apparent shifts in soil nutrient availability. Changes in belowground fungal communities resulted in high costs of nutrient...

A comprehensive phylogenomic platform for exploring the angiosperm tree of life

William Baker, Paul Bailey, Vanessa Barber, Abigail Barker, Sidonie Bellot, David Bishop, Laura Botigue, Grace Brewer, Tom Carruthers, James Clarkson, Jeffrey Cook, Robyn Cowan, Steven Dodsworth, Niroshini Epitawalage, Elaine Françoso, Berta Gallego, Matthew Johnson, Jan Kim, Kevin Leempoel, Olivier Maurin, Catherine McGinnie, Lisa Pokorny, Shyamali Roy, Malcolm Stone, Eduardo Toledo … & Félix Forest
The tree of life is the fundamental biological roadmap for navigating the evolution and properties of life on Earth, and yet remains largely unknown. Even angiosperms (flowering plants) are fraught with data gaps, despite their critical role in sustaining terrestrial life. Today, high-throughput sequencing promises to significantly deepen our understanding of evolutionary relationships. Here, we describe a comprehensive phylogenomic platform for exploring the angiosperm tree of life, comprising a set of open tools and data...

Large‐scale genome sampling reveals unique immunity and metabolic adaptations in bats

Diana Daniela Moreno Santillan, Tanya Lama, Yocelyn T Gutierrez Guerrero, Zixia Huang, Graham Hughes, Alexis Brown, Paul Donat, Huabin Zhao, Stephen Rossiter, Laurel Yohe, Joshua Potter, Emma Teeling, Sonja Vernes, Kalina Davies, Eugene Myers, Federico Hoffmann, Angelique Corthals, David Ray & Liliana Davalos
Comprising more than 1,400 species, bats possess adaptations unique among mammals including powered flight, unexpected longevity given small body size, and extraordinary immunity. Some of the molecular mechanisms underlying these unique adaptations includes DNA repair, metabolism and immunity. However, analyses have been limited to a few divergent lineages, reducing the scope of inferences on gene family evolution across the Order Chiroptera. We conducted an exhaustive comparative genomic study of 37 bat species encompassing a large...

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